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Publication numberUS3074697 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 22, 1963
Filing dateAug 22, 1958
Priority dateAug 22, 1958
Publication numberUS 3074697 A, US 3074697A, US-A-3074697, US3074697 A, US3074697A
InventorsFriedell Morley V
Original AssigneeNorgren Co C A
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Apparatus for generating an aerosol
US 3074697 A
Abstract  available in
Images(3)
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Jan. 22, 1963 M. v. FRIEDELL APPARATUS FOR GENERATING AN AEROSOL 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Aug. 22, 1958 INVENTOR.

MORLEY v. FRIEDELL 1 fl 4 ATTORNEY Jain. 22, '1963 M. v. FRIEDELL 3,074,697

APPARATUS FOR GENERATING AN AEROSOL Filed Aug. 22, 1958 v 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR.

MORLEY V FRIEDELL A TTORNE Y Jan. 22, 1963 M. v. FRIEDELL 3,074,697

APPARATUS FOR GENERATING AN .mosor.

Filed Aug. 22, 1958 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 l. 62 .s'64 58 57 P mWWW! INVENTOR.

7 MORLEY V. FRIEDELL ATTORNEY United States rado Filed Aug. 22, 195%, Ser. No. 756,653 4 Claims. (Cl. 2611-16) This invention is directed to an apparatus for generating a micronic size aerosol of liquid in air wherein an aerosol or fog is created in an air line for conveyance in a suspended state by the air to a point of consumption. Hereinafter reference will be made to compressed air, air line, unpressurized air or air under pressure, but it is to be understood that various gaseous mediums could well be substituted for the air and thus the invention is not to be limited by the use of this terminology. More specifically, the principles of this invention utilize free or unpressurized air as a carrier of aerosol by intermixing it with the aerosol of pressurized air and liquid at or adjacent the point of but following atomization and in turn a portion of the flow of the air under pressure is utilized to continually induce the fiow of free air through the atomization area. Reference is hereby made to my co-pending application Serial No. 512,416 filed June 1, 1955 and entitled Methods and Apparatus for Generating an Aerosol, now Patent No. 2,890,765, issued June 16, 1959, and the present invention having a common assignee and as will be apparent hereinafter the essential features of said application are desirable for the most eflicient functioning of the present invention.

The invention of said application is concerned with an aerosol generator which is capable of producing a greater number of fine aerosol particles per unit of oil lubricant or other liquid adapted to be converted into an aerosol. In order to create the aerosol, air at high velocity is directed against the liquid to reduce and subdivide the latter, such as oil, into many fine aerosol particles. The effect of the air, however, is to impart substantial velocity to the particles and thus, in the past, many of the fine particles were lost inasmuch as they came into contact with a surface within the aerosol generator capable of reclassifying the particles. By providing an air baflie, of the type described in detail in said application, arranged to intercept the rapidly moving aerosol particles the velocity is reduced to a point whereby a large number of the fine particles are not reclassified within the generator and thus a much higher proportion of fine aerosol particles results. The baffle preferably includes three or more jets arranged in a substantially common plane for directing air substantially normal to the axis of aerosol spray movement.

In conventional type aerosol generators, a source of pressurized air is used not only to generate an aerosol, but also to act as a carrier. In accordance with the teachings of my said co-pending application the efficiency of the generating process has been greatly increased and the air, as a carrier, has reached the saturation point, beyond which any further appreciable increases in liquid in the aerosol are not possible. It has been found, however, that additional air added at lowered pressure into the fog settling chamber of the device of said application acts as an aerosol control when less than the usual aerosol concentration is desired. Also, under certain con. ditions, if the aerosol generator is operated at maximum output and additional air is admitted into the settling chamber, an increase in total liquid output of 20 percent to percent can be obtained, indicating that a supersaturated aerosol is being created by the generator. No matter how much such additional air is admitted, however, the maximum increase is limited to about 30 percent.

From the foregoing it is possible to reach a number of atent Of 3,074,697 Patented Jan. 22, 1963 conclusions; namely, a given volume of air or gas is required to carry a given quantity of liquid; for best efficiency the air must be introduced at substantially the place and instant the aerosol is being created, and maximum efiiciency is not obtained by using all pressurized air as a carrier for the aerosol. From other studies it has now been determined that high air pressures, or actually pressures above 20 pounds per sq. inch, are not efficient with conventional type aerosol generators and yet the average industrial air supply pressure will be found to be between and p.s.i. Using such high pressure results in a major loss in efiiciency in the operation of aerosol generators, and since the generator will not create any more aerosol of any consequence at pressures above 20 p.s.i., no advantage can be gained in using any intermediate pressures, as long as the regular supply is at a higher pressure.

The present invention utilizes the energy in the higher pressure air in creating the aerosol and at the same time inducts free air into the aerosol generating device and through the area in which the aerosol is being created. Hereinafter reference will be made to free or unpressurized air and it is to be understood that such is meant to cover atmospheric air, lightly pressurized air or an air or gas medium that is not pressurized to any appreciable extent. Thus, this free air becomes a part of the aerosol generating air, and is consequently saturated with and carries its full share of aerosol to provide what will, for convenience, hereinafter be referred to as a combined aerosol. It is also possible for the free air to be inducted against an appreciable head such as would exist in a bearing type lubricator in which a head of as much as 15 inches of water is required to effect reclassification at the point of usage.

This new invention was created to fill a need for an aerosol generating device in which, because of the tremen dons quantities of aerosol required, efficiency is of the utmost importance. One of the prime purposes or uses of this invention, as will be apparent hereinafter, is in connection with improving the operating efi'iciency of diesel engines. A paper on this subject entitled Supplementary Fuel Addition for Diesel Engines was presented to the SAE meeting in Cleveland on November 6, 1957, by Dr. Paul H. Schweitzer of Pennsylvania State University. In his paper Dr. Schweitzer stated that Norgren Micro-Fog provides at least twice the increase in efiiciency of any method used to add fuel. This increase in efficiency amounted to 10 percent in the case of Micro Fog and 5 percent in the case of the best alternate method. The Micro-Fog aerosol generator used in the tests by Dr. Schweitzer was the aerosol generating device of my copending application Serial No. 512,416. However, Dr. Schweitzer also stated While the use of Micro-Fog provides the greatest increase in efliciency and improvement in operating characteristics, the power required to compress the quantity of air required to create the Micro- Fog at the rate required, olfsets the gain in engine efficiency.

The foregoing is believed to define the limitations of the most efiicient previously existing techniques of gen erating aerosols in terms of efiiciency. However, as will become apparent, my present invention requires only 2 /2 to 10 percent of the power requirement of any previous apparatus for or method of generating aerosol, or an increase in efficiency of 10 to 40 times, depending on the pressure of the primary source of air available. Thus, it provides apparatus for efiiciently creating the aerosol required for diesel engine supplementary fuel and when used for this purpose, it being kept in mind that there are many other uses, less than 10 percent of the previous power requirement is needed to create the compressed air necessary to generate the aerosol desired.

One of the most outstanding advantages of this invention resides in the size of the auxiliary equipment required to supply air, as compared to air supplying equipment for the less eflicient aerosol generators. For example, a 1600 hp. road diesel locomotive engine would require 1200 cu. ft. of air per minute at 20 pounds per sq. inch to generate the required amount of aerosol to effectively supply the engine. It is extremely doubtful that a compressor of this size and capacity could be installed in the average locomotive and yet with the present invention the air requirements are within the capacity of the auxiliary air system on the engine. For instance, the output requirement could be met at 112 pounds per sq, inch with a total consumption of 90 cu. ft. per minute and 16.5 horsepower or at 30 pounds per sq. inch, 60 cu. ft. per minute and 6 hp. Thus, in the matter of operating equipment alone, the present invention would be a very practical apparatus for and method of creating the desired aerosol.

Bearing the above in mind, it is perhaps the primary object of this invention to provide apparatus for generating aerosols of liquids by the more efiicient use of pressurized air whereby in effect only a minor fraction of pressurized air energy, as compared with prior generators, is necessary to create the desired aerosol.

It is also an object of the invention to provide an apparatus as described wherein the pressurized air energy is utilized to create a first aerosol of liquid and air and to induce free air into the first aerosol whereby a combined aerosol or atomized mixture of pressurized air, liquid and unpressurized air is created.

A still further object is to provide in conjunction with an apparatus of the type described in the preceding paragraph means for thoroughly mixing the free air with the first aerosol of pressurized air and liquid whereby the free air carries its full share of aerosol.

Another object of the invention is to provide an aerosol generator of the type described which utilized free unpressurized air as a carrier of the aerosol by intermixing it with a minor amount of pressurized air at or adjacent the point of atomization of pressurized air and liquid whereby the pressurized air induces the flow of the free air through the atomization area.

Yet another object is to provide apparatus for creating a large quantity of micronic sized aerosol devoid of all liquid particles larger than two microns in size.

Also an object of the invention resides in the induced free air functioning to aid in preventing reclassification of atomized particles of liquid.

Other objects and advantages of the invention will become apparent by referring to the following detailed description in conjunction with the drawings wherein two embodiments of the invention are illustrated and wherein like numerals represent similar elements throughout the figures and wherein:

FIGURE 1 is a front elevation view illustrating one form of the invention;

FIGURE 2 is a sectional view taken along the lines 2-4 of FIGURE 1;

FIGURE 3 is a side elevation view partly in section illustrating another embodiment of the invention;

FIGURE 4 is a sectional view taken along the line 44- of FIGURE 3;

FIGURE 5 is an enlarged fragmentary view of a detail of FIGURE 4;

FIGURE 6 is a detail view taken along the lines 66 of FIGURE 3; I

FIGURE 7 is an enlarged sectional view illustrating one of the six aerosol jets shown in FIGURE 3;

FIGURE 8 is a diagrammatic view illustrating the unit of FIGURE 3 as used in connection with a diesel engine installation; and

FIGURE 9 is a view taken along the lines 9--9 of FIGURE 8.

Referring to the drawings in detail, it should be pointed out at the outset that for the sake of uniformity of language and a clear understanding of the invention, the expression aerosol lubricator or body refers to the assembly including a body having air inlet and outlet means, a liquid supply and an aerosol generator, while the expression aerosol generator refers to structure of the type represented at l in FIGURE 1 or illustrated in FIGURES 3 and 4.

Furthermore, the elements of this invention such as those illustrated in FIGURES 1 and 3 may assume various forms and shapes and although the metal parts are usually of forged brass or zinc die casting, this also is not to be construed as a limitation.

Actually the main reason for the development of this invention was to accomplish the objectives that will be outlined relative to the diesel engine installation illustrated in FIGURE 8. However, in FIGURES 1 and 2 there is depicted an embodiment showing the principles of this invention in connection with other installations and in particular oil fog or mist lubrication units. In the form of FIGURES 1 and 2 the invention is embodied in an air line lubricator of the fog generating type and which comprises generally a fog or aerosol generating means 1 located and installed by any suitable means in a body or receptacle 2, the latter functioning to receive the aerosol as well as to provide a reservoir 3 for liquid lubricant L. The supporting and positioning of generating device 1 should be readily apparent, but in any event it will be noted that device 1 includes a cylindrical portion 4 communicating through flange means 5 with a reduced cylindrical portion 6 which in turn terminates at one end in an enlarged annular part 7 and extending therefrom is a further cylindrical member 8. The body 2 includes a circular hollow support 9 and by referring to FIGURE 1 and noting seal rings S and the securing means 10, it should be readily apparent how the aerosol generator 1 is supported by body 2 within the recess formed by annular member 9. The receptacle 2 is for all practical purposes hollow to provide a settling chamber 12 and, as would be expected although not shown, the chamber 12 is of sufiicient length to enable all of the heavier particles of atomized oil to settle out of the true aerosol and return to source L and, of course, space 12' would communicate with a suitable outlet connectable to a distribution system for conveying the aerosol formed to the point or place of usage. To complete the description of body 2, there is provided an air supply passage 13 which at one end communicates with an air supply tube 14 supported by any suitable means by the body 2, a press or friction fit being satisfactory and in this connection it may be assumed that the various connections hereinafter mentioned are similar fittings unless otherwise mentioned. Also, receptacle 2 supports a liquid lubricant supply tube 15. From the foregoing it should be apparent that the body or receptacle 2, as illustrated, is merely diagrammatic and shows a means for supporting the generating device 1, means for supplying air and liquid to the generator and finally means for retaining and confining the aerosol for proper delivery. Thus the entire structure described constitutes the oil fog or mist lubricator, but it will be clear that the body of the lubricator may assume various forms to incorporate the generating device 1 which is the true essence of this form of the invention and in this connection it is obvious that compressed air supply means 13 and 14 could be made a part of unit 1.

Now considering generator I, the cylindrical portion 8 is hollow to provide a free air inlet passage 17 communicating with a plurality of free air supply passages 18 and in turn these latter passages 18 communicate with a free air suction chamber 19 located primarily within cylindrical portion 6. Of course, it will be noted that a series of counter bores are disposed throughout t receive various components and provide the necessary liquid or air chambers. Specifically, these counter bores in combined cylindrical portions 4 and 6 are represented at 20, 21 (the latter forming chamber 19), 22, 23 and 24. Within bore 24 is suitably positioned a liquid jet tube 25 having at its outer end a conical tip 26 and of course tube 25 is provided with a bore 27 that communicates with bore 28 and the latter in turn communicates with a ring chamber 29 that is in fluid Communication with tube 15. Press fit within bore 22 is a high pressure jet venturi tube 31 having a converging conical section 32 arranged to match conical tip 26 but to provide an annular converging passage 33 therebetween and, of course, venturi 31 includes a throat in the form of a diverging passage 34 that extends primarily within bore 21. The exterior of cylindrical portion 6 is provided with partitions P surrounding the seal rings S to divide chamber 29 through which the liquid lubricant passes and annular chamber 35. Any air within space 35 will travel through bore 36 which communicates with annular space 37 formed by counterbore 23 and tube 25 and then to the venturi throat 34 through restricted passage 32.

A secondary air venturi section 47 is provided and suitably supported in the manner shown primarily within bore 20. At one end member 47 has a converging inlet 48 which communicates with chamber 19 and throat 34 and this chamber forms the throat of the secondary venturi and communicates with stepped and diverging passages 38, 39 and 40. Section 39 has a diverging wall 41 and a cylindrical wall 42 with which communicate a plurality of intercepting air jets 43 and it will be noted that these jets, four in number and in a common Plane spaced 90 degrees apart although only three are illustrrated, communicate with an annular chamber 44 formed between cylindrical portion 4 and the venturi 47 and are arranged to direct any air passing therethrough substantially normal to the flow of any aerosol from throat 34. Chamber 44 communicates through passages 45 and 46 with annular space 35, there actually being a plurality of such passages 45 and 46. For a further and more complete description of the air bafile formed by the jets 43 as well as some of the functions thereof, reference is made to said pending application.

Assuming for the moment that liquid lubricant is positioned in body 2 as at L and that there is a suitable outlet for receiving aerosol delivered to settling chamber 12 and that passage 17 is connected with unpressurized air, then if a supply of air under pressure is connected to tube 14 the embodiment of FIGURES l and 2 will operate. The air under pressure passes through port 13 into annular space or chamber 35- and then into passages 36 and 37 and through the restricted conical area 32 from which it is admitted into the throat 34 of the venturi section to jet the latter. This high velocity of air passing the tip or end of jet tube 25 creates a partial vacuum and causes, as perhaps more fully described in my said co-pending application, liquid lubricant to be drawn up the tube 15 into passage 28 and to exit from the end of tube 27 whereby in the usual manner it is atomized and mixed in throat 34 with the pressurized air emitting from the restricted area 32. This mixture of pressurized air and liquid which will take the form of an aerosol or fog moves rapidly down the throat 34 and into the enlarged secondary venturi section 47. After it moves into the enlarged section it entrains from free air chamber 19 through throat 4-8, free or unpressurized air. This ventur-i principle action causes a partial vacuum in chamber 19 and thus results in movement of free air from chamber 17 through the multiplicity of passages 18 to continually replace that continually drawn through and into the main stream of aerosol from chamber 19. This mixture of free air, compressed air and liquid is one of the fundamental features of this invention and the mixture then moves on down the enlarged venturi 47 formed by sections 38, 39 and 40 until it is intercepted in passage 39 by the cross fire air jets 43 to which, in a manner that has been explained, pressurized air has been supplied. At this point, in addition to the actions described in my co-pending application, the main stream of aerosol is thoroughly broken up and intermixed with the free, unpressurized air which has been entrained in the manner described in the periphery of the central jet stream of aerosol, thus forming what might be called a combined aerosol with the free air being saturated with and carrying its full share of lubricant particles. Finally the intermixture is ejected into settling chamber 12 wherein in the standard manner the heavier particles of lubricant fall out and into the liquld supply L while the true combined aerosol composed of finely divided micronic sized particles of lubricant are delivered through the outlet means, not shown, to the point of usage. Of interest is the fact that the aerosol particles have been found to all be less than two microns in size, but of course jets 43 are very instrumental in this regard.

The described embodiment of the invention is designed to work against a light head of pressure of perhaps onehalf pound per sq. inch and also to provide for its own circulation of liquid. The amount of free air entrained in the moving spray of compressed air and liquid will be at least five times the volume of pressurized air used, thus resulting in saving and efficient use of pressurized air and this firee air, by virtue of the complete intermixing created by the intercepting cross fire jets 43, will carry just as much true aerosol as the pressurized air. To protect the principle of adding free air to a confined aerosol stream to form a combined aerosol, it might be pointed out that the mere addition of free air alone without the cross fire jets will result in quite a profound improvement in efficiency over an ordinary spray jet, as used in some types of aerosol generators, but of course the intermixing by jets 43 is by all means preferred. For a more detailed description of the proper location, number, angle, etc. of the cross fire jets 43: and their function as an air baffle for reducing velocity and eliminating reclassification, refer to my co-pending application, although of course when incorporated in the combination as in FIGURE 1, the jets 43 have the further important function of intermixing the free air with the aerosol stream to form truly combined aerosol.

Referring next to FIGURES 3 through 9 inclusive, there is shown a typical diesel engine installation for which the teachings of this invention were especially designed in order to create an aerosol for supplementary fuel addition for diesel engines. Referring to FIGURES 3 and 4, I show an aerosol generator which is specifically designed for creating an aerosol for supplementary fuel addition for diesel engines. This generator unit is not intended to siphon its own liquid, or to work against any appreciable head of pressure, but instead it is intended to effect a flow of free air through the unit with a minimum of pressurized air. Accordingly, venturi sections which would draw the liquid through the jets or create positive pressures, as might be required for lubrication purposes, are not used. Instead, a firee open design for maximum free air flow has been used. Nevertheless, the principle involved is substantially identical to the first described embodiment of this invention.

For a better understanding, first referring to FIGURES 8 and 9, a typical diesel engine installation is schematically shown to include an air supply duct 50 which carries air, unpressurized or lightly pressurized, from a super charger or scavenger blower into an air distribution box 51 from whence it is distributed into the various cylinders of the engine by outlets 52. To utilize the principles of this invention in connection with such a standard installation, one or more aerosol generators 53 are installed and, as shown, three of them are conveniently supported within area 54 dividing box 51 and duct 50 and positioned in the same plane approximately degrees apart. In this case the interior of box 51 would constitute the settling space 55 and the generators 53 are arranged to direct aerosol into this space which would be comparable to space 12 previously described. Numeral 56 represents a standard compressed air supply and through air line 57 and a standard pressure regulator 53 pressurized air is delivered to each of the generators 53 in a manner that will be more fully described hereinafter. Numeral 59 represents a main or auxiliary fuel tank for containing liquid fuel (it) and line 61 communicates with filter F and a conventional pump 62 to direct liquid fuel through line '63 to the generators 53 in a manner that will be explained. It will be apparent from the drawing in FIGURES 8 and 9 and upon considering FIGURE 3 that the air supply tubes 57 and the liquid supply tubes 63 actually function to support the generator devices 53 in the space 54 in the manner illustrated, but of course this is immaterial as various support arrangements could be provided. From the lower part of chamber 55 there extends a drain line 64 which functions to return any liquid fuel to source 69 and it is desirable to have a series of bafiles 65 positioned, as shown in FIGURE 8, to prevent heavier particles of aerosol from the generators 53- from being directed into outlets 52 of the container 51.

Now referring in particular to FIGURES 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7, one of the generating devices 53 has been illustrated in detail and the other two shown in FIGURE 8 are identical. It probably should be mentioned that the generators are soldered or otherwise secured to tubes 57 and 63 and in this same connection some of the other connections are solder joints instead of press fits as will be obvious. Each aerosol generator 53 comprises a cylindrical hollow shell 70 (which may be referred to as a casing as may the body of unit 1) which functions as a mounting and support for the various elements forming a part thereof. Specifically, air tube 57 passes diametrically through shell 70 adjacent one end thereof and is closed as at 71. Supported by tube 57 and liquid supply tube 63, which at its other end is merely a solid piece 72 (see also FIGURE 9), is a liquid jet assembly generally represented at 73 and such constitutes an annular or ring-like member. Assembly 73 includes a nose jet ring 75, a spacer ring 76 and a back ring 77 and as will be apparent hereinafter all of these rings are annular, ring-shaped and matching to interengage and in the embodiment illustrated there are six identical primary jet actions, this number of course not being limiting.

One of the latter is illustrated in the enlarged showing in FIGURE 7 and it will be seen that spacer ring 76 has double stepped turned faces which fit in the turned grooves or openings 78 and 79, respectively, of nose ring 75 and back ring 77. Back rings 77 communicates with air line 57 through the stepped bore 80 and the latter in turn of course communicates with bore 79. It will also be noted that bore 78 of nose ring 75 diverges as at 81 into cylindrical bore or jet opening 82. and that the exterior surface of nose 75 diverges to provide a conical-like tip 83. Substantially centrally of spacer ring 76 there is a passageway 54 communicating with bore 79 and in turn enlarged bore 85 which supports an air tube 85 that extends to immediately adjacent tip 83 and by referring to FIGURE 4 each generator assembly 73 as shown, includes six such tubes 86 having air passages 87 and jet openings 82 and annularly these are about 60 degrees apart. In actuality passage 82 communicates with bore 87 and also liquid tube 63 through bores 78 and 81, thus forming a liquid distribution channel for liquid jet spraying from nozzle or jet 83.

Now again referring to FIGURES 3 and 4, air supply tube 57 has connected therewith substantially concentrically within shell 70 a fitting 90 which supports a cross fire air jet supply tube 91 having a passage 92 that communicates with passage 57 by opening 93. At the other end of tube 91 there is a spider fitting 94 for distributing air to a series of air jet tubes 95 which, as shown, comprise six in number spaced 60 degrees apart in the same plane and which are arranged to direct any ejection of pressurized air therefrom perpendicular to any aerosol issuing from assembly 73.

Exterior of shell 70' and substantially centrally thereof is a pressurized air supply manifold ring ltitl forming with the exterior of shell 7% to which it is welded or soldered an annular passage Hi l which, as shown clearly in FIG- U-RES 4 and 5, may be supplied with pressurized air entering tube 102 and in any suitable manner as shown in FIGURES 8 and 9 tube 102, may be connected to air line 57. Another group of cross fire air jet tubes 1113 are located within shell 74? and supported from the interior wall thereof in axial and common plane relationship to jet tubes 95. Each pair or set of tubes 1% are in evenly spaced angular relationship to each other and, as illustrated, 60 degrees apart. Each of these tubes 103 communicates with space 101 and the tips of tubes 163 are preferably spaced an equal distance away from the center of axis of flow from nose 75, the approximate distance being about two-thirds of the lateral displacement of tubes 103 from the face of outlets 82. It will thus be noted by referring to FIGURE 4 that surrounding each aerosol ejection from an opening 82 there will be at least three cross fire jet tubes, such as have been connoted by A, B and C of FIGURE 4, with each of the latter as shown being 120 degrees apart.

In operation a suitable supply of pressurized or high pressure air is supplied to each of the generator devices 53 through the tube or line 57 and in turn liquid is supplied through line 63. Normally the air pressure in line 57 may be between 20 and 160 pounds per square inch, the pressure utilized determining the amount of aerosol generated. The liquid supply pressure need be only 1 pound per square inch or just sufficient to maintain flow and although there may be a slight siphoning effect it is so low as to be negligible. Here again the action of each generator 53 is substantially identical to that described in connection with FIGURES l and 2. Specifically, air ejecting through each tube '86 upon contacting liquid fuel in passage 82 results in an aerosol being ejected from the nose ring at the six openings 82. Each mixed aerosol stream or spray of liquid and air is directed along the axis of shell 70 toward chamber 55 and inducts from within each casing 70 and line 569' a large amount of free or unpressurized air which becomes thoroughly mixed and saturated when the mixture of the three pass through the cross fire jets and 103 (the intercepting air baffle for each stream issuing from an opening 82) or, in other words, a violent and complete intermixing occurs at this point to completely saturate all the air to its maximum capacity and form a combined aerosol of liquid fuel, unpressurized and pressurized air. The volume of free air in ducted is about 20 times or more that of the compressed air supply used, thus improving the efficiency 20 times or more. As shown in FIGURE 8, this combined aerosol mixture, which again essentially consists of micronic sized particles and which require a minor portion of high pressure air or pressurized air power, is directed into air box 51 where any heavier particles of liquid fall out or are baffied out to return in a liquid form to the main fuel tank through drain 64- and the combined aerosol is delivered to the engine intake through ports 52. Volume or quantity of aerosol desired may be easily controlled by regulator 58.

The generator as shown in FIGURES 3 and 4 can be made in many different configurations and with various numbers of jets 82, depending on the output requirements. However, as in my co-pending application, three or more cross fire jets are required for each spray jet 82 in order to have satisfactory operation. The size or volume of air the cross fire jets deliver with relation to the amount of air each spray jet 82 delivers is quite important. Preferably, each cross fire jet 95 or 1013 will have a bore area or delivery capacity five-eighths to three-fourths that of each spray jet 82. This provides sufficient energy to break up and mix the initial aerosol with the free air thoroughly without baffiing the free air flow to any ap- 9. preciable extent. If the cross fire jets were too large, the amount of free air that would be inducted with the aerosol streams from jets 82 would be inadequate. It is also important that the cross fire jets be located and directed perpendicular to the axis of flow from openings 82 as any inclination in the direction of flow decreases the effectiveness of these jets 95 and 102. Here again, of course, the intercepting air bafiles formed have the additional functions outlined in my previous application. Finally, in View of the foregoing and the detailed description in connection with FIGURES 1 and 2, it should be apparent that the various features and advantages mentioned in connection with FIGURE 1 are equally applicable in connection with my supplementary fuel addition technique for diesel engines shown in FIGURE 8.

Again referring to the detailed description of both embodiments, there is one function that has not been mentioned, namely the effect of the induced free air in preventing reclassification of atomized particles of liquid, this subject having been more fully discussed in my copending application. In FIGURE 1, the interior wall of venturi section 47 and in FIGURE 3 the interior wall of shell 70 provide solid surfaces, but the induced free air is bound to provide a stream covering portions of these surfaces, thus at least reducing the chances of reclassification thereon.

The foregoing disclosure and description is illustratory and explanatory thereof and various changes in the size, shape and materials as well as in the details of the illustrated embodiments may be made within the scope of the appended claims without departing from the true spirit of the invention.

What is claimed is:

1. An aerosol generator comprising a hollow casing forming an elongated chamber open at both ends with one end adapted to be connected to unpressurized air, a pressurized air supply source, and a liquid supply source, supply means located within the chamber substantially at the central axis thereof, said pressurized air source being connected for air flow communication with said supply means, a fluid receiving member having a plurality of spaced spray jet openings directed towards the other end of said chamber supported within the chamber between said supply means and casing, said pressurized air and liquid source being connected for air and liquid flow communication with said member, means for forming and causing ejection from each of said jet openings an aerosol of liquid and air under pressure with the aerosol upon ejection entraining therewith unpressurized air from said chamber to form a combined aerosol stream of pressurized and unpressurized air and liquid traveling towards the said other end of the casing at a relatively high velocity between the supply means and casing, pressurized air bafile means in said chamber for creating a plurality of air baffles each of which intercepts one of the combined aerosol streams whereby the unpressurized air is thoroughly mixed with the aerosol issuing from each of the spray jet openings, each of said air baffles comprising at least a group of three air jets spaced around the periphery of its respective combined aerosol stream, two of said air jets being supported by said casing and one by said central supply means, said air source being connected for flow communication with said two air jets and said one air jet being connected for flow communi cation with the air fiow of said supply means, the group of three air jets being positioned such that the air streams issuing therefrom intersect one another within the confines of the respective combined aerosol stream.

2. An aerosol generator as defined in claim 1 wherein the jets of the group are directed normal to the flow of combined aerosol movement.

3. An aerosol generator as defined in claim 1 wherein the casing is substantially cylindrical and the member is annular and substantially concentrically located with respect to said supply means.

4. An aerosol generator as defined in claim 3 wherein the wall of said casing is provided with a ring-like passage connected to the source of pressurized air, two of said air jets of each group being supported by the wall and communicating with said ring-like passage.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,461,873 Grote July 17, 1923 1,608,833 Birkenmaier et a1 Nov. 30, 1926 1,610,825 Thom-as Dec. 14, 1926 1,848,122 Forster Mar. 8, 1932 2,094,959 Pulidori Oct. 5, 1937 2,389,059 Kurth Nov. 13, 1945 2,466,100 I-I-arrah Apr. 5, 1949 2,869,188 Cameto Jan. 20, 1959 2,890,765. Friedell June 16, 1959 FOREIGN PATENTS 454,147= Great Britain Sept. 21, 1936 550,949 Germany May 23, 1932 673,914 Great Britain June 11, 1952

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Classifications
U.S. Classification261/16, 261/116, 261/78.2, 261/76, 60/740, 261/37, 239/558, 239/428, 159/4.1
International ClassificationF16N7/00, F16N7/34
Cooperative ClassificationF16N7/34
European ClassificationF16N7/34