US 3075865 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 29, 1963 D. c. COCHRAN 3,075,865
TUFTED PRODUCTS Filed Aug. 20, 1962 4- INVENTOR .Douams l. ['oc/mmv Cushmon, Darby J- Cushman ATTORNEYS The present invention relates to the production of tufted or pile fabrics, e.g. floor coverings, such as carpets or rugs, having improved dimensional stability, hand, tuft or loop bind and other desirable characteristics. This application is a continuaticn-in-part of my copending applications Serial No. 808,794 and Serial No. 808,795, both filed on April 24, 1959, and both of which are now abandoned.
In the usual prepartion of tufted floor coverings, a backing sheet of jute, cotton or equivalent material is utilized. The tufted pod-uct is obtained by sewing or passing the tufting yarn, e.g. nylon, rayon or cotton yarn, systematically back and forth through the backing with the formation of a pile or yarn loops on the top face of the backing. These loops may or may not be cut, as desired. A rubber or resinous coating is generally applied to the opposite side of the backing, i.e. the bottom face thereof, for the purpose of retaining or locking the tufted yarn in position. This also improves to some extent the hand and other characteristics of the finished product.
Tufted products of the above described type have several d'saclvantages. For one thing, the backing material is normally relatively loosely woven so as to facilitate passage of the tufting yarn therethrough. When latex or other resin binder is applied thereto, there is a tendency for the binder to strike through to the tufted face and gives a less attractive product. Attempts to obviate such striking through result in a poorer hand or feel in the finished product and reduced looplock.
Another prior diiliculty is caused by the fact that the filling and selvage of the jute or other backing material are not usually squared up. Despite considerable endeavcr in this fie'd, it has not been possible to prepare a fully satisfactory tufted floor covering or the like, including, among others, the following desirable characteristics: freedom from wrinkles or pufis; straight sclvages; uniform, controlled widths; maximum dimensional stability with uniformly controlled stretch and shrinkage; optimum loop bind and feel or hand; and maximum tensile strength and resistance to scam or tack slippage.
in an effort to obviate the above disadvantages, various modifications have been suggested. For example, it has been proposed to supplement the jute or cotton backing by laminating thereto a paper-adhesive web or other secondary backing after the tufting operation. However, all of these proposed substituents, generally speaking, also suffer from one or more of the indicated disadvantages.
The principal object of the present invention is to provide an improved tufted fioor covering or like fabric which is free from the abovementioned disadvantages. Another object of the invention is the provision of a tufted fabric which demonstrates improved dimensional stability, hand and loop bind, freedom from binder strike through and other highly desirable characteristics. Other objects and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the following detailed description of the invention.
Broadly stated, the foregoing and other objects are realized by the provision of a tufted or pile fabric comprising a sheet or layer of backing fabric, e.g. jute or some other fibrous woven or non-Woven material as a base member, at least one barrier layer of paper, preferably high wet strength paper, and/or polymer film comprising polyethylene or polypropylene superposed on the base member and tufting yarn passing back and forth through both the barrier layer and the backing fabric 3,075,865 Patented Jan. 29, I963 and extending above the barrier layer to form the tufted surface of the fabric. A latex coating or other resinous binder is applied to the backside of the backing member to bind the tufted yarn. In the case where the barrier layer comprises polyethylene or polypropylene, the film may be fiuxed or reactivated by the application of heat and/or solvents to provide additional adhesion between the polymer film and the tufting yarn.
The success of the invention is due, at least to a substantial extent, in the use of the layer or layers of paper or polymer film superposed upon the upper face of the backing fabric. The paper sheet or polymer film contemplated for use herein is essentially waterand liquidimpermeable, e.g. hydrophobic. This elfectively prevents binder applied to the backing fabric from striking through to the tufted surface. The layer also gives increased loop lock and it serves to keep the tufts in position. Other advantages will also be hereinafter apparent.
The polymer film suitable for use herein may comprise polyethylene or polypropylene of the crystalline or conventional type. These films may include minor amounts of other polymers, e.g. 10-50% of polyisobutylene. Usually, for purposes herein, the film thickness may vary from about .002" to 0.02" although other sizes may also be used. As will be appreciated, it is intended that the term film" as used herein embrace normal film thickness, as well as the somewhat greater thicknesses usually identified as sheetings. When paper is used, this may comprise high wet strength paper, e.g. 20, 40, 50, 60 or pound wet strength natural kraft paper. Reinforced wet strength paper such as that known as Scrimtex (Mosinee Paper Co.) with rayon, fiberglass or the like as reinforcing filaments may also be used herein. Typical resin treated papers useful herein are those treated with, for example, melamine resin and/or neoprene obtainable from St. Regis Paper Company. Usually, this paper layer will vary from about .003 to .020 inch in thickness although other sizes may also be utilized.
The tufting yarn may be any of those normally usedfor this purpose. Thus, for example, cotton, rayon, wool, or nylon yarns, or mixtures thereof, may be used. Mixtures of different types of yarns, e.g. wool and nylon blends, or yarns of different sizes and colors may be utilized to give pattern effects as may be desired.
As indicated, the backing fabric may be woven or nonwoven. A non-Woven backing offers the advantage that needle deflection is held to a minimum whereas a woven backing, generally speaking, gives a product of increased strength. In either case, the backing fabric may comprise 'ute or cotton yarn and/or other materials which are different from the intermediate polymer or paper barrier layer. Desirably, when the backing fabric is woven, it is about 5 to 25 times as thick as the barrier layer although this relationship can be varied. Substantially thinner backing layers, e.g. less than the thickness of the barrier layer, may be used when the backing is nonwoven.
Conventional latex or resinous binders may be applied to the backing fabric followed by drying and curing, if desired. Typical binder compositions include polyvinyl acetate, natural latex, butadient-styrene copolymers and butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymers. Desirably, the binder is one which has adhesive characteristics for the material comprising the barrier layer as well as the backing fabric.
According to prior procedures, it has been necessary to use binder compositions of relatively high concentration or viscosit, typically 55 to 65% by weight solids and 1200-3500 centipoises (usually 20003000) as measured by the Brookfield viscosimeter, to prevent or minimize strike through. However, by virtue of the unique laminate or barrier layer and backing fabric used herein, it is possible to use conventional roller coating techniques mitting the use of auxiliary pressure means for driving the coating mto the construcbacking fabric and .tate, although such bonding with binder of significantly lower concentration and viscosity than hitherto possible (cg. viscosities as low as about 200-400 centipoises and solid contents as low as 2035% by weight) while at the same time avoiding undesired strike through. Generally speaking, for present purposes, it is preferred to use binder compositions having a viscosity between about 200 and 14-00 centipoiscsand a concentration between about 20 and 65% by weight solids. The laminate of the invention may also be knife or nip roll coated without the danger of strike through. The present structure also offers the advantage of per rolls, bars, knives or other ,tion to deform the .base of the tufting yarn loops arr-d1 increase loop lock.
The products of the invention may be made on the conventional type of tufting machine wherein the tufting yarn is,in essence, sewed through thebase material. In thepresent case, the barrier layer is superposed upon the the resulting laminate is suitably fed if desired, the barrier layer and backing'may be bonded together prior to tufting by heat scaling in the case of the polymer film or by a suitable adhesive, typically internally plasticized polyvinyl aceis not essential.
The invention, and its advantages, are illustrated by the-following examples:
into the tufting needles.
Example I A film of conventional polyethylene, .008 inch thick and sold by the Visldng Company under the name of Visqueen was superposed upon a ounce jute backing. The jute layer was six times as thick as the polymer film.
The resulting laminate was fed into a conventional tufting machine (i.e. the so-called Super-Tufter) and tufted with the polymer film representing the upper laminate surface using viscose rayon t-ufting yarn. The bottom or exposed face of the jute backing was then roller coated with 14 oz./ square yard of latex binder (Tylac 420 latex) containing about 50% solids by weight and having a viscosity of about 1300 centipoises. The binder was then cured for 15 minutes at 280 E, in a circulatinghot-air oven.
After curing, the product was washed and dried one cycle, then examined for fraying. Observations showed that on the cut edges, there was no significant amount of fraying. The washing cycle had no significant effect upon the product. There also was no change in hand or feel of the product, same being outstanding.
A control sample fabric was also prepared in the manner indicated above but with the polymer film omitted. Upon washing in the manner indicated, considerable fraying occurred along the fabric edges. The control also showed a substantial amount of binder strike through. No strike through appeared in the sample including the polymer film. The jute/film product also demonstrated a significantly greater loop lock than the control.
The jute polymer product described herein otters the further advantage of permitting the formation of a two- 'tone carpet effect by proper orientation, selection and coloration of the tufting yarn and the upper face of the polymeric film. The product may also be used for tile and its excellent washability and outstanding loop lock make the product a highly attractive commercial item. The product also is much easier to vacuum or otherwise clean. Dirt and grit are prevented from becoming embedded in the backing fabric by virtue of the barrier film layer. Similarly, soilage and spotting are minimized by the barrier film.
Example H A sheet of 50 pound wet strengtn natural kraft paper .(SLRegisPaper Co.) melamine treated paper, was laid upon a 10 ounce jute fabric. The jute layer was approximately 9 times as thick as the paper layer.
a The resulting laminate was fed into a conventional tufting machine (i.e. the so-called Supcr-Tufter) and tufted with the paper layer representing the upper laminate surracc using viscose rayon as the tufting yarn. The bottom or exposed face of the jute backing was then roller coated with 14 eta/square yard of natural latex binder containing about 61% by weight solids and having a viscosity of 1400 centipoises. The binder was then cured for 15 minutes at 28 F, in a circulating hot-air oven.
fter curing, the product was washed and dried one cycle, then examined for fraying. Observation showed that on the cut edges, there was no significant effect upon the paper intermediate layer or the product as a whole. There was also no change in the hand or feel of the product, same being outstanding.
A control sample fabric was also preparedin the manner indicated above but with the paper layer omitted. Upon Washing in the manner indicated, considerable fraying occurred along the fabric edges.
The control fabric and jute/paper product described above were also compared for loop lock by determining the pull, in pounds, needed to separate the tufting yarn from the backing. The jute/ paper product demonstrated significantly greater loop lock, i.e. 15.0 pounds average to approximately 12.0 pounds average for the control. The jute control also demonstrated an undesirable amount of strike through whereas there was no strike through with the jute/paper product. To reduce the amount of strike through in the control, it was necessary to increase the viscosity of the latex. This reduced the loop lock, however, to approximately 8-10 pounds, this being representative of the degree of loop lock obtained in conventional tufted fabrics. Thus, the present invention makes possible the preparation of a tufted product using a lower viscosity coating than hitherto possible with no strike through but with sufficient penetration into the base of the tufts to give vastly superior loop lock.
Example 111 Example IV The process of Example HI using Scrimtex was repeated with fiberglas reenforcement in lieu of the Scrimtex rayon. Loop lock was essentially the same and there was no binder strike through.
Example V The process of Example I was repeated under essentially the same conditions except that in this case a film of modified polyethylene (.006 inch thick) comprising polyethylene and 20% polyisobutylene, by weight, was used as the barrier layer and the backing fabric was a nonwoven fabric (2% oz. per square yard) comprising rayon staple with polyvinyl alcohol binder (10% of the total non-woven weight). The barrier layer and non-woven backing fabric were laminated before tufting by heat sealing and the resulting laminate was fed into the tufting machine as in Example I to give a tufted product of highly desirable loop lock without noticeable needle defiection.
T he tufted product of the invention is illustrated in the accompanying drawing wherein FIGURE 1 is a perspective view and FIGURES 2 and 3 are vertical sectional views of the product of the invention. Briefly, the numeral 1 represents the backing fabric; 2 the intermediate or barrier layer; 3 the tufted yarn and 4 the latex or resinous binder. The deformation of the base of the tufting yarn loop, i.e. the lateral widening out of the loop, to increase loop lock is shown in FIGURE 3.
The binder 4 essentially completely impregnates the backing fabric but the paper or polymer layer is impermeable thereto and constitutes an essentially complete barrier to the binder or back coating thus effectively preventing strike through to the tufted surface.
Obviously, various modifications may be made in the tufted fabric described herein. Thus, for example, a plurality of layers of superposed polymer film and/or paper sheet may be utilized. If desired, the barrier layer may be embossed or creped in order to give increased flexibility or strength. Further, the polymer film may be superposed upon one Or more Wet strength paper sheets or vice versa. Additionally, the polymer film may be formed in situ on the backing fabric by extruding the same directly upon the backing. The foregoing description, therefore, is not intended to limit the invention, the scope of which is defined in the attached claims wherein I claim:
1. An improved tufted fabric comprising a backing fabric as a base member, at least one layer of self-supporting, liquid impermeable polymer film selected from the group consisting of polyethylene film and polypropylene film superposed on the top surface of said backing fabric, tufting yarn passing back and forth through both the polymer film and backing fabric and extending above the polymer film to form the tufted surface of the fabric, and a back coating applied directly to the bottom surface of said backing fabric and essentially completely impregnating same, said polymer film being impermeable to said back coating and constituting an essentially complete barrier to said back coating whereby strike through of the back coating to the prevented.
2. Fabric according to claim 1 wherein said base member is about 5 to 25 times as thick as said polymer film.
3. Fabric according to claim 1 wherein said polymer film comprises polyethylene.
4. Fabric according to claim 1 wherein said film is colored to give a pattern effect.
tufted surface is effectively 5 5. Fabric according to claim 1 wherein said base member is a woven fabric and the polymer film is a self-supporting polyethylene film which is superposed on said base member without being bonded thereto, the film being retained in position solely by the action of the tufted surface.
6. Fabric according to claim 5 wherein said film is nontransparent and loops of tufting yarn in the base member are deformed to improve loop lock.
7. An improved tufted fabric comprising a backing fabric as a base member, at least one layer of wet strength paper superposed directly on the top surface of said base member, tufting yarn passing back and forth through both the paper layer and base member and extending above the paper layer to form the tufted surface of the fabric, and a back coating applied to the bottom surface of said base member and essentially completely impregnating the same, said paper layer being impermeable to said back coating and constituting an essentially complete barrier to said back coating whereby strike through of the back coating to the tufted surface is efiectively prevented.
8. Fabric according to claim 7 wherein said base member is a Woven fabric and the paper is superposed on said base member without being bonded thereto, the paper being retained in position solely by the action of the tufted surface.
9. Fabric according to claim 7 wherein said paper is non-transparent and the loops of tufting yarn in the base member are deformed to improve loop lock.
10. Fabric according to claim 7 wherein said backing fabric is from about 2 to 10 times as thick as said paper layer.
11. Fabric according to claim 7 wherein said high wet strength paper comprises a reinforced paper.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,671,494 Coulliette Mar. 9, 1954 2,713,012 Hartstein July 12, 1955 2,913,803 Dodds Nov. 24, 1959