US 3071215 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 1, 1963 G. R. GALL 3,071,215
CURTAIN WALL Ll5 INVENToR. 650265 2. @ALL BY BMM, mi
,4 TTOENEY G. R. GALL CURTAIN WALL Jan. l, 1963 AUDE/V576 G. R. GALL CURTAIN WALL Jan. 1, 1963 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed April 17, 1957 1NVENTOR.
BY 80mm/#Ll Hmalim+ SAM,
Kaum/4 ATTOE/'JEYS G.R.GALL
CURTAIN WALL Jan. 1, 1963 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed April 17, 1957 INVENTOR. GEO/ees '2 GALL. BYM1z5;.,..- l
ATTOENETS G. R. GALL CURTAIN WALL Jan. 1, 1963 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed April 17, 1957 INVENTOR. @Eo/26E E. @ALL BY 66M ATTO/21u57@ *ttes This invention relates to exterior building walls and more particularly to exterior curtain walls formed from a plurality of pre-assembled units, sections, or panels.
Recently there has been a marked increase by architects and builders in `the recommendation, use 4and provision of curtain walls in the construction of commercial and oltice buildings and the like. YBroadly curtain walls comprise and are formed from a plurality of pre-,assembled units, sections or panels which are connected together into a complete wall, facade or portion thereof, as desired, at the building rksite and which are secured to beams, columns or other structural members by suitable hangers or other means.
Curtain walls are non-load-bearing and a unit or section conveniently is one or more stories high and includes at least one window portion, having iixed or movable sash, and one panel portion having a metal or opaque panel or `box which is lfilled -with insulating material `and may have an outer or decorative surface of any desired color. Frequently the frame members of each unit or section are formed from one metal, commonly Vextruded or rolled aluminum, for example, and the .panel is made from another metal, enameled steel, for example. The sections or units are bolted, welded or otherwise secured to each other and the structural steel framework of the building.
Difficulty has been experienced with such walls -in making them weather-,proof so as to positively exclude rain, water, snow and wind. This difculty has `apparently arisen not only because ofthe inherent difculty of securing each unit or section to each of the adjacent units or sections with `a weather-tight joint but also because vof the added burden of making joints between and within the units or sections which remain 4weather-tight when the units or panels include one or more different materials having co-etcients of expansions which differ ,from each other and/.or dilfer from that of the structural members of the building. The diiculty has been especially marked where aluminum is used ,in the curtain wall because Vit has a `relatively `large co-efcient of expansion as compared with other building materials.
It is therefore a general object of my invention to provide an improved curtain wall 4and section or unit therefor which is easily and reconomically produced, and pleasing in appearance, which is strong and has great utility and which is weather resistant and leakproof in substantially all `kinds of weather, in all seasons, at all temperatures and without regard to the temperature differentials `between the Vinterior and exterior of the Vbuilding of which the Wall ,is a part.
A further object of my invention is the provision of a curtain wall which is easily and conveniently assembled and erected Aat the site from pre-,fabricated units or sections, another object of `my invention is the provision of a unit or section for I,a curtain wall and a curtain `wall formed Vfrom a plurality of such sections `in which the panel and/or glass portionscf each `unit or section float relative to `the section and each other .and the `sections or units are `connected together so as to oat or Vallow for expansion `and contratcion therebetween, all without loss of weatherproofness.
Still other objects of my invention include t-he provision of improved means for mounting and sealing panels and/ or glass portions .within pre-assembled units or sec- Patented dan., ll, 'i953 tions for curtain walls; the provision of panels, sections and/ or units for curtain walls which may be combined with similar units or panels to form a weatherproof wall, which is inherently adjustable without the use of Ysupplementing metallic and/ or other fillers or similar devices to compensate for small inaccuracies in the size of the opening provided for the wall; the provision of an improved joint, between the respective rails and between the rails and mullions of pre-assembled units or sections for curtain walls, which is weatherproof and increases the structural stability and resistance to bending, distortion, and the separation of .the curtain wall section of which it is a part lboth during assembly of the section per se and of the wall of which the section is a part and after assembly of the wall when subjected to wind, heat and cold, and other deleterious effects of the weather; the provision of improved means for covering and protecting the joint or juncture between Vadjacent units or sections of a curtain wall, which contributes to the weatherproof qualities of the wall and `permits relative movement of the respective units and sections in response to changing thermal conditions but is, nevertheless, pleasing Vin `appearance and adds Vto the esthetic characteristics of the wall, which is easily removed and attached and which may take a variety of interchangeable external shapes as the user may desire; the provision of a `curtain wall comprising a plurality of sections or units any one of which may be relatively easily removed Vor replaced in the wall, if desired or if necessary, without necessitating the removal or `damage of any other section or unit; and the .provision of a curtain Wall and/ or units or sections therefor having one or more of the characteristics .and advantages set forth above.
These and other objects and advantages of my invention will become apparent from the following description of preferred and modied forms of my invention, reference being had to the drawings in which:
lFIGURE l is a schematic elevation .of a building having a curtain wall embodying preferred forms of my `invention.
FIGURE 2 is a broken vertical section viewed along the `line 2 2 of FIGURE l.
FIGURE 3 is a horizontal section viewed along the line 3 3 of FIGURE l.
FIGURE 4 is a horizontal section viewed along the line 4 4 of FIGURE l but showing an alternate Yshape for the mullion cover. j
FIGURE 5 is a horizontal section viewed along the line S--S of FIGURE l and showing a joint between vertical and horizontal mullions of a wall section.
FIGURE 6 is a vertical section viewed `along the line 6 6 of FIGURE l and showing the juncture between two vertically adjacent wall sections.
FIGURE 7 is an isometric view of a preferred form of hanger plate for fastening the curtain wall units or sections to the structural members of the building.
FIGURE 8 is a `broken elevation showing the vertical mullions of ltwo adjacent wall sections and illustrating `means for connecting -the vsame together and -to ahanger plate.
VFIGURE `9 is a horizontal section viewed along the line 9 9 of FIGURE 8.
FIGURE l0 is a fragmentary enlarged viewcf another ypreferred form of gasket shown in FIGURE 2 for retaining and sealing the panels, etc., in position..
FIGURE ll is `a modified form of the gasket shown in FIGURE Y10.
FIGURE 12 is another means for supporting a panel or glass portion within a unit or section of the wall.
FIGURE 13 is a view similar to FIGURE 3 but kshowing a mounting for a iixed sash.
FIGURE 14 is a broken vertical section similar to FIG- URE 2, showing a unit or section having a double hung window.
FIGURE is a broken vertical section, similar to FIGURE 2, showing for purposes of illustration a unit or section embodying other forms of my invention.
FIGURE 16 is a horizontal section similar to FIG- URE 5 but showing another form of joint between vertical and horizontal rails or mullions of a wall unit or section.
FIGURE 17 is a broken vertical section viewed along the line 17-17 of FIGURE 5.
In the various figures similar numbers refer to similar parts.
A composite curtain wall embodying my invention is indicated generally at I, FIGURE l. The wall 1 comprises a plurality of juxtaposed units or sections indicated generally at Z embodying my invention, which are arranged in one or more vertical and/or horizontal rows and are adapted to be secured to the beams and columns comprising the main structural supports of the buildings and are also conveniently adapted to lit in or iill up the wall area within a predetermined masonry or other type of frame. The sections or units 2 may be of any desired size and the number of rows of units is determined by the size of the units relative to the size of the opening to be protected by the wall. My invention is equally applicable Whether the relative sizes of the units and opening are such as to admit of only one row of units in either the horizontal or vertical directions, as at a in FIGURE l, which illustrates a wall having a single vertical row of units, or a plurality of rows in either direction, as illustrated by rows b, c, and d, in FIGURE l. Each unit preferably includes one or more panel portions 4 and one or more glass or window portions 5 las the user may desire arranged in any desired sequence of any desired relative sizes. The panel portions 4, as will hereinafter more fully appear are preferably opaque, but may be translucent or transparent, and have an outer decorative surface of any desired color or texture, and the glass or window portions 5 may be of the fixed, double hung, or reversible window type and may be made with regular or Thermopane type glass or other transparent or translucent material. Each unit or section 2 usually comprises portions, parts and/or members having different coefficients of expansion and it is a feature of my invention that the wall and the individual units 2 remain Weatherproof at all temperatures even though the parts thereof expand and contract at different rates and to different degrees.
A representative unit or section 2 is shown in FIGURE 2 and comprises lower and upper panel portions 4 and intermediate glass or window portions 5, although as previously stated the relative size and disposition of the various portions 4 and 5 within a given unit 2 embodying my invention may be varied at the arbitrary discretion and choice of the user, it only being necessary to properly arrange and dispose the rails and mullions of the section in accordance with that choice at the time of manufacture and assembly. Thus, for example, the vertical row b is illustrated as two units or sections 2 with the lower unit having a lower panel portion 4 and upper glass portion 5 and the upper unit having a lower glass portion 5 and upper panel portion 4, and vertical row c illustrates two units or sections, both of which have a lower panel portion 4 and an upper glass portion 5.
The portions 4 and 5 are located and supported in position and the unit is provided with structural strength by means of column members or side rails 7 (vertical mullions), FIGURES 3 to 6, and horizontal beam members, mullions or top rail 8, bottom rail 1] and one or more intermediate rails Il.
The members '7, 8, 1t) and 11 are conveniently and preferably formed from aluminum extrusions and are preferably intertitted and screwed or otherwise fastened together in accordance with the precepts of my invention to form a substantially rigid unit having leakproof, Weatherproof joints and providing channels within which the edges of the panel portions 4 and window portions 5 are disposed.
As best seen in FIGURES 3 through 6 the side rails 7 comprise a at longitudinally extending web or base portion 13 preferably having at its respective side edges short perpendicular flanges I4 and I6, which extend toward the center of the unit or section. Rails 7 also include longitudinally extending horizontally spaced legs 17 and 19 which extend from the web 13 toward the center of the section and are provided with inturned flanges 2t) and 22, respectively, which detine a channel for the reception of panel and window portions 4 and 5.
In order to provide a leakproof, weatherproof juncture between the adjacent section or units I provide resilient sealing means secured to each unit and adapted to engage the adjacent unit or section when the wall is assembled. Preferably the sealing means is secured to the outside of the outer rail of one section and engages the outside of the adjacent outer rail of the adjacent section. More particularly I provide a plurality of sealing means between adjacent sections secured to the web portion of the rails so that the sealing means on one section is secured to the inside with respect to the building, of the web and on the adjacent section to the outside of the web, see FIGURES 3, 4 and 6, although alternatively the sealing means may be secured to both sides of both members, see for example FIGURE 9.
I prefer that the sealing means comprise a seal 23 formed from extruded stock of a rubber, rubber substitute or other resilient material and having a hollow cylindrical main body portion 25 and an integral leg portion 26 having an enlarged end.
The leg portion 26 of seal 23 provides convenient means for securing the seal to the web 13 of rail 7 and the hollow body portion 25 of seal 23, effectively engages the adjacent rail of the adjacent section when the wall is assembled to provide a seal therebetween as will hereinafter more fully appear, and also to provide an adjustable joint between the adjacent sections having a sufiicient range of adjustment or play permitting the effective length of a row of panels to be varied upon installations suiciently to compensate for small inaccuracies in the size of the wall opening which often exist under 0r result from present construction methods, and to provide a joint which absorbs the contraction and expansion of the sections and row in response to changes in temperature, In this connection it is a feature of my invention that although the joint between adjacent sections when the wall is assembled is weatherproof, there are no integral metallic or rigid parts which interlock the adjacent sections and prevent the adjustment of the row length upon installation and because there is no integral rigid or metallic interlocking of the sections if one section becomes damaged, as by an object colliding with the building, etc., it may be removed and replaced without removing any other section. The joint between adjacent sections is further weatherproofed and protected and made decoratively acceptable and pleasing by the removable mullion covers 3G and 31, FIGURE 3, 30 and 31', FIGURE 4, as will hereinafter more fully appear.
4In order to secure my preferred seal 23 to the rail I provide an elongated groove 33 in the base member 13. The grooves 33 are preferably formed with an enlarged inner end which is the female complement of the leg 26 of Vseal 23. The seal is secured or mounted on the rail 7 by sliding the leg 26 into and along groove 33 from the one end or the other of the rail. Preferably, where the assembled wall is more than one section or row high the seal is of greater length than the rail by an amount suiiicient to permit the side seals of adjacent vertical sections to contact each other across the joint between the vertically adjacent sections.
The top and bottom rails 8 and 10 are preferably similar to the rail '7 in those respects already described when the rails 8 and lil are to be adjacent a similar section in the nished wall to which the section they are a part of is to be joined, see for example FIGURE 6. When the rail 8 -is the top rail of the uppermost section in a finished wall or the rail 1t) is the bottom rail in the lowermost section in a finished wall appropriately shaped adapters 34 are fitted in the groves 33 and these in turn are secured to the building by suitable fastening means. A seal, not shown, may be disposed between the adapters 34 and the building if desired. Alternatively, as will hereinafter morey fully appear, the shape of the rails 3 and/or ltimay be modified in certain respects, see FIGURE 15, for example, in order to secure the same to the building in accordance with the desires of the user without departing from the precepts and scope of my invention.
It is a feature of my invention that the panel and window portions 4 and 5 ot' each section are supported within each section so that the glass and panels may oat relative to each other and to the rails or mullions so that the different rates and degrees of expansion and contraction of the various members due to different co-eicients of expansion do not induce separation of the parts and members with resultant leakage and loss of weatherproofness. To this end I provide means and structure which retains, at least, the non-similar parts and portions of the section or unit in a suspended position relative to the rails and obviates the necessity of direct mechanical engagement between such suspended portions and the rest of the unit or section. Thus as least the non-similiar parts and portions may expand and contract without regard to the expansion and contraction of the balance of the unit or section and in effect float relative to the unit. I further suspend or float such portions and parts of the unit in such a manner and by such means as to insure a weatherproof, leakproof joint or juncture between such portions and parts and the adjacent rails or integral parts of the section respectively. Further means embodying my invention is also useful for providing a weatherproof joint or juncture between parts and portions, of a panel wall section or similar device, which are made of similar material, if desired.
In order to accomplish these objects and provide for rny preferred means for suspending and supporting the panel and window portion, i preferably provide the flanges 2t) and 22 of the rails 7 with longitudinally extending opposed inwardly facing grooves or channel means 36 and 37 respectively. The grooves or channels 36 and 37 may take any convenient shape and are preferably provided with a neck or opening 39 and 4i), respectively, which is narrower or reduced in size relative to the inner portions of the groove or channel.
To seal and support the panel or other member between the flanges 2@ and 22, without bottoming the same against the web 13 of the rails (vertical or horizontal as will hereinafter more fully appear), a gasket 42, FIGURES 2 to 6 and 10, is disposed in each of the grooves 36 and 37. The gasket 42 has a male portion 43 which is complementary to the channels 36 and 37 respectively and is positioned therein by sliding the gasket into and along the respective channels from the end of the rail and a resilient leg or flap portion 45 which in its free state extends outwardly from the channel towards the opposite flange and is adapted to be bent to extend towardthe web ll3 when a panel, etc., is positioned between the flanges 2d' and 22.
The gasket 42 (FIGURE 10) preferably comprises a core 46 formed from a resilient elastic material such as neoprene covered by a vinyl impregnated nylon cloth, FIGURE l0. The cloth 48 is mounted so as to be disposed between the core and the panel or other member. Alternatively the gasket i2 may be composed entirely of neoprene, -see FIGURE 2 for example, or in some lil instances the core 46 may be formed from a non-elastic material such as rope.
FiGURE ll discloses a gasket 42' having a rope or similar core do', for example, about which is wrapped a cloth d, in which the core 46 is confined to the male portion 43 of the gasket and the iiap of the gasket comprises only the free ends of the cloth 218. The selection of the proper form of gasket ill or 152 to use in any given wall depends on the convenience and necessity of the given installation albeit in general the forms are interchangeabie.
intermediate rails or mnilion bars il separate and define the horizontal limits ot the respective panel and glass portions 4 and 5 of each section or unit and provide channels into which the adjacent edge or member of each said portion is positioned and supported. The mnllion bars ii are carried and supported by the side raiis 7, which, they interconnect, and the muliion bar channels are similar in function and general configurations to and are adapted to be aligne( with the channels formed in the rails by the legs and flanges i7 and 2d, and E9 and 22, respectively.
To this end, see FlGUAi comprise a web o the hars ii conveniently member 49 andY parallel sides or leg member-s and 52. The members 5i and 52 extend at right angles to and in both directions from the web 49. Each side member Si and 52. is provided at its respective ends with flanges 54, which extend towards the similar on the opposite side member and is provided with a groove 55 which opens toward said other ftange. The grooves 55 have the same purpose as the grooves 36 and 37 and the considerations as to size and shape are equally applicable to the grooves as to the grooves 3d and 37. Grooves 55 are adapted to receive gaskets for example, albeit under some circumstances certain members or parts of a glass potion 5, for example, may directly on aligned opposite flanges S4 without necessitating the-use of gaskets d2. Aiternatively gaskets may be used and either of the gaskets may take any oi the forms illustrated and discussed above.
The relative depth of the respective mullion channels formed ny the web It? and sides 5l and 5l is determinable at the discretion ot the user, however, i prefer that those channeis adapted to receive panel portions ot the section be oniy about one half the depth of those adapted to receive glass portions.
In order to prevent leakage of wind and water at the juncture between the as in each curtain wall section or unit. sections or units embodying my invention are prefersbij.y provided with my new improved means for joining such members together in an interiocked, sealed, watslr and air tight unit.
To this end. as best seen in liti-EURES 5 and 17, the flanges 2h and 22 of the side rails, for example. are punched out, as at 58 and eti, respectively, to form apertures. Apertures 5d and are sized to receive in a tight sliding t either the legs It? and of a top or bottoni rail or the sides Si and 521 of an intermediate rail or mullion. The width of the Zii and 2 and the depth of the grooves 36 and 37 are so related as to allow the entire area of the punched out sections 5S and 65 to lie within the contines of the grooves 3o and 37 and the punch is made after gaskets a2, preferably having a neoprene or elastic core, similar to that shown in FIG- URES 2 or IG, have been inserted in the respective grooves.
As the die punches the flanges and gaskets it stretches the gaskets, While cutting therethrough, and makes' a smaller punch therein than in the metal flange surrounding the gasket and when the die is 'withdrawn the gasket in each groove extends slightly beyond or into the areas 53 and 5@ sufficiently to engage the rails or mullions when the same are positioned within the punched opening and Seal the joint betwee such member and the side rail.
The respective horizontal rails or mullion bars are further secured or fastened to the side rail by means of screws el extending through the web l3- of the vertical rail and engaging the circularl grooves 55 and 36 and 37 as the case may be. Conveniently screws also extend through the web I3 of a top or bottom rail and engage the respective circular grooves d6 and 37 of the side rail to further strengthen the joint.
The panel portions 4 (see .FIGURES 2, 14 and l5) preferably comprise hollow steel panels tilted with insulation and having decorative exposed surfaces, conveniently of baked enamel, and are positioned within the section or unit 2. iby having their peripheral edges disposed between and frictionally engaged by the opposed gasket 42, `for example, to the end that the panels have a floating suspension relative to the section or unit and expand and contract independently thereof or of the other members and parts thereof. This mounting is further advantageous because the baked enamel panels and surrounding aluminum rails or mullions merge visually without any seals or s gaskets appearing lbetween the visually adjacent edges thereof.
The glass portion 5 of a curtain wall section or unit embodying my invention may as previously stated contain inter alia, a fixed, double hung or pivoted window. Double hung and vertically pivoted windows are preferably supported within the section by means of adapters or modifying members which are supported within the respective mullion and rail channels between the opposed gaskets 42, for example, or conveniently, in the case of the lower adapter for each window, Aby direct engagement between the adapter and the flanges of the adjacent rail or mullion of a curtain wall unit or section.
FIGURES 2 and 4 disclose, for example, a curtain wall unit or section 2 embodying my invention and equipped with a glass portion 5 having a vertical pivot window and FIGURES 4 and l4 disclose a unit or section 2 having a glass portion S having a double hung window.
For the upper and side framing members for a pivoted or double hung window I preferably provide adapters 62, FIGURES 2, 3, 4, and 14 having bifurcated legs 64, which engage and are supported within the channels of the rails or mullions by and between the gaskets 42 by frictional engagement, in a manner substantially similar to that by which the panels fore the pivot and double hung windows float or expand and contract independently of the rails and mullions. That portion of each adapter 62, which engages the window and functions as a frame therefor, as opposed to that portion, legs 64 and web 65, which engages the rails and mullions and is disposed between the flanges 2d and 22, is shaped in accordance with the desires of the user and the needs of the particular window to be used and per se forms no part of this invention.
For the lower frame of each double hung or pivot window I preferably provide an adapter 62 which seats upon and is supported by the flanges 54 of an adjacent mullion bar or flanges 2d and 22 of an adjacent bottom rail, FIGURE 14. The configuration of that portion of adapter 62 which engages the window is also determined at the discretion of the user and in accordance with the needs of the particular window to be used.
FIGURES 13 and l5 disclose a fixed glass window, for a curtain wall unit or section embodying my invention, which is mounted, as I prefer, so as to float or expand and contract relative to the unit or section independently thereof in substantially the same manner as the panel 4. To this end I preferably provide adapters 67, which close or bridge a portion of the opening of the channels defined by the flanges Zit and 22 and 54. of the respective rails or mullions.
The adapters 67 are supported within the inner grooves 37, for example, of the rail (gasket 42 being omitted for the length of the adapter) and are provided with a 4 are supported, and theregroove which is substantially similar in all respects to the groove 37, within which the adapter is seated, except that it is laterally nearer the opposite outer groove 36. Groove 6d is adapted to receive a gasket 42, for example, in the same manner and for the same purpose as the inner groove 37 and the pane of glass is disposed between the gaskets 42 in the grooves 36 and 68 and frictionally retained thereby.
Alternatively a mullion or rail the entire length of which is to support a fixed window may have the adapter formed integrally therewith as indicated generally, for example, at 7d, FIGURE l5.
As shown in FIGURE l5 the bottom edge of the pane of glass is preferably supported within a gasket 72, which is similar to that disclosed and claimed in my U.S. Patent No. 2,667,951, issued February 2, 1954.
Weep holes '73 may be provided in the exterior legs or sides i7 and Si respectively of the bottom and intermediate rails or mullions to drain off any liquid seeping past the gaskets.
As previously stated removable mullion covers 30, 31, Sti" and 3i', for example, see FIGURES 3 and 4, are provided to ensure a more leakproof weatherproof joint between the adjacent units or sections in a finished wall and to make the joints more decoratively acceptable and pleasing to the eye.
The respective mullion covers comprise a web portion 75, having any desired exterior shape, and two inwardly extending transversely spaced legs 76 having reentrant iianges '73 at their respective ends adjacent the sections or units 2. The legs 7d and flanges 78 are adapted to straddle the adjacent flanges I4 or 16, of the adjacent rail 7, for example, and the flanges 7d seat against the legs I7 or I9 thereof. Springs 79 are disposed between the flanges la or 16 and the flanges 'I and are adapted to detachably hold the mullion covers in place against the rails. Springs 79 conveniently comprise rolled strips of stainless steel having their ends overlapped and having a greater at rest diameter than the distance between the respective legs 17 or I9 and flanges I4 or 16.
The legs 76 of the mullion covers are spaced apart sufficiently to provide a positive frictional engagement between the respective springs 79, legs 76 and flanges 78, when the mullion covers are fully seated, while permitting the flanges 78 to compress the spring and pass thereover when the mullion cover is pushed towards the rail or pulled therefrom over the springs.
In order `to secure a curtain wall embodying my invention to a building I prefer to use hanger plates 8d, FIG- URES 7, 8 and 9. The plates titl may be secured to guides, beams or columns or other structural members and comprise a base portion 8l, which is secured to the structural member, and an outwardly and vertically extending fin portion 32, which is adapted to lit between the adjacent rails of adjacent units or sections. Normally two plates 8u, one near the top and one near the bottom, are disposed between the rails 7 of each pair of laterally adjacent units or sections, albeit more plates may be used, if desired, and plates also may be disposed between vertically adjacent units or sections. As shown in FIGS. 7, 8 and 9; FIG. 8 being a side elvation and FIG. 9 a horizontal section, the base portion 8l of plate 80 is preferably provided with horizontally extending slots 84, which permit lateral adjustment of the plates 80 relative to the building structure to which they are attached. The fin portion 82 is preferably provided with vertically extending slots 85, which allow for the vertical expansion and contraction of the rails of the units or sections relative to the plate and structure; the horizontal contraction and expansion being relieved by the seals 23 as set forth above, and the floating suspension of the panel and glass portions.
Where only one seal 23 is mounted on each rail as in FIGURES 3, 4 and 13, the body 25 of the seals 23 is preferably cut in half as at 90, FIGURES 8 and 9, for
9 the length of fin 82 and a short similarly cut seal 23 is mounted oppositely thereof on the other rail to more adequately center and posit-Jn the plates 80 relative to the wall sections.
The adjacent sections or units 2 are held together by a plurality of nuts and bolts 37, FIGURES 2 and 9, having resilient washers 83 disposed between the nuts and bolt heads, respectively, and the web 13 of the adjacent rail 7. The resilient Washers 68 permit relative movement of the adjacent sections and ensure a tight joint, whether the individual units or sections are expanded or contracted relative to each other, because of variations in temperature. The nuts and bolts 87 are disposed at convenient intervals along the webs 13 between the ilanges 14` and i6 and the legs .1 7 and 19, respectiveiy, and certain of the bolts are also adapted to pass through the slots of plates Sii so as to secure the wall to the building.
As previously noted the resilient joint between adjacent units or sections consequent upon the use of the seals 23 and washers E8 permits of some adjustment of the spacing between the rails of adjacent units or sections in order to allow for irregularities or tolerances in the size` of the wall opening.
Further because the adjacent units or sections are not interlocked any given unit or section may be removed, for repairs, or replaced without disturbing adjacent units or sections by simply removing the mullion covers and unbolting the unit or section from its neighbors.
Straps (not shown) may be bolted to the lower rail of the lower unit or section of each vertical row thereof for securing the wall to a concrete or similar base.
FIGURE .7. illustrates adapters 34 by which the top rail 8 of the uppermost unit or section of a vertical row thereof and the outside rail of the outside unit or sec- "tion of a horizontal row thereof are conveniently secured to the adjacent. masonry or building framework. HCV URE i5 illustrates a modified form ofttop rail S Vhaving legs i7' and i9 and especially adapted for co-action with mounting strips 9d and 95 for interconnecting or securing the masonry and adiacent rail, suitable fasteners, not shown, and flat sealing strips if desired, ensuring a tight joint between the masonry and mounting strips and rails.
FEGURE l2 illustrates a seal 97 also embodying the disclosures of my US. Patent No. 2,667,951, issued February 2, 1954, and adapted with the channel portions for mounting a panel or glass portion of a unit or secltion on and within the rails or mullions thereof. In use seal 97 is mounted about the peripheral edge of a panel 4, for example, and the panel is then seated directly between the opposed llanges 20 and 22 and 54, respectively, with the seal 97 directly engaging the rail or mullion and the lips 9g of the seal seating upon and being supported by the flanges 20 and 22 and S4.
The seal 97 functions to obtain a result similar to that of the gaskets 42 and 42' except that the lip portions 98 of seal 97 is visible between the line of the rails or mullions and the panel, for example, to those who observe the wall or section thereof containing the same.
FIGURE 16 illustrates alternate means for joining horizontal and vertical rails or mullions. In this instance the horizontal rail 1l is butted against the flanges d and 22 of the vertical rail '7, with a seal 10i) disposed therebetween, and secured thereto by screws 101 passing through the respective flanges Ztl and 22 and engaging the rail in the manner that screws 61 engage grooves 36" and 37.
ln use the individual units or sections 2 are preas sembled at a factory or similar place and then individually positioned and secured into the Wall and to the building in the manner described in situ, after which the mullion covers are pushed into position, those mullion covers running in one direction being longer than a single unit or section if desired.
Modiiications, changes and improvements to the above described and illustrated preferred and modified forms and embodiments of my invention may occur to those skilled in the art Without departing from the spirit and substance or" my invention. I therefore do not wish to be limited lto these forms and embodiments of my invention nor in any manner inconsistent with the advance by which my invention has promoted the art.
l. A weatherproof, exterior curtain wall comprising a plurality of adjacent units in a common plane, each said unit comprising intersecting spaced vertical and spaced horizontal rails, adjacent spaced pairs of said rails deiining at least one panel portion and at least one glass portion, said rails having channels opening toward said panel nd glass portions respectively, resilient sealing means carried by said rails and extending into said channels, panel means in each said panel portion and window means in each said glass portion of each said unit, said sealing means frictionally engaging each said panel means and window means adjacent the periphery thereof, said panel and window means having movemeut in contraction and expansion independent of said rails, the outermost of said vertical and horizontal rails adjacent adjacent units having resilient sealing means mounted -on the outer side thereof and operatively engaging the adjacent outermost rail of the adjacent unit, fastening means interconnecting said adjacent outermost rails and resilient means disposed between said fasten ing means and said adjacent rails respectively, said resilient means being on the side of each said adjacent rail remote trom the other said rail.
2. The wall according to claim l on a building with hanger plates securing said Wall to said building, each said plate having a first portion extending between adjacent vertical rails of adjacent units and a `second portion extending transversely ot said rst portion, vertically extending slots in said rst portion and horizontally extending slots in said second portion, certain of said fastening means extending through said vertical slots and second fastening means extending through said horizontal slots and securing said plate to said building.
3. The wall according to claim 1 with each said rail extending in one direction having flanges extending toward each other and defining the entrance to said channel, mutually facing grooves in said anges, gaskets in said grooves, apertures in said flanges intersecting said channel and snugly receiving the end of a said rail extending in the transverse direction, said gaskets underlying said ilnages respectively adjacent said apertures and extending into said apertures and tightly engaging said transverse rail and sealing the juncture between said rails.
4. A structural unit having a plurality of intersecting vertical and horizontal rails forming a frame for at least one insert portion, each said rail having opposed, spaced flanges extending transversely of the plane of said unit and de fining a channel opening toward the interior of said unit, said ilanges in certain of said rails having mutually facing apertures therein, said apertures intersecting the said channel defined by said apertured flanges and receiv ing at least a portion of a said rail extending transversely of a said certain rail respectively and sealing means carried by said certain rails respectively and extending into said apertures respectively and tightly engaging the said transversely extending rails respectively.
5. The structural unit according to claim 4 in which each said iiange in said rails has a groove opening toward the adjacent channel, each said groove being of greater depth than the adjacent said aperture and said sealing means is in part disposed Within said grooves and extends within each said groove to a greater depth than the depth of the aperture adjacent thereto.
6. A Weatherproof exterior curtain wall comprising a plurality of adjacent units in a common plane, each said unit having outer vertical and horizontal rails, said vertical and horizontal rails of each unit being adjacent similar outer rails of an adjacent unit, resilient sealing means dis-v posed between said adjacent rails and of length substantially equal to the length of said rails respectively and being mounted on one said outer rail and extending toward and engaging the adjacent outer rail, resilient fastening means interconnecting and securing said adjacent rails together, said outer rails having a surface extending toward the center of the units, a flange laterally spaced therefrom and parallel therewith and a web extending therebetween, rnullion covers overlapping a portion of the said adjacent outer rails of adjacent units respectively and covering said sealing means, said rnullion covers having a body portion, spaced parallel leg portions connected therewith and extending toward said surfaces respectively of said adjacent outer rails and a iiange at the end of each leg portion, each said rnullion cover ange being juxtaposed to and parallel with the adjacent said surface and being more remote from the outer rail adjacent the other said flange of said rnullion cover than said adjacent ange of the rail to which the said mullion cover flange is juxtaposed, and means reieasably securing rnullion cover to said adjacent units comprising tensioned spring means disposed and acting between and engaging said adjacent rail and rnullion cover anges respectively and having an axis extending parallel with the length of said rail and rnullion cover anges, each said unit and said outer rails thereof having movement in expansion and contraction relative to the adjacent units and the adjacent outer rails thereof, respectively, independent of' said adjacent units and outer rails and independent of said rnullion covers.
7. A weatherproof exterior curtain wall comprising a plurality of adjacent units in a common plane, each said unit havingouter vertical and horizontal rails, said vertical and horizontal rails of each unit being adjacent similar outer rails of an adjacent unit, resilient sealing means disposed between said adjacent rails and of length substantially equal to the length of said rails respectively and being mounted on one said outer rail and extending toward and engaging the adjacent outer rail, said adjacent rails having spaced pairs of aligned apertures and resilient fastening means interconnecting and securing said adjacent rails together and comprising bolt means extending through each said pair of aligned apertures, wall means at the ends of said bolt means, respectively, and a resilient washer disposed about said bolt means and intermediate C,
each said wall means and the adjacent rail whereby each said unit and said outer rails thereof have movement in expansion and contraction relative to the adjacent units and the adjacent outer rails thereof, respectively, independent of said adjacent units and outer rails.
8. A weatherproof exterior curtain wall comprising a plurality of adjacent units in a common plane, each said unit having outer vertical and horizontal rails, said vertical and horizontal rails of each unit being adjacent similar outer rails of an adjacent unit, resilient sealing means disposed between said adjacent rails and of length substantially equal to the length of said rails, respectively, and being mounted on one said outer rail and extending toward and engaging the adjacent outer rail, resilient fastening means interconnecting and securing said adjacent rails together, each said unit and said outer rails thereof having movement in expansion and contraction relative to the adjacent units and the adjacent outer rails thereof, respectively independent of said adjacent units and outer rails, and a plurality of hanger plates for mounting said wall on a building, each said plate having a n portion disposed between adjacent outer rails and a base portion for securing to said building, said iin portion being engaged by said sealing means and having slots extending in length in the direction of the rails between which said iin portion is disposed, a portion of said resilient fastening means extending through said slots and having substan tially less thickness in the direction of the length of said slots than the length thereof.
9. A weatherproof structural unit for exterior walls having a plurality of vertical and horizontal rails forming a frame `and an insert portion supported therein, each `said rail having flanges dening a channel opening toward said insert portion, mutual facing grooves in said flanges, respectively, and opening toward the adjacent channel, sealing means being disposed in said grooves respectively and extending outwardly therefrom into the adjacent channel and frictionally engaging and supporting said insert portion at the periphery thereof, said insert portion having movement in contraction and expansion independent of and relative to said rails and sealing means, said nanges of certain of said rails having apertures for snugly receiving at least a part of the end of a said rail extending transversely of said certain rails, respectively, and said sealing means underlying said franges adjacent said apertures, respectively, and extending into each said aperture and tightly engaging the said transversely extending rail disposed therein.
References Cited in the tile of this patent UNETED STATES PATENTS 1,939,809 Gorman Dec. 19, 1933 1,962,826 MacDonald lune 12, 1934 2,377,42'7 Kessler June 5, 1945 2,424,547 Behin uly 29, 1947 2,632,534 Gray Mar. 24, 1953 2,800,983 Toney uly 30, 1957 2,843,233 Walsh Iuiy 15, 1958 2,885,040 Grossman May 5, 1959 FOREEGN PATENTS 103,177 Sweden Dec. 2, 1941 110,566 Sweden May 9, 1944 600,173 Great Britain Apr. l, 1948 OTHER REFERENCES Sweets Architectural Catalog, 1956 edition, page 14 of sec. 17a/Flo and page 18 of sec. 17a/Flo.
Sweets Architectural Catalog, 1956 edition, pages 10 and 11 of section 17a/So and page l0 of section 17a/Tr.