US 3074351 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 22, 1963 F. J. FOSTER 3,074,351
PUMPS Filed Sept. 1, 1959 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 4a H INVENTOR:
F]. Foster mgw ATTO RNE$S Jan. 22, 1963 F; J. FOSTER 3,074,351
PUMPS Filed Sept. 1, 1959 s sheets-sheet 2 60 .fifi'. 4/4- m iiwis w Jan. .22, 1963 F. J. FOSTER 3,074,351
PUMPS Filed Sept. 1, 1959 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 //0 Ill #2 v REL I NVEN OR: F Foster AT 0 ILNESS ilnited States Patent O Claims priority, application Australia Sept. 1, 1958 6 Claims. (Cl. 103-152) This invention relates to pumps, and it has more par ticular but not exclusive reference to a pump which is usable for introducing material into a pipe line for hydraulic transportation.
It is well-known to transport solid materials in small particles or pulpy form in suspension or transition in a water pipe line. Usually, the handling of the particles or pulp is accomplished by conventional centrifugal pumps arranged separately, or in series, or as slug-injection devices. There are, however, several disadvantages associated with the type of pumping system currently employed. Firstly, the pulp is generally of an abrasive nature, so that its passage through the high speed centrifugal pumps causes severe abrasion and consequent wear of the mechanical components. In addition, the efiiciency of suitable conventional pumps to handle the pulp for this purpose is very low, generally in the order of 40%, which results in comparatively high power consumption and therefore high running costs.
My present invention has been devised to overcome these previous disadvantages, and it accordingly has for its principal object the provision of a pump which may be arranged and operated to utilise the injection principle of introducing the pulp into the water pipe line beyond the water pump, thus obviating passage of the pulp through the water pump and consequently preventing the occurrence of abrasive wear.
A further object of the invention is to provide a pump of the character described which will allow the use of highly efiicient water pumps, resulting in increased efficiency in the pumping system insofar as the water pump does not require to be designated to cater for interference of pulp with its mechanism.
Other objects of the invention are to provide a pump of the aforementioned nature which lends itself to simple, inexpensive and particularly compact construction, thus assuring a considerable reduction in installation, operational and labour costs.
Other objects and advantages of the invention will be hereafter evident.
With the foregoing and other objects in view, my invention resides broadly in a pump including a pump body having a first chamber communicating with a second chamber through a connecting passage provided with a non-return connecting valve adapted to be opened when the pressure in the first chamber exceed the pressure in the second chamber; an inlet to the first chamber adapted to be connected to a source of water or pulp and provided with a non-return inlet valve adapted to be opened by suction within the first chamber to admit liquid or pulp thereto but to be closed by pressure in said first chamber; an outlet from the second chamber provided with a non-return outlet valve adapted to be opened by pressure within the second chamber to expel liquid or pulp therefrom but to be closed by suction in said second chamber or by pressure exerted from outside the outlet, and means for alternately causing pressure increase in one chamber with a suction effect in the other, and then pressure in the other chamber with a suction effect in the said one chamber. Other features of the invention will become apparent from the following description.
In order that the invention may be more readily understood and put into practical effect, reference will now be made to the accompanying drawings wherein FIG. 1 is a half sectional elevational view of a pump according to the invention, taken along the line 1-1 in FIG. 2;
FlG. 2 is a plan view of the pump illustrated in FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a sectional view, taken along the line III-- III in FIG. 1; and
FIGS. 4A and 4B are two halves of a single figure showing a diagrammatic layout and hydraulic circuit using a pair of pumps according to the invention in a system of hydraulic transportation, wherein the pulp is injected into the water line at high pressure at a location beyond the pump.
The pump illustrated in the drawings has an upper inlet for water or pulp with a top check or non-return valve ball 10 bearing in its lower position on clearance fins 11 of a check valve lining 12 located in the check valve housing '13, the ball 10 in this position being held on the clearance fins 11 clear of the upper sealing face of the lining 12 when the pump is on its downward stroke as shown in FIG. 1.
The top suction ball check valve housing 13 is fastened by bolts 1 to an upper cylinder housing 23 in which is located a pliable low pressure diaphragm 17, the latter being held to the check valve housing 13 by a pipe forming ring 15 which is welded to a top clamping ring 14, screws 2 being used to fasten clamping ring 14 to upper cylinder housing 23. The lower rim of diaphragm 17 is held to top upper cylinder ram ring 20 by pipe forming ring 18, which is welded to clamping ring 19, the latter being fastened to top upper cylinder ram ring 20 by screws 3. The low pressure pulp from storage hopper 4-9 is received by diaphragm 17 which transfers this pulpover ball check valve 32 and 33 into the high pressure diaphragm 39, on the upward return stroke of doubleended cylinder ram.
The hydraulic bearing seals 21 are located between cylinder ram rings 20 and 22, which are fastened to ram tube section 24 by screws 4. A lining cone 25 is fitted inside ram tube section 24 to guide pulp over check valve ball 33 positioned in check valve lining 32 inside the lower end of ram tube section 24.
Centre locating spacer ring 29 is fastened between upper cylinder housing 23 and lower cylinder housing 40 by bolts 5. Positioned on inner side of spacer ring 29 is stuffing box 27 with hydraulic bearing seals 30. The stufiing box 27 is set to spacer ring 29 by screws 28. The spacer ring 29 provides a partition between the two cylinder housings 23 and 40 and a bearing surface to per-- mit the actuation of the double-ended ram. Item numbers 21, 22, 24, 34, 35 and 36 constitute the doubleended ram. The cylinder ram rings 34 and 36 locate hydraulic bearing seals 35 inside cylinder housing 40 and are fastened to ram tube section 24 by screws 6.
The pliable high pressure diaphragm 39 is secured to cylinder ram ring 36 by pipe forming ring 38 which is welded to clamping ring 37. Screws 7 fasten clamping rmg 37 to cylinder ram ring 36. The lower end of the hlgh pressure diaphragm 39 is secured to ball check valve housing 44 by pipe forming ring 42 which is welded to clamping ring 43. Screws 9 fasten clamping ring 43 to check valve housing 44.
The discharge ball check valve ball 46 is located inside valve lining 45 which is fitted to check valve housing 44. This ball 46 locates on clearance fins 47 when valve is in an open position to allow transfer of pulp from the high pressure diaphragm 39 to high pressure water or fluid pipeline 71. The junction of pulp and water or fluid lines takes place in rubber lined T-pieces 73 or 93, or similar pipework.
All cylindrical sections, where possible, to be located by spigots. The chamber in the upper cylinder between the upper cylinder housing 23 and the low pressure diaphragm 17 shall be referred to as chamber A. The hydraulic oil flow to this chamber flows through oil line entry port 16. The chamber in the upper cylinder betwecn the upper cylinder housing 23 and the ram tube section 24- above spacer ring 29, shall be referred to as chamber B, for which the necessary oil passes through oil line entry port 26. The chamber in the lower cylinder between the lower cylinder housing 4:? and the ram tube section 24 below the spacer ring 29 shall be referred to as chamber C for which the necessary hydraulic oil passes through oil line entry port 31. The chamber in the lower cylinder between the lower cylinder housing 4%] and the high pressure diaphragm 39 shall be referred to as chamber D for which the necessary oil flow passes through oil line entry port 41.
The arrangement whereby this injection pump is utilised in a system for the hydraulic transportation of solids may be described as follows: The water supply drawn from the water storage area through screen 74 and suction pipeline 7i) by suction action of water pump 69 which is driven by electric motor 68 or the like and set on base 75. The water is then delivered from water pump 69 at high pressure into the righ pressure water delivery pipeline 71. The main portion of this delivery passes through a venturi metering fiow gauge 72 or the like, which is connected to a differential manometer 62 and flow recording meter 63, and on to a further section of the high pressure water pipeline 71 from which is taken a small pressure indication pipeline through checking dial pressure gauge 67 and pressure recorder 64. The meters 62, 63, 64 and 67 may be positioned on meter board 65 to provide operational data to assist in the injection pumping station operation.
A small subsidiary pipeline 58 is taken from the high pressure water pipeline 71 immediately after water pump 69 to provide, through T-piece 55 and valve 53, a flushing line 54- to injection pumps spacer sections 56 and 79 to enable thorough cleaning of injection pumps when necessary and also to provide a make-up water line 48 through valve 51 to pulp storage hopper 49.
Pulp drawn from storage hopper 4-9 through take-nit sections and 77 and through respective valves 52 and 78 and spacer sections 56 and 57 into high pressure injection pumps 59 and 33 as shown on FlGS. 4A and 4B, is injected at the required pressure to overcome the pipeline pressure into junction T pieces 73 and 93 or similar pipework sections, where the high pressure high density pulp combines with the high pressure water to form the transportable pulp.
The pulp is then transported through the high pressure pipeline 71 .to the required delivery point. The hydraulic oil circuit to provide the reciprocating action of the double-ended ram within the upper and lower cylinders may be described as follows with reference to FIGS. 4A and 4B. When assuming injection pump 59 is operating on its delivery downstroke and supplying the necessary high pressure pulp into pipeline 71 the hydraulic oil for the circuit is delivered from hydraulic oil pump 114 which is driven by separate electric motor 113 or motivated by an outside sources The hydraulic oil is drawn from oil tank 117 through oil filter 1.16 and pumped via check valve 110 and flow control valve 108 to pilot 106 operated four way directional valve 107 which directs the oil flow along oil line 61 to oil line entry port 31 into injection pump 59 chamber C. A subsidiary oil line 111 to relief valve 112 afiords the circuit pressure control. Another subsidiary oil line 89 carries a supply of oil through pressure reducing valve 109 and along oil line 6i; through oil entry port 26 to chambers B in injection pumps 59 and 83 thus providing pressure for the return upstroke of injection pump 83. Oil line 89 also proceeds through flow control valve 31 'to oil line 57 to provide low pressure oil through 011 entry ports 16 to chambers A of both injection pumps 59 and 33 which constitutes a cushioning action to diaphragms 17. A relief valve 8-2 on this low pressure oil line 57 enables bleeding off when necessary.
A further subsidiary oil line 97 from oil line 61 provides an oil flow into timing cylinder 90 and this oil pressure acts on piston and setting arm 91 to actuate, when necessary, pilot valve 92 which determines the operation of four-way directional valve pilots M6. The oil flow rate into cylinder 94 may be adjusted by the setting of flow control valve 151 which is connected by oil line 1% to oil line 84. The stroke rate of injection pumps 59 and 83 may therefore be determined by adjustment of flow control valve NH. The automatic control of pump stroke rate or" injection pumps 59 and 83 with the consequent control of pulp density in pipeline 71 is accorded by the action of any fluctuation of pressure in pipeline 71 along water line 76 on piston 93 which is contained in cylinder 94 and adjusted against spring 95 which in turn may be adjusted by nut 96 on setting arm 98. The movement of piston 98 through toggle 99 to adujst flow control valve 101 to obtain the desired range of pulp density in pipeline 71 by control of injection pumps 59 and 83 stroke rate.
The hydraulic oil returned to chamber D during prior upstroke of injection pump 59, comes under the ettect of down-stroke pressure of the double-ended ram to obtain a pressure approximately equal to that pressure within high pressure diaphragm 39 and the resultant energy on the oils exit through port a l. along oil line 66 to enter the receiving chamber 124 of double ended hydraulic oil intensifier cylinder 13.9 to bring pressure to bear on double ended ram 12% to obtain an intensified pressure on oil that has previously gravitated through screen and check valve 118 into chamber 125. This intensified pressure oil from chamber is directed by oil line 194 into oil line 61 and thus, after the initial pump downstroke, provides a substantial quantity of the operational high pressure hydraulic oil required to enter chamber C. Check valves 122 and relief valve 123 may provide a nonreturn and pressure control on oil lines 66 and 121. When necessary during the cycle low pressure oil gravitates from oil tank 117 into chambers 124 and 125 and their composite chambers of the intensifier cylinder. Back pressure being prevented along these oil lines by check valves 118.
Should the rupture of either low or high pressure (ll-- aphragms occur it may be detected by metal detector coils 89, when pulp being handled is of metallic nature, mounted on oil line 57 and metal detector coils $3 mounted on oil lines 66 and 121. The metal detector coils 86 and 88 are connected to metal detector 86- which is adjusted to switch ofi hydraulic pump driving electric motor, through electric wiring line 87. Should the pulp being handled be non-metallic then an alternative light detector arrangement may be applied to operate the cut-- out of electric motor 113.
Oil line 34 allows the return of oil from chamber C of injection pump 83, which is on its return upstroke in this arrangement, to oil tank 117. Oil line 1'95 is the line through which intensified oil is fed into oil line 84 when injection pump 33 is operating on its pressure downstrokc. The hydraulic actuation of high pressure injec tion pumps 59 and 83 to operate at a determined stroke rate into a high pressure water delivery pipeline 71 of known internal pressure may be described with reference to FIGURES l, 2, 3, 4A and 48 as hereunder.
When a quantity of hydraulic oil is pumped at high pressure into chamber C of the respective injection pump it brings about a thrust on the lower annular ring of the double ended ram. This force acting downwards on the high pressure delivery diaphragm and hydraulic oil contained in chamber D forces the pulp over ball check valve ball 46 into the high-pressure water delivery pipeline 71. On this same downstroke of the double ended ram a quantity of high density low pressure pulp is drawn from storage hopper 49 over check valve ball into the low pressure diaphragm 17. On the return upstroke of the double ended ram, which is brought about by pressure oil entering chamber B, the pulp transfers from low pressure diaphragm 17 along lining cone 25 over check valve ball 33 into the high pressure diaphragm 39 in preparation for the next pressure downstroke of the double ended rarn. The high density pulp therefore moves through the injection pump in two stages.
Another practical application for the injection pump with suitable hydraulic actuating circuit would be the direct pumping of pulps or slurrys into a pipeline for transportation While still in the high density condition.
What I claim is:
1. A pump comprising a pair of flexible, substantially tubular, first and second diaphragms having smooth, nonribbed and continuous inner surfaces, said diaphragms being located coaxially and having fixed outer ends; means forming a bearing aperture in the direction of the axis of the diaphragms; a plunger connected between the inner ends of the diaphragms and constrained to move reciprocably within said bearing aperture, said plunger having a passage leading between the two diaphragrns; a non-return connecting valve in said passage for controlling fiow non-returnably from the first diaphragm to the second diaphragm; non-return inlet valve means associated with the outer end of the first diaphragm; non-return outlet valve means associated with the outer end of the second diaphragm, and means connected with said plunger for reciprocating it to compress one diaphragm longitudinally and extend the other, and then extend the one diaphragm and compress the other.
2. A pump according to claim 1, wherein the means for reciprocating the plunger are fluid operated.
3. A pump comprising a pair of flexible, substantially tubular, first and second diaphragms having smooth, nonribbed and continuous inner surfaces, said diaphragms being located coaxially and having fixed outer ends; hearing sleeves between said diaphragms, a plunger connected between the inner ends of the diaphragrns and having its ends adjacent the diaphragrus constrained to move reciprocably in said bearing sleeves in the direction of the axis of the diaphragms; said plunger having a passage leading between the two diaphragms, a non-return connecting valve in said passage for controlling fiow nonreturnably from the first diaphragm to the second diaphragm; non-return inlet valve means associated with the outer end of the first diaphragm; non-return outlet valve means associated with the outer end of the second diaphragm, and means connected with said plunger for reciprocating it to compress one diaphragm longitudinally and extend the other, and then extend the one diaphragm and compress the other.
4. A pump according to claim 3, wherein the means for reciprocating the plunger are fluid operated.
5. A pump comprising a tubular pump body, a pair of flexible, substantially tubular, first and second diaphragrns having smooth, non-ribbed and continuous inner surfaces, said diaphragrns being located coaxially relatively to the pump body, means connecting the outer ends of said diaphragms to the pump body; a tubular plunger of lesser diameter than the pump body connected between the inner ends of the diaphragms within the pump body and having slidable piston heads at its ends adjacent the diaphragms, said plunger being constrained to move reciprocably within and against the pump body in the direction of the axis thereof, a fixed division wall extending radially inwards from the pump body between the piston heads and having a central aperture, said plunger being closely slidable within said central aperture and having a passage leading between the two diaphragms; a non-return conneoting valve in said passage for controlling flow nonreturnably fro-m the first diaphragm to the second diaphragm; non-return inlet valve means associated with the outer end of the first diaphragm; non-return outlet valve means associated with the outer end of the second diaphragm, and means forcing a fluid medium alternately to a chamber defined by the pump body, plunger, division Wall and piston head adjacent the first diaphragm, and then to a chamber defined by the pump body, plunger, division "wall and piston head adjacent the second diaphragm to cause reciprocation of the plunger to compress one diaphragm longitudinally and extend the other, and then extend the one diaphragm and compress the other.
6. A pump according to claim 5, wherein each diaphragm is surrounded by an annular chamber defined by the pump body, means connecting its outer end to the pump body, and the piston head at the connection of its other end to the plunger, said pump further comprising means conveying the fluid medium to said annular chambers during compression of the respective diaphragrns to provide a cushioning efiect.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 218,569 Pirkle Aug. 12, 1879 293,461 Hemenway Feb. 12, 1884 562,285 Delpeyrou et a1 June 16, 1896 1,580,479 Frankenfield Apr. 13, 1926 FOREIGN PATENTS 465,246 Canada May 23, 1950