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Publication numberUS3074229 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 22, 1963
Filing dateMay 15, 1961
Priority dateJun 22, 1960
Publication numberUS 3074229 A, US 3074229A, US-A-3074229, US3074229 A, US3074229A
InventorsBernardus Bans Hendrik, Jacobus Veldhuijzen Eduard Joh
Original AssigneePhilips Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Hot-gas reciprocating machine and system composed of a plurality of these machines
US 3074229 A
Abstract  available in
Images(3)
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Jan. 22, 1963 H. B. BAAS ETAL 3,074,229

HOT-GAS RECIPROCATING MACHINE AND SYSTEM COMPQSED OF A PLURALITY OF THESE MACHINES 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed May 15, 1961 INVENTORS HENDRIK B. BAAS EDUARD J. J. VELDHUIJZEN BY kwe P.

AG EN Jan. 22, 1963 HOT-GAS RECIPROCATING MACHINE AND SYSTEM COMPOSED OF A PLURALITY OF THESE MACHINES Filed May 15, 1961 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR S HENDRIK B. BAAS EDUARD J. J. VELDHUIJZEN AGENT Jan. 22, 1963 H. B. BAAS ETAL 3,074,229

HOT-GAS RECIPROCATING MACHINE AND SYSTEM COMPOSED OF A PLURALITY OF THESE MACHINES Filed May 15, 1961 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 BY 2 ,6. 1 g

AGENT dtates HOT-GAS PJEQIPRQCATENG MAQHTNE AND SYS- TEM CQMPQSED OF A PLURALITY F THESE MACHINES Hendrik Bernardus Baas, Abcoude, and Eduard Johan .lacobus Veldhuijzen, Amsterdam, Netherlands, assignors to North American Philips Company, Inc, New York, N.Y., a corporation of Delaware Filed May 15, 1961, Ser. No. 109,987 Claims priority, application Netherlands June 22, 1960 12 Claims. (Cl. 6il--24) The invention relates to a hot-gas reciprocating machine comprising two intercoupled cranks adapted to rotate synchronism in opposite senses with the same angular speed. Each of these cranks co-operatcs with two driving rod mechanisms lying pairwise mainly on either side of a plane going through the crank pins. One pair of the driving mechanisms lying on one side of the said plane is coupled in this machine with one set of reciprocating machine elements, whereas the other set of driving rod mechanisms, which is located mainly on the oiher side of the plane going through the crank pins, is connected with a further system of reciprocating machine elements.

A hot-gas reciprocating machine of this construction has the advantage that the specific structure of the driving gear employed provides, in principle, the possibility of a complete balancing. in the design of the machine the desired phase difference of the movements of the piston-shaped bodies associated with one cycle may be obtained in a simple manner without affecting adversely the possibility of balancing.

On the basis of this known structure a hot-gas recipro eating machine can be obtained in a simple manner in which one or more cycles can be performed with the aid of one and the same driving gear.

A hot-gas reciprocating machine is to be understood to mean in this respect a reciprocating machine comprising two spaces of which the volumes vary with a phase difference. These communicate with each other through a regenerator. Provision is furthermore made of a gas eons operational medium which is adapted to flow to and fro between the spaces through the said regenerator. If this medium conveys heat from a higher temperature level to a lower temperature level, this medium being heated for example by a burner and cooled by coolant, for example water, the hot-gas reciprocating machine is capable of converting heat into mechanical energy, so that the machine performs an engine cycle. if on the contrary the working medium of the machine conveys heat from a lower temperature level to a higher temperature level, for example from a space to be cooled to a coolant, for example water of ambient temperature, this machine is capable of converting mechanical energy into cold, so that a cold-gas refrigerator cycle is performed.

Each driving rod mechanism may be constructed in the form of a single driving rod or instead, for example for structural reasons, it may consist of two or more parallel-connected driving rods, in which case the driving rod mechanism is subdivided.

The hot-gas reciprocating machine of the kind set forth is characterized in that one of the systems of reciprocatingmachine elements or both systems comprise(s) more than a piston-shaped body. This provides a construction with cxcelent balancing properties, the machine being simpler and occupying less space than the known machines of this kind.

On the basis of this structure the piston-like bodies of one or of both systems of reciprocating machine elements of the machine according to the invention may be arranged in difiercnt ways in groups. With the aid 3,@74,ZZ Patented Jan. 22, 1963 of a plurality of hollow rods, one surrounding the other, a structure may be obtained, in which on one side or on both sides of the driving gear two cylinders are arranged in line with each other, each comprising two piston-like bodies, usually formed by a piston and a displacer piston.

In an advantageous embodiment of the hot-gas recipro eating machines according to the invention the centre lines of the piston-like bodies of one or of both systems are displaced relatively to each other in a transverse direction. This provides a short, readily accessible structure of the machine.

in a further embodiment of the invention the plane(s) going through the centre line-s of the piston-like bodies preferably intersect at right angles the centre lines of the crankpins. This provides the possibility of composing a hot-gas reciprocating machine from units; since the cylinders co-opcrating with a driving gear are located mainly directly over the associated driving gear, these units are particularly suitable for building up a hot-gas reciprocating machine having, for example, 12 or 16 cylinders and two common crank shafts. Then the advantages of the compact structure and the excellent balancing are thus fully utilized.

in an advantageous embodiment of the invention the reciprocating systems of machine elements comprise yokes,- which are pivoted to the associated driving rod mechanisms at places relatively shifted sideways and are furthermore coupled with the rods of the piston-like bodies.

In a further embodiment of the invention a very compact structure of the machine is obtained by choosing the distance between the points of application of the driving rod mechanisms at each of the yokes to be smaller than the distance between the points of application on the yoke of the associated piston-like bodies lying on the outer side.

In order to ensure an advantageous load of the yokes, it is advisable, in accordance with a further embodiment of the hot-gas reciprocating machine according to the invention, to provide a distance between the centre lines of the crank shafts which is smaller than the distance be tween the points of application of the driving rod mechanisms on the yokes.

In a further embodiment of the hot-gas reciprocating machine according to the invention each of the driving rod mechanisms, located mainly on one side of the plane going through the crankpins, is constructed in the form of double driving rods and the mechanisms located on the other side of the said piane are constructed in the form of single driving rods. This provides the 'advan tage that a comparatively narrow structure of the yokes is obtained, while furthermore the load on these yokes will be as far as possible symmetrical to the cylinder centre lines of the cylinders viewed in directions parallel to the centre lines of the crank shafts. V

In a further embodiment of the hot-gas reciprocating machine according to the invention the double-rod driving mechanisms are accommodated in the links between the cranks and the pistons and the single-rod driving mechanisms are accommodated in the links between the cranks and the displacer pistons. Thus the pistons exposed to a heavier load during the operation of the machine are linked to the cranks by a mechanically more rugged structure than the clisplacer pistons, which are exposed during the operation of the machine to a lighter load than the pistons.

In the last-mentioned embodiment the parts of the double-rod driving mechanisms and of the single-rod driving mechanisms may be identical.

A further embodiment of the hot-gas reciprocating machine according to the invention, in which more than one hot-gas reciprocating machine cycle is performed, is characterized in that one or more of these cycles provide(s) mechanical energy, whereas one or more of the other hot-gas reciprocating machine cycles absorbs mechanical energy, for example the cycle of a refrigerator.

A further embodiment of the hot-gas reciprocating machine according to the invention has the feature that with one or with both systems of reciprocating machine elements are coupled not only the piston-like bodies associated with the hot-gas reciprocating machine cycles but also one or more further reciprocating piston-like bodies housed in cylinders, processes being performed in the cylinder concerned to supply or absorb mechanical energy. Here we have in mind for example a piston for use in a compressor providing the medium pressure required for the cycles, a pump piston, a compressor for starting air and the like. The yokes may also be provided with structural parts such as guiding shoes, which serve to ensure the further straight travel of the systems by means of stationary structural parts such as guide paths.

The invention will be described more fully with reference to the drawing.

FIG. 1 is a cross sectional view of a first embodiment of a hot-gas reciprocating machine according to the invention. The machine is a two-cylinder hot-gas engine.

FIG. 2 shows a hot-gas engine in which three cylinders co-operate with a common driving gear. The driving gear is slightly different from that shown in FIG. 1.

FIG. 3 shows diagrammatically and in a perspective view a simple and compact driving gear for use in a fourcylinder machine according to the invention, in which the cylinders are arranged pairwise in rows. However, use is made of not more than two crank shafts, which are substantially orthogonal to the plane in which the movements are the driving gears are performed.

In the embodiment shown in FIG. 1, in which only the main parts of the machine are illustrated, two cylinders 11 and 12 are arranged on a common crank casing 10. In each of these cylinders a hot-gas engine cycle is performed. In each of the cylinders a displacer piston 13 and 14 respectively, and a power piston 15 and 16, respectively is adapted to reciprocate. The displacer rods are designated by 17 and 18 and the hollow connecting rods by 19 and 20. The cylinders 11 and 12 contain the so-called hot spaces 21 and 22 and the cold spaces 23 and 24, the volume of each of which varies periodically with a phase dilference owing to the movement of the pistons and the displacers. The cylinders are furthermore provided with pipe heaters 25 and 26, regenerators 27 and 28 and coolers 29 and 30; 31 and 32 designate the centre lines of the crank shafts, arranged in the crank casing 10; 33 denotes the section of the crank shaft provided in the right-hand half of the engine. In this right-hand half is furthermore shown the crank web 34 in an elevation; 35 and 36 designate the centre lines of the crank pins of the crank shaft. in the left-hand half of the engine is shown the section 37 of a crank pin.

The lines of connection 3531 and 36-32 designate the crank radii of the two engine halves; it is evident from the drawing that they are symmetrical to the centre line XX of the machine. During operation of the machine the cranks rotate in the directions p and q, i.e. in opposite senses. Owing to the co-operating toothed wheels 38 and 39 of equal size the cranks will rotate in synchronism and with the same angular speed. Each of the crank shafts is provided with a set of counterweights, designated by 40 and 41.

Each of the cranks is coupled with two driving rod mechanisms, which are constructed here in the form of single driving rods. The driving rods coupled with the crank pin 37 are denoted by 42 and 43. The driving rods coupled with the crank of which the centre is denoted by 36 are designated by 44 and 45. 'From the figure it is evident that the pair of driving rods 42 and 4 44 is located on one side of the plane YY, where-as the pair of driving rods 43 and 45 is located on the opposite side of this plane.

The ends of the driving rods 42 and 44 remote from the cranks are pivoted at 46 and 47 to a yoke 48. This yoke is coupled with the hollow connecting rods 19 and 20.

In approximately the same manner the ends of the driving rods 43 and 45 remote from the cranks are pivoted at 49 and 50 to a second yoke 51, in which the ends of the displacer rods 17 and 18 are secured.

From FIG. 1 it is evident that one pair of driving rods, which is located above the plane YY is coupled with one set of reciprocating machine elements, which are formed mainly by the yoke 48, the hollow piston rods 39 and 26 and the pistons 15 and 16. The driving rods located below the plane YY are coupled with a second similar set of reciprocating machine elements, which set is mainly formed by the yoke 51, the displacer rods 17 and 18 and the displacers 13 and 14. From FIG. I it is furthermore evident that by carrying out the invention an extremely compact two-cylinder machine can be obtained, in which one and the same driving rod mechanism can be used for the two cylinders.

Similarly to a one-cylinder machine with this kind of driving gear, the phase displacement in the movements of pistons and displacers required for the cycle of a hotgas engine is automatically obtained by the disposition shown. The required heat is derived from burners, which is indicated by the arrows A and B; cooling takes place, for example by means of a coolant, which is indicated diagrammatically by C and D.

In the embodiment shown in FIG. 2 three engine cylinders 61, 62 and 63 co-operate with the driving gear concerned. In principle, the heaters 64, 65 and 66, the regenerators 67, 68 and 69 and the coolers 70, 71 and 72 are similar to the heaters, the regenerators and the coolers shown in FIG. 1, so that no further explanation is required.

The displacer pistons 73, 74 and 75 and the power pistons 76, 77 and 78 are adapted to move in the cylinders. In this embodiment the cylinders are closed on the bottom side and provided with a stufling box (not shown) in the spaces 79, 80 and 81 provision may be made of an auxiliary gas under the average pressure of the cycle, so that the pressure difference on the pistons is minimized. The displacer rods 82, 83 and 84 are connected with the yoke 85. The hollow piston rods 86, 87 and 88 are secured to the yoke 89, located above the crank shaft.

The crank shafts, the crank pins and the crank webs are shown in the manner of FIG. 1; 99 and 91 designate the centre lines of the crank shafts, 92 and 93 denote the centre lines of the crank pins; 94 and 95 designate the counterweights.

Also in this embodiment the crank shafts are coupled by toothed wheels 96 and 97 of equal size, so that during the operation of the machine the cranks rotate in synchronism, in opposite senses and with the same angular speed. This is indicated by the arrows r and s.

One pair of the driving rod mechanisms, also constructed in the form of single rods, designated by 98 and 99 and located above the plane YY going through the crank pins, is pivoted to the yoke 89. The other pair of driving rod mechanisms, also constructed in the form of single rods, designated by 100 and 101, is coupled with the yoke 85.

Since in this embodiment, viewed from the plane YY the driving rods are divergent, a more advantageous distribution of forces is obtained in the yokes 85 and 89.

When considering FIGS. 1 and 2, it will be obvious that, if desired, one or more cylinders may be arranged on either side of the driving gear, i.e. also underneath the yoke 51 of FIG. 1 and underneath the yoke 85 of FIG. 2, in which cylinders hot-gas reciprocating machine cycles are performed. If desired, a number of cylinders may be arranged on one side of the driving gear different from the number of cylinders provided on the other side of the driving gear. Instead of being arranged vertically, the whole machine may be arranged horizontally. Under all these conditions the excellent balancing properties of the driving gear are fully maintained.

To one yoke or to both may, if desired, be secured one or more other reciprocating members, for example the pistons of compressors, pumps and the like. It is ad visable, particularly when the mass of these reciprocating parts is comparatively large, to ensure that the loads then exerted on the driving gear are as far as possible symmetrical to the centre line XX of the machine.

In the embodiments shown the cylinders are disposed straight above the driving gear, so that the plane going through the centre lines of the individual cylinders and thus coinciding with the plane of the drawing of FIGS. 1 and 2 intersects the crank pins at right angles. When the yokes are provided with suitable prolongations at right angles to the plane of the drawing, the plane going through the centre lines of the cylinders may be arranged so that it is transverse or orthogonal to the plane of the drawing.

The embodiment shown in FIG. 3 illustrates how two of the driving gears of the kind shown in FIG. 1 may be combined to form one unit with two crank shafts, this unit occupying little space and being assembled in a simple manner. For the sake of simplicity the cylinders, the crank casing and the gear Wheels are omitted.

The construction shown comprises two crank shafts 111 and 112, which are adapted to rotate, as in FIGS. 1 and 2, in opposite senses with the same angular speed. The crank shaft 111 is provided with two cranks arranged at an angle to each other. FIG. 3 shows only the crank pin 113 associated with the crank lying on the front side. The crank shaft 112 has similarly two cranks, of which only the crank pin 114 is shown. The crank pins are located pairwise symmetrically to the plane of symmetry of the structure parallel to the longitudinal axes of the crank shafts. The crank pin 113 is therefore symmetrical to the crank pin 114. Counterweights, of which the counterweights 115, 116, 117, 118 and 119 are shown in FIGURE 3, are provided on the crank shafts.

Also in this case each crank pin is connected with two driving rod mechanisms lying each on one side of a plane going through the crank pin. This is illustrated in the part of the structure shown on the foreground of FIG. 3. The plane concerned is indicated diagrammatically by a broken line Y-Y. The crank pin 113 is coupled with the upwardly directed driving rod mechanism, which, for structural reasons, is formed by double rods and of which the parts are designated by 120a and 120i; and furthermore with the driving rod mechanism constructed in the form of a single rod 121, which is directed downwardly with respect to the plane Y--Y.

In a similar manner the crank pin 114 is coupled with the upwardly directed driving rod mechanism formed by a double rod, of which the parts are designated by 122a and 12% and with the downwardly directed single-rod driving mechanism 123.

The driving rods 120a and 12619 and 122a and 12% are pivoted to a yoke 124, located in between these rods and the ends of the driving rods 121 and 123 are pivoted to a second yoke 127 inside slot-shaped recesses 125 and 126.

With the aid of hollow piston rods 128 and 129 bored pistons 130 and 131 are secured to the ends of the yoke 124. The rods 132 and 133, extending through the hollow piston rods 128 and 129 and through the bored pistons 130 and 131 and coupled with the displacers 134 and 135, are secured to the ends of the yoke 127.

Since in the embodiment shown the double-rod driving mechanisms are connected with the pistons and the single- 6 rod driving mechanisms with the displacers and since the mechanical load on the pistons exceeds that exerted on the displacers, the parts 121%; and b, and 1224 and 12212 of the double-rod driving mechanisms and the driving rods 121 and 123 of the single-rod driving mechanisms may be identical.

The machine part shown on the background of FIG. 3 is constructed in a similar manner.

It will be obvious that in this manner an extremely compact construction of a multi-cylinder hot-gas reciprocating machine can be obtained.

What is claimed is:

1. A hot-gas reciprocating machine comprising a pair of cylinders, each having a displacer piston and a power piston reciprocating therein, said cylinder and piston defining hot and cold expansible chambers, a regenerator interconnecting said hot and cold expansible chambers, the pistons of said pair of cylinders being provided with intercoupled cranks which rotate in synchronism with the same angular speed but in opposite directions, and said cranks being provided with crank pins, power piston driving rod assemblies and displacer piston driving rod assemblies, one of said assemblies being on one side of a plane through the centers of said crank pins while the other of said assemblies is located on the other side thereof.

2. A hot-gas reciprocating machine as claimed in claim 1 wherein the center lines of the pistons in each cylinder are displaced laterally relative to each other.

3. A hot-gas reciprocating machine as claimed in claim 2 wherein the center line of the piston in each cylinder perpendicularly intersect the plane through the centers of said crank pins.

4. A hot-gas reciprocating machine comprising a pair of cylinders, each having a displacer piston and a power piston reciprocating therein, said cylinder and piston defining hot and cold expansible chambers, a regenerator interconnecting said hot and cold expansible chambers, the pistons of said pair of cylinders being provided with intercoupled cranks which rotate in synchronism with the same angular speed but in opposite directions, said cranks being provided with crank pins, a pair of yokes, means pivotally connecting said crank pins to said yokes, power piston driving rod assemblies and displacer piston driving rod assemblies being operatively connected to selected yokes, one of said assemblies being on one side of a plane through the centers of said crank pins while the other of said assemblies being located on the other side thereof.

5. A hot-gas reciprocating machine as claimed in claim 4 wherein the distance between the points of connection of the driving rod assemblies on each of the yokes on each side of said crank pins is smaller than the distance between the driving rod assemblies located on both sides of said cranks.

6. A hot-gas reciprocating machine comprising a pair of cylinders, each having a displacer piston and a power piston reciprocating therein, said cylinder and piston defining hot and cold expansible chambers, a regenerator interconnecting said hot and cold expansible chambers, the pistons of said pair of cylinders being provided with intercoupled cranks which rotate in synchronism with the same angular speed but in opposite directions, said cranks being provided with crank pins, a pair of yokes, means pivotally connecting said crank pins to said yokes, power piston driving rod assemblies and displacer piston driving rod assemblies being operatively connected to selected yokes, one of said assemblies being on one side of a plane through the centers of said crank pins while the other of said assemblies being located on the other side thereof, and the distance between the center lines of said cranks is smaller than the distance between the points of connection of the driving rod assemblies on said yokes.

7. A hot-gas reciprocating machine as claimed in claim 1 wherein the driving rod assemblies located on one side of the plane going through the crank pins are constructed in the form of double driving rods and those located on the other side of the said plane are constructed in the form 'of single driving rods.

8. A hot-gas reciprocating machine as claimed in claim 7 further comprising first links between the cranks and the power pistons and second links between the cranks and the displacer pistons, said double driving rods being operatively connected to said first links between the cranks and the power pistons, and the single driving rods being operatively connected to said second links between the cranks and the displacer pistons.

9. A hot-gas reciprocating machine as claimed in claim 7 wherein the parts of the double driving rods and those of the single driving rods are identical.

10. A hot-gas reciprocating machine as claimed in claim 1 in which more than one closed thermodynamic cycle is performed wherein at least one of said cycles supplies mechanical energy and one of said cycles absorbs mechanical energy.

11. A plurality of interconnected hot-gas reciprocating machines forming a system comprising a multiplicity of cylinders, each having a displacer piston and a power piston reciprocating therein, said cylinder and piston defining hot and cold expansible chambers, a regenerator interconnecting said hot and cold expansible chambers,

8 t the pistons of said displacer piston cylinder and power piston cylinder being provided with intercoupled cranks which rotate in synchronism with the same angular speed but in opposite directions, said cranks being provided with crank pins, power piston driving rod assemblies and displacer piston driving rod assemblies, one of said assemblies being on one side of a plane through the center of said crank pins While the other of said assemblies is located on the other side thereof, and the plane going through the center line of said cylinders intersects at right angles an imaginary line going through the crank pins of said machine, the axes of all of said cylinders extending parallel to each other, the crank pins of said machines located on one side of the imaginary line going through the crank pins form part of a first crank shaft common to all said machines, and the crank pins associated with the machines located on the other side of said imaginary line form part of a second crank shaft common to all said machines.

12. A system as claimed in claim 11 wherein the cylinders of the machines of the system are grouped in two parallel rows.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,558,481 Dros June 26, 1951

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2558481 *Jul 19, 1948Jun 26, 1951Hartford Nat Bank & Trust CoCombination comprising a hot-gas engine and a piston machine driven thereby
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3220177 *Nov 14, 1962Nov 30, 1965Philips CorpThermodynamic reciprocating machine of the displacer-piston type
US3372554 *Mar 21, 1966Mar 12, 1968Philips CorpArrangement for producing cold at very low temperatures
US3803857 *May 26, 1972Apr 16, 1974Ishizaki YRefrigeration system
US3822553 *Aug 15, 1973Jul 9, 1974United Stirling Ab & CoHot gas engine heater heads
US3958421 *Jan 8, 1974May 25, 1976Kelly Donald ARotary closed parallel cycle engine systems
US4195613 *Apr 14, 1978Apr 1, 1980Kommanditbolaget United Stirling (Sweden) Ab & Co.Double-acting four-cylinder hot gas engine
US4259841 *May 15, 1979Apr 7, 1981Universal Research And Development Corp.Steam engine
US4345645 *Oct 20, 1980Aug 24, 1982Kommanditbolaget United Stirling Ab & CoHot gas engine heater head
DE102013015836A1 *Sep 24, 2013Apr 16, 2015Peter BuchbauerHeißgasmotor (Stirling-Motor) mit gewichtsausgeglichenem, über zwei Exzenter bewegtem Verdränger
Classifications
U.S. Classification60/525, 62/6
International ClassificationF02G1/00, F02G1/044
Cooperative ClassificationF02G1/044
European ClassificationF02G1/044