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Publication numberUS3070870 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 1, 1963
Filing dateMay 10, 1961
Priority dateMay 10, 1961
Also published asDE1410793A1
Publication numberUS 3070870 A, US 3070870A, US-A-3070870, US3070870 A, US3070870A
InventorsNorman J Alexander, Herbert A Krug
Original AssigneeLiberty Fabries Of New York In
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Molded brassiere cups and method of forming them from flat interlooped fabric
US 3070870 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Jan. 1, 1963 N. J. ALEXANDER ET AL 3,070,870

MOLDED BRASSIERE CUPS AND METHOD OF FORMING THEM FROM FLAT INTERLOOPED FABRIC Filed May 10, 1961 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 R 5 o n TAK ma. v A mmm ME s R E H N Q B Jan. 1, 1963 N. J. ALEXANDER ET AL 3,070,370

MOLDED BRASSIERE CUPS AND METHOD OF FORMING THEM FROM FLAT INTERLOOPED FABRIC Filed May 10, 1961 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 IN VEN TORS NORMAN J. ALEXANDER B? HERBERT A. KRUG ,4 rrog vevs Jan. 1, 1963 N. J. ALEXANDER ET AL 3,

' MOLDED BRASSIERE CUPS AND METHOD OF FORMING THEM FROM FLAT INTERLOOPED FABRIC Filed May 10, 1961 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTORS BY 8 Wm 4 04 N 7 nit This invention relates to the molding of planar fabrics into three dimensional configurations such as brassiere cups and the like.

conventionally, the bust cup portions of brassieres are made by cutting planar fabric into appropriate pieces, each of which is a portion of the prospective bust cup surface. The various pieces are then sewn together to form a completed bust cup, which is then integrated into a brassiere configuration by similar standard techniques. The side portions of a complete brassiere are often fabricated at the same time as the bust cups by appropriate cutting and fitting.

The art has long sought to find a superior alternative to this procedure of forming bust cups and brassiere constructions. Such sewn cups involve a great deal of cutting and sewing labor which is, of course, highly desirable to eliminate from the manufacturing point of view. Moreover, such cutting and sewing must be very closely controlled in order to produce a brassiere of a given size with reasonable tolerances. Such precision is difiicult, expensive and wasteful. However, there is an additional important advantage from the marketing point of view in eliminating such sewn cups in that the seams often tend to produce chafing unless expensive precautions are taken, and moreover the seams tend to show as ridges through finely fabricated blouses and sweaters and the like.

Because of the very real economic and marketing advantages in avoiding seams in bust cups, the art has attempted to produce a commercially acceptable molded fabric cup. A number of molded cups have been produced, but none has been commercially satisfactory.

The reason for this is basic to the womens apparel industry. Although considerable savings in manufacture and considerable advantage in appearance would inhere in any form of molded fabric bust cups, commercial acceptance cannot be obtained if any other essential attributes of marketable bust cups are thereby lost. Thus, while costs might be lowered by using a molding technique, the resultant brassieres just would not sell unless all those factors and attributes that women consider necessary were present. The essential attributes that must accompany any brassiere cups to render them commercial include comfort to the wearer, that they be fabricated from textile materials, that they have permanence of form, washability, durability, strength, reasonable softness and flexibility, permeability to air and moisture so as to breathe properly, and smoothness of the inner surfaces. Perhaps one of the more important attributes is high fabric integrity which prevents fabric slippage and decorative pattern distortion. The womens apparel market is relatively rigid in this respect, and as regards undergarments, particularly brassieres, this is dramatically so.-

Lace brassieres are items of fashion and appear to have particular appeal to women because of their esthctic qualities and attractiveness of style. Brassiere designers recognize the greatly enhanced versatility of style and color obtainable with lace which cannot be achieved with other fabrics and materials. Cups fabricated in other materials are at a serious disadvantage on the competitive market. This preference for lace is so pronounced that for all practical purposes the necessity of the cups being fabricated in lace may be considered an additional tts tens Patented Jan. 1., 1963 essential attribute of marketable molded bust cups and assemblies.

Prior art techniques for forming molded brassiere cups have each involved serious defects in one or more of these essential attributes and consequently commercial success has not been attained.

The essential problem of providing a molded bust cup with all of the advantages inherent therein but without sacrificing any of those qualities that are essential for commercial success has until now remained unsolved, and the industry has been seeking to develop a molded bust cup having the requisite commercial attributes.

For example, it has been found that woven fabrics are not moldable into the type of product described above. Woven fabrics necessarily have ends and picks at substantially right angles to one another. When such fabrics are formed or molded, serious imperfections are caused by the shifting of ends and picks since the interstices are not bound. in a woven cloth the yarns simply lay over and under each other and when woven fabrics are formed they become sleazy and lose integrity at the extreme portion of the extension. Fabrics woven for the purpose of brassiere molding require an inordinately high number of ends and picks in their fabric construction which results upon forming in bust cups having sleazy maximum extensions at their peak and portions unable to breathe and impermeable to air fiow at their base. A molded brassiere of woven fabric must be shaped on a symmetrical three dimensional form such as a paraboloid, whereas in fact most if not all brassiere designs employ configurations other than regular symmetrical geometric shapes. It is apparent that woven fabrics are not commercial for use in molded brassiere cups, since such cups are inadequate since they have low fabric integrity, pattern distortion if patterns can be incorporated, puckering and lack of breathing ability. Perhaps most importantly such fabrics are uncomfortable and unattractive, and lack the aforementioned esthetic qualities, styling and fashion of lace, because, in fact, lace is not a woven fabric. These shortcomings of prior art molded woven cups are well known to those skilled in the art.

It is thus the primary object of the present invention to provide molded lace faced brassiere cups and assemblies that provide comfort to the wearer, that are fabricated of textile material, that have permanence of form, are washable, durable, have strength, reasonable softness and flexibility, permeability to air and moisture so as to breathe comfortably during wearing, have smooth inner surfaces and have high fabric integrity and pattern integrity in the as-molded condition.

A further object of the invention is to provide a commercially acceptable brassiere of the foregoing characteristics so as to be competitive with existing sewn brassiere cups, that in addition is more economical in production and more comfortable and attractive in use because of the absence of seams.

Another object of the invention is to provide molded brassiere cups and brassiere assemblies having the foregoing characteristics and advantages, and in addition having the commercial advantage of fabrication in lace, net and/or tulle.

Another object of the invention is to provide a process for making such molded lace, net and/or tulle brassiere cups and complete brassieres having the foregoing characteristics and advantages.

These and other objects of the invention will be more fully understood upon examination of the detailed description herein taken with the appended drawings wherein:

FIGURE 1 is a perspective view of a brassiere assembly having molded cups according to the present invention;

FIGURE 2 is a full surface plan view before molding of an example of the type of fabric molded by the present invention;

FIGURE 3 is a schematic view of a male and female mold adapted to mold the fabric of FIGURE 2;

FIGURE 4 is a detail view of one example fabric of FIGURE 2 showing the relation of the yarns;

FIGURE 5 is a detail view of a second example fabric of FIGURE 2 showing the relation of the yarns;

FIGURE 6 is a detail view of a third example fabric of FIGURE 2 showing the relation of the yarns;

FIGURE 7 is a perspective View of a swatch of fabric similar to that of FIGURE 2 after molding showing two bust cups;

FIGURE 8 is a cut-away perspective view of a brassiere cup according to another embodiment of the invention; and

FIGURE 9 is a section taken along lines 99 of FIG- URE 8.

Referring now to the drawings, the invention employs fabric such for example as that shown in FIGURES 2 and 4, and 5 and 6. The yarns of the fabric comprise filaments which are thermoplastic, and an essential feature of the invention resides in the deployment of the yarns to make up the fabric, as is hereinafter described.

It has been found that in order to produce a completely acceptable brassiere cup, the starting fabric must be a lace or net or tulle fabric 1 having certain characteristics including bound polygonal apertures 2 for reasons hereinafter explained. Those skilled in the art will realize that such lace or net or tulle may be produced on Leavers lace machines, bobbinet machines, Raschel machines, tricot knitting machines and other machines known to those skilled in the art to produce bound polygonal aperture lace or tulle or net.

Show schematically in detail in FIGURES 4, 5 and 6 are typical net patterns of yarns of bobbinet, Leavers and Raschel fabric respectively. These same net patterns can be used as ground patterns for lace. In FIGURE 4 apertures 2 are formed by the looping of yarns It about yarns 11, as is characteristic of the net of a bobbinet fabric. FIGURE 5 shows apertures 2 formed by the looping of yarns 12 about both yarns l3 and M as is characteristic of the net of a Leavers fabric. In FIG- URE 6 is shown apertures 2 formed by the looping of yarns I5, 16 and Ida in a pattern characteristic of the net of a Raschel fabric.

The employment of such starting fabric has two important consequences. First, laces, nets and tulles of the character described have the feature in common that the component yarn sides of each aperture in the fabric are each securely bound to one another and to the corresponding sides of all adjacent apertures. The characteristic of these fabrics that provides secure binding of the yarn sides of the polygonal apertures is the interlooping or intertwining of the yarns. This secure binding of the sides of each aperture by interlooping of the yarns prevents slippage during molding and thus results in high fabric integrity after molding.

The term interlooping as used herein, encompasses both interlooping and intertwining as understood by those skilled in the art and distinguishes from interlacing, i.e., weaving or the process of manufacturing a series of warp and filling yarns at right angles to one another.

Secondly, lace and net and tulle of the character described tend to mold uniformly so as to prevent puckering and to extend evenly in all directions during molding. Since brassiere cups have areas of varying curvature, this property of even extension is crucial to forming a uniform appearing molded cup. In a net or tulle or lace having a bound polygonal net ground 2a with a motif 3 inlaid and bound thereon, the sides of the apertures are bound to one another and in mold forming such fabric, the forming force at any given point is transmitted vectorially throughout the whole cloth so that the cloth is uniformly molded. The polygonal nature of the apertures of such fabric effects the even distribution of forces by giving a plurality of directions of geometric expansion to distribute vectorially local forces.

The varying degrees of curvature of a. brassiere cup surface are thus attained without excessive localized stresses or distortions which would otherwise result in loss of fabric integrity and puckering.

The yarn from which the lace or net or tulle is fabricated has a uniform nature, unlike prior art materials used in attempts to produce a molded cup which involved the use of different types of yarns and various schemes for deploying the different types throughout the fabric. The present invention contemplates a lace or net or tulle fabricated from yarns comprising thermoplastic filaments, each yarn having an absolute relationship to the others with respect to linear physical characteristics regardless of diameter or denier.

The thermoplastic yarns which are contemplated are those comprising filaments made from fiber-forming long chain synthetic polymers which upon spinning are molecularly unoriented fibers which are drawable to several times their original length and which upon such drawing develop their optimum physical properties as hereinafter explained. Particularly adaptable are long chain high molecular weight synthetic polymers or fiber forming polymers such as synthetic linear polyamide, e.g., nylon 6,6, nylon 6, nylon 11, as Well as linear polyesters such as Dacron and Terylene, and linear polyurethane fibers, linear polypropylene fibers, and the like.

Nylon, Dacron and other appropriate drawable thermoplastic fibers rnentioned above have unoriented molecules or chains in the undrawn, extruded state. Drawing orients the molecules parallel to the fiber axis and thereby produces better luster and tenacity and other physical properties. These phenomena are well known in the art and are discussed at pages 848 et seq. of Polymer Processes by C. E. Schildknecht, 1956 edition, published by lnterscience Publications, Inc., 250 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY.

The present invention contemplates producing a relatively tight lace or net or tulle I from controlled partially drawn thermoplastic yarns. Such yarns have the characteristic that at some degree or draw past their partially drawn state they will attain their optimum physical properties. Thus for each given starting denier there is a given degree of drawing or drafting that will produce a final denier of optimum textile physical properties.

Since fabric made from these yarns Will subsequently be molded into brassiere cups or entire assemblies, and since as previously stated there are various degrees of curvature and thus of additional drafting extension involved, the thermoplastic yarns selected should e as nearly fully drawn to a predetermined degree as possible before molding consistent with other requirements dis cussed below because certain portions of completed cups or assemblies involve little or no additional drafting during the forming or molding operation. During the final phase of the molding operation, heat is applied to the formed brassiere cup or assembly to set the yarns. In order for the portions which involve little or no drafting during molding to be amenable to heat setting at all, and to attain optimum physical properties, they should be as nearly fully drafted to the above mentioned predetermined degree as possible before forming. Heat setting of drafted fibers serves the function of preventing elastic memory and maintains the aforesaid optimum physical properties of the drafted yarns, and is well known in the art as shown at pages 851 et seq. of Polymer Processes referred to above.

Another reason for selecting controlled nearly fully drafted yarns to start with is that the nearer a yarn appreaches its fully drawn state, the more force per additional unit of extension is required. Thus the aforementioned substantially unforrned planar molded areas would extend during use if the starting fabric yarn were not selected for as high a starting degree of drafting as possible before molding. For example, ultimate 40 denier nylon partially drawn to 60 denier may be employed. Such controlled partially drawn yarn would not be completely oriented, but would have a considerable degree of orientation.

It would require a constant load of approximately 4.5 grams per denier to continue and complete the extension and molecular orientation of such yarn by known cold drawing techniques. The lace would, therefore resist a force of approximately 19,000 grams per inch before the yarn would extend and deform. Moreover when such yarn as fabricated is heat set, the planar portions mentioned that were not extended to ultimate drafting during molding result in greater dependability in use.

The production of fabric 1 from such yarn is critically different in several respects from the production of ordinary lace or net or tulle. One example of the invention is the nylon 6,6 Raschel lace of FIGURE 6, and its production will be discussed to illustrate the aforesaid differences. The Raschel lace may have as its components a polygonal net ground comprised of 60 denier partially oriented nylon 6,6 drawn from ultimate 40 denier stock and a motif comprised of 4 ply 60 denier partially oriented yarn, outlined by ply, 60 denier partially oriented yarn all of the same ultimate 40 denier stock. As a result, the integrity of the uniform linear extension of the lace is insured. But since these materials are normally considered unsuitable for textile manufacturing due to residual drawability, the manufacturing processes of the lace, therefore, have their own characteristics, which will be understood by those skilled in the art.

Initially the 60 denier partially oriented nylon 6,6 yarn must be thrown with more than usual care and packaged for subsequent processing. In addition to the normal throwing methods involved, the yarn must be prepared under technical conditions wherein torquing of the filament components will not induce molecular orientation. For this purpose, the yarns used all have five or less turns to the inch so that all yarns are then comprised of partially oriented filaments having similar torque whereby no additional molecular alignment has occurred. The procedure of ag'ng or steaming yarn subsequent to twisting by exposing the packages prior to winding to a hot moist atmosphere for extended periods of time is eliminated since such aging or steaming would cause an undesired degree of heat set on the controlled partially oriented thread by rendering stability and alignment to the molecules in the filaments where secondary valence bonds have apparently been established by cold drawing. Further, the relative plasticity of the filament at the point of controlled degree of orientation is sufficient to effectively cause balance in yarns produced with filaments torqued to not more than five turns per inch.

In the final throwing process, the yarn should be wound with extremely low tension with a constant reducing traverse on a conical or similar package so as to obtain very low density. By using such a package, the hazards of random orientation in threads on-removal from the package due to common snu'bbing action is eliminated. This, of course, is not a problem or hazard when using conventionally oriented yarns in manufacturing. The inherent low tension developed in the winding of an unusually low density package will aid in maintaining constant tension in subsequent operations where potential orientation increases and where the hazard increases.

Following the throwing process, the desired wound packages are creeled for warping. Contrary to conventional techniques, wherein mechanical tensioning of a high level is utilized to effectively equalize the tension existing on each of the ends during warping, since no residual orientation exists, the instant process uses low, equalized tension produced through minimum wraparound of each end on the creel tension post under light weight. The most favorable circumstance is one wherein the yarn coming from the package is mechanically furnished to the weighted tension post so as to compensate for variations in tension in the package. Such variations coming from the usual wound packages and transmitted to conventional multiple post tensioning devices would cause random levels of mathematically squared tension which would undesirably continue molecular orientation of the instant partially drafted yarn. However, the above described low density package is partially compensative of this last effect by virtue of its soft wind, and the instant tension is mathematically absolute. The dynamic and inertial problems known to be associated with high speed direct warping from the creel are eliminated by utilizing this equipment and by changing to low speed drives. The inertial problem which would be multiplied in cases of controlled partially oriented yarn is hence largely reduced and the degree of control in molecular orientation is unaffected. Warps of high quality with critically equalized tension, wherein degree of molecular orientation remains substantially undisturbed, are produced in this fashion. Many such warps are prepared for simultaneous use on the raschel knitter where, for the successful manufacture of raschel lace for molding, such characteristics as density and tension must be constant for all the warps involved in the process.

Subsequent to warping, the warped, partially oriented yarn is knitted on the raschel knitter into lace. Normally, lace is made from warps on the raschel machine where the warps are counter-weighted at their extremities to effect a constant braking action, and equalization is attained on all the threads by high tension. In the instant process, the required positive thread equalization is achieved by virtue of the above described throwing and Warping techniques and similar warp-to-warp equalization. Because the effect of tension on the characteristics of the partially oriented yarn is a restriction and because of the problem of multiplying tension, it is necessary to use constant letting-off systems instead of constant braking actions on the warps. The warp drives utilized instead of the normal brakes are best actuated by utilizing wide cantilever tension bars instead of tension rolls. A cantilever tension bar utilizing springs of precalculated load resistance related to the resistance to orientation will effectively actuate the warp let-off at the desired tension which is below the number of grams per denier required to continue the orientation of the yarn. The safety mechanisms, such as stop switches required for control in a failure to let-off, may also be actuated by the cantilever tension bars when the springs are caused to flex and extend to the extreme of their precalculated range. The hazard of continued molecular orientation is thus further reduced.

The loop structure and the absolute ratio balance of warps being let-off are precalcula'ted so as to produce a lace fabric wherein all the yarns will transmit the vector forces regularly during molding and even fabric flow will result. Failure to produce perfectly balanced ratio fabrics will result in unequal extension, excessive extension, extreme orientation, polymer degradation, and undesirable nylon memory during molding. The critical ratio analysis, unlike that of normal or conventional lace, is then related to the mechanical settings of the knitter, wherein the motion of the cantilever tension bars are related to the size of the loops being knitted in the polygonal net ground and in turn to the speed of the take-up rolls on the knitter. Therefore, each course of fabric as produced is under total control and is fed the exact amount of yarn from each warp in perfect ratio and is, in turn, accurately taken ofi the knitting elements by the related take-up rolls. Unlike normal lace which is not constructed for molding, it is necessary to render much greater integrity to the polygonal net apertures, which is accomplished by manufacturing the smallest possible loop without distending the partially oriented yarn. The lace for molding is required to have an abnormally tight pattern which will extend to the desired dimensions during forming.

One embodiment of the invention thus contemplates in general the selection of thermoplastic nylon 6,6 yarn in the controlled partially drawn state, producing a lace or tulle or net 1 of the nature described, finish drafting the lace or tulle or net by molding it, heat setting the molded cup in the asmolded condition, and where the entire brassicre has not been so molded, mounting the molded cups in a brassiere body. The various critical factors involved in molding lace or net or tulle of the type described above will now be explained.

Fabric such as l is selected having a degree of tightness and partial draft so as to produce the appropriately drafted finished product described above when molded over a male mold 5 having a given size and outline. The fabric 1 is then pressed between male mold 5 and female mold 5, or other appropriate molding techniques may be employed, as will be understood by those skilled in the molding art. Since the brassiere cup has varying degrees of curvature on its surface, it has been a fault of prior techniques that the fabric tended to expand unevenly and consequently tended to pucker and distort the pattern thereon.

In certain prior techniques it has been attempted to compensate for the required uneven extension of the yarns by utilizing the ultimate or finish drafting phenomenon during the molding process, but such attempts have been unsuccessful because a poorly formed cup has resulted due to the gross differences in finish drafting necessitated by such prior art techniques. Such prior approaches depend upon drafting by linear forces and result in serious puckering and distortion caused by yarn slippage.

In the present process the polygonal aperture lace or net or tulle which has each aperture bound against slippage tends to expand geometrically in all directions without appreciable distortion of pattern as explained above. This effect is also enhanced by a finish drafting phenomnon utilizing vector forces wherein even extension and final drawing of the yarns is provided in all directions throughout the polygonal configuration, in contrast to prior techniques involving finish drafting merely along two perpendicular axes.

This process minimizes the differences in finish drafting of the various cup areas unlike the prior processes that involve gross differences of drafting in the various areas. Thus a better approximation to the proper degree of finish drafting required for all areas can be made. That is to say, all areas can be drafted more closely to the proper degree required for optimum qualities than would otherwise be possible. Better fabric integrity and appearance is thus even further enhanced as a direct consequence.

In addition to the outer lace cup 7 or 8 there is a second cup layer 17 which may be fabricated in the same manner and molded to conform to the lace layers 7, 8 but which is preferably a soft tulle lining whose lapside 18 is inward for comfort. An interlining 19 which is also identical in fabrication and molding to the lace layers 7, 8 may also be provided, and differs in that it may be fabricated as a net of coarse mono-filaments which is naturally stiff and will give the desired shaping and uplifting to the assembly. However, the linear physical characteristics of such mono-filaments are the same as those in the lace and tulle.

The fabric is prepared for molding by padding it with a composition comprised of a water dispersion of a thermosetting resin, a thermoplastic resin and a silicone resin. The thermosetting resin is of the permanent melamineformaldehyde type and is in the partially condensed or relatively low molecular weight state. The thermoplastic resin is of the permanent acrylic type. This resin composition is objectively employed as an ultimate textile finish. The thermosetting resin has the predominant effect on the textile finish and properties of the goods, such as permanence of hand, enhanced crease resistance and appearance. The thermoplastic resin is included to assist in distributing the thermosetting resin on the fabric and to an extent also contributes to the final properties of the fabric, such as flexibility, hand and appearance. When used in large quantities, the thermoplastic resin also can be used to adhere the fabric layers together. The silicone is included to assist in mold release. Other mold release agents may be used.

The fabric is dried after padding in order to evaporate the water without heating high enough to cause completion of the resin condensation or to enhance the secondary valence attraction in the controlled partially oriented nylon.

When fabric 1 is properly pressed between male mold 5 and female mold 6 or is otherwise molded by any other of the known molding expedients, heat may be applied to accomplish heat setting as described before. Thus fabric 1 may be hot or cold drawn, hot drawing being preferred because it assists the molecular flow needed for accurate conformance to the mold. When heat is used during drawing it should not approach the ultimate heat setting temperatures. In either case a heat setting step follows the drawing step.

Upon completion of the extension, and during the temperature rise in the molded state, the completion of the melamine-formaldehyde condensation takes place leaving a permanent and durable textile finish on the molded fabrics.

The heat setting of the fabric is a factor of time and temperature, but temperature is somewhat limited by the danger of damage to the fabric. Consequently, 410 F. should not be exceeded when using nylon 6,6, and excellent results for nylon 6,6 are obtained by heat setting at approximately 325-350" F. for one minute. Maximum temperature limitations for other of the aforementioned thermoplastic yarns are well known to those skilled in the art. The various fabric layers are preferably molded together for economy and conformance, and when this is done an excess of resin or other means of bonding the layers together may be employed. The heat setting step will be the same when such layered cups are molded.

Where the materials used in all three fabrics are of similar density characteristics and thermal characteristics and dielectric characteristics they can be bonded together by dielectric heating and by the inclusion of the required electrodes in the forming machinery. Since such electrodes are cool and the heat is generated from within the material, the hazard of adhesion of the fused material to the forming equipment is avoided.

Molecular excitement to facilitate drawing by causing easier molecular flow can also be obtained by forming cups at increased super-atmospheric pressures which is known physical chemistry in the art and can be followed by using, for example, a pressure of about 30 psi. for about thirty minutes. Such high pressure molding has been known to enhance the crush resistant properties of the fabric.

The finished molded cups 7 and 8 will preferably comprise the aforesaid lace outer layer, tulle lining layer, and net interlining layer. All of these fabrics are virtually the same in the characteristics pertinent to molding, as explained before. While the full advantages of the invention are attained by employing all three layers comolded, it is of course possible to have appreciable savings and advantages by molding only one layer, for example, the lace outer layer, and fabricating the other layers, if any, by other techniques. All such variations are contemplated, although it may be most advantageous to co-mold all three layers as described.

Brassiere cups may be made singly or in pairs from a single piece of fabric. In FIGURE 7 is illustrated a finished fabric 1 having two cups 7 and 8 molded therein. When such a pair is produced, it is practical to sew it as a unit into a 'brassiere assembly 9. It is also possible to produce cups 7 and 8 together as a unit and then to mount them after trimming singly into a brassiere assembly such as 9. It is furthermore practical to mold an entire brassiere assembly, excepting straps and reinforcements and the like using the present techniques.

It will be apparent that the present invention provides a molded brassiere cup which is comfortable to the wearer, is fabricated from textile materials, has permanence of form, washability, durability, strength, reasonable softness and flexibility, permeability to air and moisture so as to breathe properly, smoothness of the inner surfaces and high fabric integrity. The invention is carried out without special and involved arrangements of fabric yarns and with only uniform thermoplastic yarns. The resultant cup and brassiere assembly is highly acceptable commercially as well as being an ideal production item, and the various ways it may be employed in brassiere configurations will 'be known to those skilled in the art.

What is claimed is:

1. A method of forming a shaped three-dimensional textile article comprising the steps of interlooping yarns composed of a drawable long chain fiber forming synthetic polymer drawn to about the yield point by interlooping said yarns into a plurality of polygonal networks in which the individual yarns are locked by said interlooping against slippage, molding the fabric while drawing the same to cause equal tensioning forces throughout the molded contours thereof to draw the yarns to a predetermined degree for optimum physical properties.

2. A method of forming a shaped three-dimensional textile article comprising the steps of interlooping yarns composed of a drawable long chain fiber forming synthetic polymer drawn to about the yield point by interlooping said yarns into a plurality of polygonal networks in which the individual yarns are locked by said interlooping said yarns into a plurality of polygonal networks ing the same to cause equal tensioning forces throughout the molded contours thereof to draw the yarns to a predetermined degree for optimum physical properties below the region where extension is a function of distortion of primary valence bonds.

3. A method of forming a shaped three-dimensional textile article comprising the steps of interlooping yarns composed of a drawable long chain fiber forming synthetic polymer drawn to about 200% elongation by interlooping said yarns into a plurality of polygonal networks in which the individual yarns are locked by said interlooping against slippage, molding the fabric while drawing the same to cause equal tensioning forces throughout the molded contours thereof to draw the yarns to a predetermined degree of about 400% elongation for optimum physical properties.

4. A method of forming a shaped three-dimensional textile article comprising the steps of making a textile fabric from yarns composed of a drawable long chain fiber forming synthetic polymer selected from the class consisting of linear polyamides, linear polyesters, linear polyurethanes, and linear polypropylenes drawn to about the yield point by interlooping said yarns into a plurality of polygonal networks in which the individual yarns are locked by said interlooping against slippage, treating said fabric with a thermosetting resin, a thermoplastic resin, and a silicone resin, molding the fabric while drawing the same to cause equal tensioning forces throughout the molded contours thereof to draw the yarns to a predetermined degree for optimum physical properties, and subjecting the molded fabric to a heat setting temperature.

of polygonal networks in which the individual yarns are locked by said interlooping against slippage, treating said fabric with a thermosetting resin, a thermoplastic resin, and a silicone resin, molding the fabric while drawing the same to cause equal tensioning forces throughout the molded contours thereof to draw the yarns to a predetermined degree for optimum physical properties below the region where extension is a function of distortion of primary valence bonds and subjecting the molded fabric to a heat setting temperature.

6. A method of forming a shaped three-dimensional textile article comprising the steps of making a textile fabric from yarns composed of a drawable long chain fiber forming synthetic polymer selected from the class consisting of linear polyamides, linear polyesters, linear polyurethanes, and linear polypropylenes drawn to about 200% elongation by interlooping said yarns into a plurality of polygonal networks in which the individual yarns are'locked by said interlooping against slippage, treating said fabric with a thermosetting resin, a thermoplastic resin, and a silicone resin, molding the fabric while drawing the same to cause equal tensioning forces throughout the molded contours thereof to draw the yarns to a predetermined degree of about 400% elongation for optimum physical properties, and subjecting the molded fabric to a heat setting temperature.

7. A method of forming a shaped three-dimensional textile article comprising the steps of making a textile fabric from yarns composed of nylon 6,6 ultimate 40 denier partially drawn to 60 denier, by interlooping said yarns into a plurality of polygonal networks in which the individual yarns are locked by said interlooping against slippage, molding the fabric while drawing the same to cause equal tensioning forces throughout the molded contours thereof to draw the yarns to a predetermined degree for optimum physical properties.

8. A method of forming a shaped three-dimensional textile article comprising the steps ofmaking a textile fabric from yarns composed of nylon 6,6 ultimate 40 denier partially drawn to 60 denier, by interlooping said yarns into a plurality of polygonal networks in which the individual yarns are locked by said interlooping against slippage, molding the fabric while drawing the same to cause equal tensioning forces throughout the molded contours thereof to draw the yarns to a predetermined degree for optimum physical properties below the region where extension is a function of distortion of primary valence bonds.

9. A method of forming a shaped three-dimensional textile article comprising the steps of making a textile fabric from yarns composed of nylon 6,6 ultimate 40 denier partially drawn to 60 denier, by interlooping said yarns into a plurality of polygonal networks in which the individual yarns are locked by said interlooping against slippage, molding the fabric while drawing the same to cause equal tensioning forces throughout the molded contours thereof to draw the yarns to a predetermined degree of about 400% elongation for optimum physical properties.

10. A method of forming a shapedthree-dimensional textile article comprising the steps of making a textile fabric from yarns composed of nylon 6,6 ultimate 40 denier partially drawn to 60 denier, by interlooping said yarns into a plurality of polygonal networks in which the individual yarns are locked by said interlooping against slippage, treating said fabric with a dispersion of a thermosetting resin of permanent melamine formaldehyde, a thermoplastic acrylic resin, and a silicone resin, drying the fabric to evaporate the water at a temperature below the resin condensation polymerization temperature and below the setting temperature of the nylon, molding the fabric while drawing the same to cause equal tensioning forces throughout the molded contours thereof to draw the yarns to a predetermined degree of about 400% elongation for optimum physical properties.

11. A method of forming a shaped three-dimensional textile article comprising the steps of making a textile fabric from yarns composed of nylon 6,6 ultimate 40 denier partially drawn to 60 denier, by interlooping said yarns into a plurality of polygonal networks in which the individual yarns are locked by said interlooping against slippage, treating said fabric with a dispersion of a thermosetting resin of permanent melamine formaldehyde, a thermoplastic acrylic resin, and a silicone resin, drying the fabric to evaporate the water at a temperature below the resin condensation polymerization temperature and below the setting temperature of the nylon, molding the fabric while drawing the same to cause equal tensioning forces throughout the molded contours thereof to draw the yarns to a predetermined degree of about 400% elongation for optimum physical properties, and subjecting the molded fabric to a heat setting temperature of from about 325 to 350 F.

12. A three-dimensional molded synthetic textile fabric comprised of interlooped synthetic yarns composed of at least one long chain fiber forming synthetic polymer selected from the class consisting of linear polyamides, linear polyesters, linear polypropylenes, and linear polyurethanes locked by interlooping against slippage relative to one another, said yarns in the as-molded condition being uniformly drawn throughout the three-dimensional contour to a predetermined degree of optimum physical properties below the region where extension is a function of distortion of primary valence bonds without pattern distortion and having a uniform transition in degree of draw in the yarns at the peripheral base of said contour without puckering of said fabric.

13. A three-dimensional molded synthetic textile fabric comprised of interlooped synthetic yarns composed of at least one long chain fiber forming synthetic polymer selected from the class consisting of linear polyamides, linear polyesters, linear polypropylenes, and linear polyurethanes locked by interlooping against slippage relative to one another, said yarns in the as-mold condition being uniformly drawn throughout the three-dimensional contour to a predetermined degree of optimum physical properties of about 400% elongation without pattern distortion and having a uniform transition in degree of draw in the yarns at the peripheral base of said contour without puckering of said fabric.

14. A molded brassiere cup structure comprising a fabric section constituted by interlooped synthetic yarns composed of at least one long chain fiber forming synthetic polymer selected from the class consisting of nylon, linear polyethylene terephthalate, linear polyurethanes and linear polypropylene deployed into a polygonal network pattern in which the individual yarns are locked by interlooping against slippage relative to one another, a pair of molded cup portions in said fabric integrally formed therewith and having common yarns therewith, the yarns throughout said cup portions being uniformly drawn to a predetermined degree of optimum physical properties below the region where extension is a function of distortion of primary valence bonds without pattern distortion, the yarns in the other portions of said fabric section being drawn to a lesser degree and the merging of the cup portions with the rest of said fabric being without distortion or pucker.

15. A molded brassiere cup structure comprising a fabric section constituted by interlooped synthetic yarns composed of at least one long chain fiber forming synthetic polymer selected from the class consisting of nylon, linear polyethylene terphthalate, linear polyurethanes and linear polypropylenes deployed into a polygonal network pattern in which the individual yarns are locked by interlooping against slippage relative to one another, a pair of molded cup portions in said fabric integrally formed therewith and having common yarns therewith, the yarns throughout said cup portions being uniformly drawn to a predetermined degree of optimum physical properties of about 400% elongation without pattern distortion, the yarns in the other portions of said fabric section being drawn to a lesser degree and the merging of the cup por-. tions with the rest of said fabric being without distortion or pucker.

16. A molded brassiere cup structure comprising a fabric section constituted by interlooped synthetic yarns composed of at least one long chain fiber forming synthetic polymer selected from the class consisting of nylon, linear polyethylene terephthalate, linear polyurethanes and linear polypropylenes deployed into a polygonal network pattern in which the individual yarns are locked by interlooping against slippage relative to one another, at least one molded cup portion in said fabric integrally formed therewith and having common yarns therewith, the yarns throughout said cup portion being uniformly drawn to a predetermined degree of optimum physical properties below the region where extension is a function of distortion of primary valence bonds without pattern distortion, the yarns in the other portions of said fabric section being drawn to a lesser degree and the merging of the cup portion with the rest of said fabric being without distortion or pucker.

17. A molded brassiere cup structure comprising a fabric section constituted by interlooped synthetic yarns composed of at least one long chain fiber forming synthetic polymer selected from the class consisting of nylon, linear polyethylene terephthalate, linear polyurethanes and linear polypropylenes deployed into a polygonal network pattern in which the individual yarns are locked by interlooping against slippage relative to one another, at least one molded cup portion in said fabric integrally formed therewith and having common yarns therewith, the yarns throughout said cup portion being uniformly drawn to a predetermined degree of optimum physical properties of about 400% elongation without pattern distortion, the yarns in the other portions of said fabric section being drawn to a lesser degree and the merging of the cup portion with the rest of said fabric being without distortion or pucker.

18. A molded brassiere cup structure comprising a fabric section constituted by interlooped synthetic yarns composed of initial 60 ultimate 40 denier nylon 6,6 deployed into a polygonal network pattern in which the individual yarns are locked by interlooping against slippage relative to one another, at least one molded cup portion in said fabric integrally formed therewith and having com mon yarns therewith, the yarns throughout said cup portion being uniformly drawn to a predetermined degree of optimum physical properties below the region where extension is a function of distortion of primary valence bonds without pattern distortion, the yarns in the other portions of said fabric section being drawn to a lesser degree and the merging of the cup portion with the rest of said fabric being without distortion or pucker.

19. A molded brassiere cup structure comprising a fabric section constituted by interlooped synthetic yarns composed of initial 60- ultimate 40 denier nylon 6,6 deployed into a polygonal network pattern in which the individual yarns are locked by interlooping against slippage relative to one another, at least one molded cup portion in said fabric integrally formed therewith and having common yarns therewith, the yarns throughout said cup portion being uniformly drawn to a predetermined degree of optimum physical properties of about 400% elongation without pattern distortion, the yarns in the other portions of said fabric section being drawn to a lesser degree and the merging of the cup portion with the rest of said fabric being without distortion or pucker.

20. A molded brassiere cup structure comprising a fabric section constituted by interlooped synthetic yarns composed of initial 60 ultimate 40 denier nylon 6,6 deployed into a polygonal network pattern in which the individual yarns are locked by interlooping against slippage relative to one another, at least one molded cup portion in said fabric integrally formed therewith and having common yarns therewith, the yarns throughout said cup portion being uniformly drawn to substantially 4O denier Without pattern distortion, the yarns in the other portions of said fabric section being drawn to a lesser degree and the merging of the cup portion with the rest of said fabric being Without distortion or pucker.

Reierences (Zited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Schneider July 14, 1936 Deri et a1. Apr. 1, 1941 Hardy June 9, 1942 Thompson Jan. 13, 1959 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent No. 3,070,870 January 1, 1963 Norman J. Alexander et al.

It is hereby certified that error appears in the above numbered patent requiring correction and that the said Letters Patent should read as corrected below Column 9 lines 37 and 38, strike out "said yarns into a plurality of polygonal networks ing", and insert instead against slippage, molding the fabric while drawing Signed and sealed this llth day of June 1963.

(SEAL) Attest:

ERNEST w. SWIDER DAVID LADD Attesting Officer Commissioner of Patents

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Classifications
U.S. Classification28/153, 28/163, 428/116, 66/192, 428/401, 264/324, 28/166, 450/39
International ClassificationA41C5/00, A41C3/14, A41C3/10
Cooperative ClassificationD04C1/10, D04B21/12, D10B2501/02, A41C5/005, A41C3/144, A41C3/10
European ClassificationD04C1/10, D04B21/12, A41C3/10, A41C3/14C, A41C5/00B
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Jan 30, 1984ASAssignment
Owner name: LIBERTY FABRICS OF NEW YORK, TWO PARK AVE., NEW YO
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:LIBERTY FABRICS OF NEW YORK, INC. A NY CORP.;REEL/FRAME:004217/0804
Effective date: 19831230