US 3077703 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
the assembly of units.
Patented Feb. 19, 1963 3,077,703 ROOF DECK STRUCTURE Frederick S. Bergstrom, Cloquet, Minn assignor to Wood Conversion Company, St. Paul, Minn, a corporation of Delaware Filed Apr. 17, 1959, Ser. No. 307,228 4 Claims. (Cl. 50346) The present invention relates to roof deck structures and in particular to units for assembly to provide a roof deck presenting resistance to the transmission of moisture vapor.
It is commonplace to provide roof-deck units with tongue-and-groove for interfitting. It is also common to provide roof-deck units inrectangula-r panel form which incorporate a moisture barrierover the panel area.
The present invention is directed to roof-decks and units or panels which may be assembled to provide an exposed interior face as a ceiling, which incorporate at the interior of the panels a moisture barrier. and whichcarry or which may receive moisture-barrier means effective within the tongue-and-groove joint of adjacent units in the assembly.
The units for the present invention are also thermal insulators having adequate strength to serve as structural members when spanning conventionally spaced beams or rafters. As such, they are laminated panels including at least one lamina of structural insulation board. Such a board is represented by a felted wood fiber sheet approximately one-half inch thick at 17 lbs. density per cu. ft. Preferably, however, the panel includes a plurality of such boards as the laminae thereof, and its principal body material may be composed entirely of such boards. The unit also includes at least one layer or lamina which is a moisture vapor barrier, which need not be thermally insulating, which may be sheet material or a layer of suitable material such as asphalt, or which may be sheet material adhesively united to an adjacent body lamina with adhesive which may or may not be a moisture vapor barrier substance.
in order for the unit to provide in the roof assembly an interior ceiling of desired character, the face lamina for the interior is provided as material capable of original and repeated decoration, and adapted to provide beveled grooves at the joint for decorative effect. Accordingly, such interior face lamina is a fibrous layer, and preferably, a layer of thermal insulation board.
7 A vapor barrier layer or lamina is more efficient as its location in the unit is closer to the warm interior side of Consequently, in the present invention, the barrier layer or lamina is placed next to the vfibrous interior face layer.
cold side of the assembly. Thus, in an assembly, the
edges "of the barriers of matched units oppose each other within a joint.
The present invention contemplates the incorporation of moisture vapor barrier means within the joint, in union with said edges of the barrier and so extended into the joint as to provide a seal between the tongue-and-groove. This may be accomplished in numerous ways as exemplified in the drawings, in which:
FIG. 1 is a perspective fragmentary view having one end of a unit to illustrate the general contour thereof.
FIG. 2 shows fragmentary enlarged views of two units of FIG. 1 in position to be joined, one being in end elevation and the other in cross-section because of staggering units in an assembly.
FIG. 3 is a view similar to that of FIG. 2 showing a mod fied seal.
FIG. 4 is a view similar to FIGS. 2 and 3, but with the units joined and with a modified tongue-and-groove to efiect a seal.
FIG. 5 is an enlarged end view of the right-hand unit of FIG. 4 to show in detail the character of the seal.
It is to be understood that the forms shown in the drawings are for the purpose of illustration, and are not to be considered as limiting the invention short of its scope as expressed in the appended claims.
FIG. 1 shows a unit it) of suitable dimensions such as 8 feet long, 2 feet wide and 2 inches thick, having on the long sides a tongued edge 11 and a grooved edge 12, and on the ends flat sides 13 for a butt joint. End 13 shows a ceiling-forming face layer 14 with its long edges 15 beveled, an insulating portion 16, and a vapor barrier layer 17. The structure as shown in FIG. 1 may be additionally modified in several ways, either in the unit per se, or in the assembly of units.
I In PEG. 2 joining edges of the panel are shown which may be considered as the edges 11 and 12. of a single unit 20 as designated in FIG. 1. The body of the unit is preferably composed of four layers of fiber insulation board designated 26!, 22, 23 and 24, adhesively united. Especially, the layers 23 and 24 have a moisture barrier interfacial layer 25. The barrier layer may be a suitably heavy layer of wax or asphalt or other mastic material capable of maintaining layer 24 integral in the unit, or it may be a sheet such as asphalted paper or metal foil adhesively united to the adjacent layers 23 and 24 as by asphalt.
The ceiling layer 24 is shown beveled at 26 entirely on the ceiling side of the barrier layer 25, whereby the barrier edges 25a and 25b are exposed in the perpendicular walls 27 and 28, formed by the edges of layers 23 and 24.
The matching tongue 30 and groove 31 are shown as formed in the layers 22 and 23, being rectangular in crosssection as shown. The tongue has a wall 32 facing the ceiling side and the groove has a matching wall 33. These walls 32 and 33 are shown parallel to the barrier layer 25 and they may slide slightly on each other as the units expand and contract, primarily due to change in moisture content, thus causing to a degree opening of the joint.
To prevent the passage of moisture vapor through the joint, and especially as it opens, the joint is provided with barrier means always connecting the edges 25a and 25b of the barrier layer 25 as the walls move relatively.
The barrier means may be provided in numerou ways. One Way is to use barrier means having a fixed portion and a movable portion so that the latter may move with the two units. This is preferably accomplished by using a folded tape of which the opposing leaves Within the fold are free to move apart, and of which leaves the exposed faces in two joined units are united to the edges of the barrier layer. The tape may be variously incorporated in the structure.
In FIG. 2 the tongue 30 is recessed as shown at 35' to receive a folded edge 36 of a tape of barrier material having a ribbon-form leaf 35b adhesively secured at least to the edge 25b of the barrier layer 25 and preferably secured over the entire wall 28 and the extension of said wall into the recess 35. The other ribbon-form leaf 36a extends freely from said recess 35 inan unmatched unit, but in position when matched to be adhesively united to the edge 25a of the barrier layer and preferably also to the wall 27. Thus, as the two units move relatively to each other, the joint remains sealed by the folded tape, which opens and closes with the movement at the joint.
The tape may be formed by barrier sheet material such as polyethylene, or metal foil, or of non-barrier material such as paper, on which a coat of barrier material has been applied, such as Wax, or asphalt, or polyethylene. It is preferred that the adhesive used to mount the tape be of the pressure-sensitive type, so that on the job of assembling units, the pressure of assembly effects the adhesion. It is also preferred that the tongued edge of the unit be supplied to the user with a tape secured to the unit, which tape has pressure-sensitive adhesive 36 exposed and directed toward the grooved edge. By mounting the tape in advance on the tongued edge, it ispartially protected by the tongue.
In'FIG. 2 the recess 35' is narrow permitting little if any opening of the fold within the recess.
In FIG. 3, a recess is shown which is wider than the thickness of the folded tape, whereby the fold may open within the recess, as may be desirable when an exceptionally wide opening of the joint is possible. V
In FIG. 3 similar units are shown and generally designated 37 and 38, with respective tongue 39 and groove 40 and the barrier layer designated 41 and 41'. The wall 42 having the exposed edge of barrier layer 41 is extended totorm a wide recess 43. in the tongue. To the wall 42 and its extensioninto the tongue is, secured the leaf 44b of a folded, barrier tape 44, the facing surfaces of which in the gap 44' are mutually'non-adhesive so as to scparatefreely. V Thei oppos ite leaf 44a isfree to swing in the recess 43 and its outer face is providedwith pressure-sensitive adhesive indicated by stippling 46. The grooved edge of panel 38 haswall 47 exposing the edge of barrier layer 4 1', so that in' joining units 37 and 38, wall 47 unites with adhesive 46 to close the joint, and as the joint may open the leafs 44a and 44b separate, but maintain a sealed joint. N
FIG. 4 shows a modification of tongue-and-groovc pertinent to the present invention Two matching units 53 and 54 with respective tongue-55 and groove 56 are in position already joined. The groove '56 tapers outwardly having a channel side wall 57 slightly inclined from a position parallel to the barrier layer 58 and 58'. Tongue 55 is tapered inwardly having a wall 59 matching wall 57, thereby providing a tongue thicker at its outer end than the opening width of the groove, the differential being coordinated to the compressibility of the body material to permit insertion of the tongue and then its e pansion to fitting position. on shrinkage from the natural fitting position, the units separate and the walls 57 and 59 press more tightly together, thus ensuring a tight joint. The opposing walls 61 and 62, respectively, exposing the edges of the barrier layer designated 58' and 58 are shown vapor sealed across the gap by means 63, appearing only as a mass in FIG. 4, but detailed in enlarged FIG. 5. FIG. shows the tongued edge unit 53 in its condition prior to joining it as shown in FIG. 4. The sealing means 63 is shown as an accordion-pleated tape 63, with two folds, preferably directed toward the tongue, with its inside faces mutually non-adhesive, with the outer face of its leaf 64 united to wall 61 and the edge of barrier layer 58, and with the outer face of leaf 65 supplied with pressure-sensitive adhesive 66, to attach itself to opposing wall 62 of the grooved edge of unit 54 and to the edge of barrier layer 58. The pleated tape avoids weakening the tongue bya recess, and permits a wide opening of the joint with no danger of tearing the tape from original positions.
Although the invention is shown as applied to but two parallel sides of the rectangular unit, it is to be understood that the remaining two sides may be similarly tongued and grooved and likewise treated for sealing. But, as a practical matter, the butt ends of the unit are secured, as by nails or other means to parallel supporting members so that butt joints lie over supporting members and remain fixed. These joints are sealed with suitable sealer at the time of installation, to provide a barriersealed butt joint. The danger of joint-opening occurs in the matched joints at the regions between supporting cams or rafters, whereby practical considerations require the barrier-sealed joints only in two side edges as illustrated.
1. A structural insulating roof-deck unit adapted for assembly with like units, said unit comprising a laminated panel of uniform thickness, a first lamina at one face being fibrous insulating board adapted for use as the interior of the roof, an internal moisture vapor barrier in lamina for-m inwardly from said first lamina, said barrier lamina providing resistance to the transmission of moisture vapor through the unit, at least one lamina inwardly from both said first lamina and said barrier lamina being fibrous insulating board, said unit being rectangular and having two opposite sides formed respectively with complementary tongue and groove each located at a region inwardly from said first lamina and said barrier lamina, 'all the edges'of the barrier lamina being coincident with the edges ofthe laminae adjacent thereto, said tongue andsaid groove having complementary inter: face-forming walls'substantially parallel to the facial extent of the unit for permitting movement at a joint bet n, he i nd alikeua in a s m l of such units, said movement resulting from dimensional instabilityfo f-said fibrous sulating board, said unit having addi ona 'van ;ba r im ans'can s b h th he cori 1 9 b lcw t tonsus'and. a o g th PQ lQ 9 the edge face between the'topgue and said face of the unit, said additional barrier means being a folded tape providing' resistance to the transmission of moisture vapor through it, a first one oftwo extreme leaves of the folded tape'being secured across the'cdge ofsaid barrier lamina at said corner space and secured to the edge faces of'the laminae adjacent said edge, and the other extreme leaf being movable toward and away from said first leaf and being provided on its outer face with pressure-sensitive adhesive. w
2. A structural unit according to claim 1 in which the tongue has a recess opening toward the barrier lamina and in which the folded edge of said additional barrier means lies in 'said recess. 3., Astructural insulating roof-deck unit adapted for assembly with like units, said unitcomprising alaminated panel of uniform thickness, a first lamina at one face being fibrous insulating board adapted for use as the interior of the roof, an internalmoisture vapor barrier in lamina form inwardly from said first lamina, said barrier lamina providing resistance to the transmission of moisture vapor through the unit, at least one lamina inwardly from both said first lamina and said'barrier lamina being fibrous insulating board, saidunit being rectangular and having two opposite sides formed respectively with complementary portions-fol" overlapping at a joint between the unit and alike unit in an assembly of such units, said portions being each locatedat a region inwardly from both said first lamina and said barrier lam ina, all the d-ges of said barrier layer being coincident with the edges of the laminaeadjacent thereto, one of said portions projecting beyond the neighboring. edge of said'barrier lamina, said overlapping portions being such thatin a said joint between two such units the opening of the joint may expand and'contract as a result of the dimensional instability of said fibrous insulating board, said unit having additional vapor barrier means carried by the unit in the corner space below said projecting portion and along that portion of the edge face of the unit between said projecting portion and said face of the unit, said additional barrier means being a folded tape providing resistance to the transmission of moisture vapor through it, a first one of two extreme leaves of the folded tape being secured across the edge of said barrier lamina and to the edge faces of the laminae adjacent'said barrier lamina, and the other extreme leaf be ing movable toward and away from said first leaf and being provided on its outer face with pressure-sensitive adhesive.
4. A structural unit according to claim 3 in which said projecting portion has a recess opening toward the 5 barrier lamina and in which the folded edge of said additional barrier means lies in said recess.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 5 639,961 De Man Dec. 26, 1898 1,863,231 Thune June 14, 1932 2,068,035 Meyer Jan. 19, 1937 2,073,130 Wallace Mar. 9, 1937 2,358,396 Hogan Sept. 19, 1944 6 Sweet Mar. 16, 1948 Heritage Feb. 13, 1951 Mann May 12, 1953 Sullivan Oct. 8, 1957 Collings June 24, 1958 Paul Feb. 10, 1959 Knold May 19, 1959 FOREIGN PATENTS Great Britain Mar. 11, 1926 Sweden Nov. 11, 1938