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Publication numberUS3075289 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 29, 1963
Filing dateOct 29, 1959
Priority dateOct 29, 1959
Publication numberUS 3075289 A, US 3075289A, US-A-3075289, US3075289 A, US3075289A
InventorsReichel Howard G, Schreuder Thomas R
Original AssigneeSwift & Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Classifying means
US 3075289 A
Abstract  available in
Images(2)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Jan. 29, 1963 T. R. scHREuDR l-:TAL 3,075,289

THOMAS Q Sc/.JQEUDEQ OWAEDG. QEfcuEL.

INVENToRs.

Jan. 29, 1963 T. R. scHREUDER ET AL 3,075,289

cLAssIFYING MEANS Filed oct. 29. 1959 2 sheets-sheet 2 THOMAS ScuREUoE-z BY v/M 3,075,2S9 CLASSXFYNG MEANS Thomas R. Schreuder and Howard G. Reichel, Chicago,

Ill., assignors to Swift & Company,` Chicago, Ill., a corporation oi Illinois Filed Oct. Z9, 1959, Ser. No. 849,560 Claims. (Cl. S13-lll) This invention relates generally to improvements in classifying means, and more particularly to an apparatus for indicating a function of the average cross sectional area of a generally rectangular parallelepipedous -article such as a bacon slab or the like.

While other adaptations of the invention will become apparent, it may best be un-derstood as applied to the packing industry wherein it is often necessary to estimate the quantity of a iinished product obtainable from a large unfinished item. For instance, the modern technique for packaging sliced meats such as bacon, requires that a certain number of slices making up a commonly salable unit of one-half or one pound be assembled for each package. One manner in which this has been done is where the slicing machine operator judges the number of slices per unit Weight that a given article to be sliced will produce. Then as the slices are severed from the article, they are segregated into separate groups of the number of slices so determined. Grouping of the slices lmay be done automatically either by varying the speed of the means for removing slices from the slicing machine; or interrupting the feed of the article into the slicing machine. Apparatus performing in the latter manner is described in Patent No. 2,898,962 and also patent application SN. 689,860 tiled October 14, 1957, now Patent No. 3,015,350.

It will be apparent that successful grouping of slices in the foregoing manner will be dependent in large part upon the accuracy in determining the number of slices per unit weight that a given article will produce. Usually approximation of this number is difiicult. In the slicing of bacon, for instance, the dimensions of successive slabs, such as height and width, may vary considerably. In practice it has been found that the usual slabs run from one to two and one-half inches in height, and from seven to ten inches in width. Additionally these dimensions may vary throughout the length of a slab. Consequently, the number of slices per pound obtainable from such slabs may vary considerably. Usually it has been the practice at the beginning of slicing operations for the operator to sort the slabs according to size ranges and then proceed to slice slabs of similar dimensions in series. However, it requires an extremely practiced operator to accurately judge the number of slices per pound obtainable for each and every slab.

Certain classifying equipment has been devised to mechanically perform this task, but for the most part it has not been employed extensively in the packing industry. Prior devices, such as that described in Patents No. 1,989,252 and No. 2,226,527, have required extensivemanipulation by the operator for each slab; and have only indicated an approximate number based upon a single measurement taken at a relatively limited section of the article.

Therefore it is a primary object of this invention to provide an improved classifying means having a high degrec of accuracy and which is simple to operate.

Another object is to provide an improved classifying apparatus through which a plurality of articles may be passed in rapid order.

it is a further object of this invention to provide an improved classifying apparatus which will account for the range of variation of the cross-sectional area, or a function thereof, throughoutthe length ofan article.

A still further object of this invention is to provide ice an improved bacon classifying apparatus having a minimum number of moving parts and adapted to visually indicate the average number of slices per pound obtainable from a bacon slab.

Basically the apparatus comprises a fir-st or overhead gaging means and a second or side gaging means disposed adjacent a pathway along which the article to be classitied is moved. A first and Second indicator means are associated, respectively, with the first and second gaging means, and are adapted to be observed together to indicateA an average function of the cross-sectional area of the item classified.

Other objects and advantages will become apparent upon reading the following specification taken in conjunction with the drawings wherein one embodiment of the invention has been illustrated. However, it is to be expressly understood that saidl drawings are for purposes of illustration only and are not to be taken as a deiinition of the limits of the invention, reference being had to the appended claims for this purpose.

In said drawings:

FIGURE l is a perspective view of the classifying apparatus;

FIGURE 2 is a detailed view of the indicators calibrated to show the number of slices obtainable from a bacon slab; and

FIGURE 3 is a detailed view of the overhead gaging means as shown in FIGURE l, namely a cam, and the technique for generating the cam proiile.

Referring to FIGURE 1 it may be seen that the device comprises a frame generally l0 including a bed plate 12 for supporting articles to be classified, a guide member lli along one side of the bed plate l2, and a sub-frame generally 16 at the opposite side of said bed plate which is used to support the indicating means to be described. It will become obvious that a conveyor could be employed along the surface of bed plate l2 for moving item-s along the gui-de la; however, in the illustrated embodiment items are moved by hand.

The sub-frame generally 16 includes vertical members 18 and a horizontal crosspiece 2d. A shaft 2,2 journaled in guide 14 extends through the horizontal crosspiece 2i) and is rotatably secured therebetween by means of a collar, not shown, adjacent the crosspiece. The overhead gaging means comprises a iirst cam 24 fixed to the shaft 22 about midway between guide 14 and sub-frame 16. The major portion of the first cam 24 is eccentric to the shaft 2'2, thus tending to slidingly rest upon the upper surface of any article passed across bed plate 12 (as shown). The side gaging means comprises a second cam L26 secured to a vertical stub shaft 28 which is rotatably held within the sub-frame generally 16 between the bed plate l2 and horizontal crosspiece Z0.

The second cam 26 is urged to slidingly engage a side of an article on bed plate l2 by means of a wire spring 30 coiled about the stub shaft 28 and secured to the cam 26 and a vertical member 1S of the sub-frame 16. A beveled gear 32 is secured to the upper end of stub shaft 28 and mates with another beveled gear 34 mounted concentri'cally to the shaft 2.2. Beveled gear 34 is fixed upon a sleeve 35 rotatable about the shaft 22. Also secured to the sleeve 36 by means of a collar and set screw (not shown) is a calibrated indicator dial 3S. As may be seen in FIGURE 2 the indicator dial 3S is generally fan shaped and bears substantially logarithmically-spaced calibrations. An indicator pointer 49 is secured to the end of shaft 22 extending through sleeve 36 and beyond the indicator dial 38.

(indicator dial 3S and indicator pointer dil) are capable only of exhibiting the sum or difference of their respective rotaryA movements. Therefore, as shown in FIG- URE 2, a logarithmic scale on indicator dial 38 is employed; and the rst and second cams Z4, 26, are generated to rotate their respective shafts 22 and 2d in logarithmic increments according to changes in the height and width, respectively, of the item.

Gbviously increases in 4the cross-sectional area will decrease the number of slices of a given thickness available per pound of product. Accordingly in the illustrated apparatus, the scale on indicator dial 38 must be calibrated so that pointer it? `vill sweep toward the lower designation upon increases in height; and at the time the dial 38 will indicate a lower number, with reference to an immovable reference point such as pointer d, when stationary, as the dial is moved in accordance with inincreases in width.

With these requirements in mind, plus the fact that articles are to be moved from left to right through the apparatus as shown in FIGURE 1, the first cam 2d is positioned to move the shaft Z2 and pointer du counterclockwise for increases in height. Similarly, the second cam is positioned to turn the indicator dial 3S clockwise with increases in width; and, as seen in FlGURE 2, the dial 33 is calibrated in logarithmic increments and decreasing number from right to left. The actual nurnber of slices obtainable per pound for slabs of various cross-sections must be determined and dial 33 calibrated accordingly. Since the minimum slab size, for purposes of this illustration, is 1 x 7"; the number of slices per pound for that size will be the designation furthest to the right on the dial face. Furthermore, the apparatus is set so that when the cams 2d and 26 rest on a slab of minimum size the pointer di) will be in line with the calibration at the right side yof dial 38.

As stated, both the first and second cams 24, 26 are devised to rotate their respective shafts 22, 2S in logarithmic increments. To do this, the cams are generated as shown in FEGURE 3. The prole of overhead cam 'i2-t, for instance, is generated by first establishing a base line 45 representing the upper surface of an article 1 inch high. A perpendicular line iii with respect to the base line is then drawn. A center point t) (point of rotation for cam 2.4i) is marked on the perpendicular line d above base line 45, a distance equal to the space between the top surface of the smallest size article (normally a 1" bacon slab) and the axis of shaft 22. The cam 24 will be generated from the point 50.

A circular logarithmic chart 52 is also drawn. As a matter of convenience, it may be described from point 5l?. A segment of the circle extending from a reference radius 5d is then selected, which segment will not exceed in angle the angular range through which the overhead cam 2d can be rotated mechanically (which in the illustrated embodiment should not exceed l80 and preferably is closer to 90). A schedule is then made up listing increasing increments in height of a slab between l and 21/2 and the log of each cumulative height, as follows (obviously a greater number of increments will provide higher accuracy):

Height of article: Log height 1 inch 0.0000 1% inches 0.0969 11/2 inches 0.1761 1% inches 0.2430 2 inches 0.3010 21A inches 0.3522 21/2 inches 0.3979

The segment of the circle is then divided uniformly in linear units from the reference radius 54, which will represent the zero rotation of cam 2d, for the logarithm spread between minia and maximum heights; and the various points representing the log of each one-quarter inch increspaanse d ment of height are marked. Radii S6 through 66 are drawn from these points to point Sil.

Next, the increments of height are measured from the base line 46 (which represents the minimum height of 1) and marked off on line 4S. Angles are then taken from the circular chart between each radii 5d-66 and the reference radius 5d to mark off corresponding rays 56 through 66 at corresponding angles from line 43 about point 5d. The equal angles are swung in reverse direction from the projected motion of cam 24, considering point d@ as the axis of the cam. Arcs are then swung about point 5t? from the height increments marked on line i8 to the corresponding rays Sti-66. Perpendicular lines 56 through 66" are drawn to each respective ray at the point of intersection of an appropriate arc. The profile of cam 24 may then be described as a smooth curve drawn tangent to the perpendicular lines Se" through o6 between points of intersection with one another.

Cam 2d is similarly generated using a reference radius and base line for the minimum width (7) while maintaining the same scale (linear measure) on a circular chart for logarithms of the increments of width as used for generating cam Gperation of the device will now be apparent. The cams 2li, 26 are mounted upon their respective shafts 22, 23 and the dial 33 and pointer de are locked upon sleeve 36 and shaft 22, respectively, to indicate the minimum number (or other function) where the cams are in position for the smallest article (a slab l x 7"). Preferably pointer dll should be in a near vertical attitude for the minimum dimension.

Subsequently, it is merely necessary for an operator to pass each article to be classified from left to right (as viewed'in FiGURE l) along plate l2 holding one side against guide lili. Both gaging means will be coutinuously displaced as the article passes. The operator notes the minimum and maximum sweep limits of pointer il across the calibrations on dial 38, and mentally aver'- ages the two figures. This average will usually be the classification given to the particular article. As noted in the described embodiment, the dial 355 is calibrated to read directly the number of slices of a selected thickness that will make up 1 pound of the material of the article.

Obviously many modifications and variations of the invention hereinbefore set forth may be made without departing from the spirit `and scope thereof. For instance, dial 3S might be calibrated to indicate directly the cross-sectional area of some other function thereof, such as weight per unit length (where density is known), or a price factor, or the like. Furthermore, the size of the apparatus may readily be made to accommodate the various articles and materials; and as previously mentioned means, such as an endless conveyor, may be provided for conveying articles through the device. Therefore, only such limitations should be imposed as are indicated in the appended claims.

We claim:

1. A classifying device comprising: a bed plate adapted to slidably support a unit of material to be classified; a guide upstanding at one side of said bed plate; a first movable cam means positioned above said bed plate to be moved by the upper surface of said material sliding thereon; a second movable cam means positioned opposite said guide to be moved by a side surface of said material; lirst indicator means operatively connected to said first movable cam means to be moved thereby in a given direction according to increased height of said upper surface; second indicator means operatively connected to said second movable cam means to be moved thereby in a direction opposite said given direction according to increased Width of said side surface from said guide, said first and second indicator means cooperating to exhibit visually a function of the cross-sectienal` area of the material.

2. A classifying device comprising: a bed plate adapted to slidably support a unit of material to be classified; a guide lupstanding at one side of said bed plate; a rotatable shaft spaced above and extending across said bed plate at an angle to said guide; first movable cam means secured to said shaft, said cam means adapted to rotate said shaft in accordance with the height of material passed along said bed plate; second movable cam means rotatably secured to said bed plate opposite said guide, said second cam means adapted to move in accordance with the width of the material; first indicator means attached to said shaft and adapted to be turned in a given direction for increases in the height of said material; second indicator means operatively connected to -said second cam means and adapted to be turned in a direction opposite said given direction for increases in the width of the material, said first and second indicator means cooperating to exhibit visually a function o-f the crosssectional area of the material.

3. A classifying device for meat articles, said device comprising: a bed plate adapted to slidably support an article to be classified; a guide upstanding at one side of said bed plate; a rotatable shaft spaced above and extending across said bed plate at an angle to said guide; first movable cam mean-s secured to said shaft, said cam means adapted to rotate said shaft in accordance with the height of an article passed along said bed plate; second movable cam means rotatably secured to said bed plate opposite said guide, said second cam means adapted to move in accordance with the width of said article; first indicator means attached to said shaft and adapted to be turned generally logarithmically in a given direction for increases in the height of said materials; second indicator means operatively connected to said second cam means and adapted to be turned generally logarithmically in a direction opposite said given direction for increases in the Width of the material, said first and second indicator means cooperating to exhibit vi-sually the number of slices obtainable per pound of said article.

4. A device for classifying articles in accordance with a function of the average cross-sectional area of each article, said device comprising: a horizontal bed plate for slidably supporting an article to be classified; a guide upstanding at one side of said bed plate; a vertical frame upstanding at a side opposite said one side; a shaft rotatably supported between said guide and said frame, said shaft spaced above and extending across said bed plate; a first cam secured to said shaft between said guide and said frame, said first cam adapted to turn said shaft in 6 substantially logarithmic progressions in a given direction according to increases in height of articles on said bed; a second cam rotatably supported at a side of said bed plate, the axis of rotation of said second cam being substantially perpendicular to both the bed plate and said shaft; an indicator dial connected with said second cam to be rotatable thereby in substantially logarithmic progression in a direction opposite said given direction according to increases in width of articles on said bed, said dial being disposed to rotate about substantially the same axis as that of said shaft; and a pointer secured to said shaft adjacent said dial to be visually cooperable therewith to indicate said function.

5. A device for classifying meat -slabs in accordance with the number of slices of a given thickness obtainable per unit weight from each of said slabs, said device cornprising: a horizontal bed plate for slidably supporting a slab to be classified; a guide upstanding at one side of said bed plate; a vertical frame upstanding at a side opposite said one side; a shaft rotatably supported between said guide and said frame, said shaft spaced above and extending across said bed plate; a first cam secured to said shaft between said guide and said frame, said rst cam adapted to rest upon the upper surface of a slab and to turn said shaft in substantially logarithmic progressions in a given direction according to increases in height of slabs on said bed; a second cam rotatably supported at a side of said bed plate, said second cam adapted to engage a side of said slab with the axis of rotation of Said second cam being substantially perpendicular to both the bed plate and said shaft; an indicator dial connected with said second cam to be rotatable about substantially the same axis as said shaft in substantially logarithmic progression and in a direction opposite said given direction according to increases in width of slabs on said bed, said dial being calibrated in logarithmic progression to show numbers of slices obtainable for various cross-sectional areas of said slabs; and a pointer secured to said shaft adjacent said dial to be visually cooperable therewith to indicate an appropriate calibration on said dial.

References Cited in the le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,989,252 Walter Jan. 29, 1935 2,226,527 Walter Dec. 24, 1940 FOREIGN PATENTS 620,336 France Ian. 17, 1927

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US1989252 *Sep 2, 1932Jan 29, 1935Ind Patents CorpClassifying means
US2226527 *Feb 16, 1939Dec 24, 1940Walter Charles TClassifying means
FR620336A * Title not available
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3271761 *Nov 29, 1963Sep 6, 1966IbmCurvature and shape detection
US3295213 *Aug 11, 1964Jan 3, 1967Coal Industry Patents LtdApparatus for measuring the flow of material
US5909013 *Dec 31, 1996Jun 1, 1999Pitney Bowes Inc.Dimensional weighing utilizing a following arm mechanism
Classifications
U.S. Classification33/121, 33/1.0SB, 116/303
International ClassificationG01B5/06, G01B5/02, B26D7/00
Cooperative ClassificationB26D7/00, G01B5/068
European ClassificationB26D7/00, G01B5/06D