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Publication numberUS3079629 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMar 5, 1963
Filing dateMay 4, 1961
Priority dateMay 4, 1961
Publication numberUS 3079629 A, US 3079629A, US-A-3079629, US3079629 A, US3079629A
InventorsBidelman Bruce B, Millard George R, Nobbs William L
Original AssigneeRonan And Kunzl Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Hydraulically retarded door closer
US 3079629 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

March 5, 1963 G. R. MILLARD ETAL HYDRAULICALLY RETARDED DooR cLosER Filed May 4, 1961 Q am Y wal ilnited gratas T@arent @t 3,079,629 HYDRAUUCALLY REARDED DGR CLGSER George viiiiard, Tekonsha, and Bruce B. Bidelman and William L. Nohhs, Marshall, Mich., assignors to Ronan and I uned, incorporated, Marshail, Mich.

Filed May 4, 1961, Ser. No. 107,776 10 Ciaiins. (Cl. 16-S2) This invention relates to improvements in hydraulically retarded door closer. The principal objects of this invention are:

First, to provide an improved form of door closer of the spring actuated hydraulically regulated cylinder type in which the retracting, door closing motion of a spring pressed piston is controlled through three different stages or rates of travel by means of hydraulic regulating Valves actuated automatically by travel of the piston.

Second, to provide valve mechanism for a hydraulic door closer which is relatively simple and in which the relatively small regulating parts are self cleaning s that dirt particles in the hydraulic duid will not clog the mechanism.

Third, to provide a hydraulic door closer with an automatic safety release which will relieve the hydraulic retarding pressure when a predetermined maximum pressure is created as for example, by manual closing of the door at a faster rate than the normal closing rate of the mechanism.

Fourth, to provide novel valve means in a hydraulic door closing cylinder which are easily assembled and reliable in operation in that there is little chance for the operating parts to get out of adjustment.

Fifth, to provide a regulatory valve system for a hydraulically retarded door closing pistion in which a cavity formed in the piston first moves into cooperating engagement with a yieldable hollow valve pin to form a iirst restriction impeding the flow of iluid through the valve pin and thus creating a first retarding force on the retracting piston after which the yieldable valve pin is retracted by the piston to progressively close of a second restricted passage and thus create a second and further retarding action on the retracting motion of the piston; the yieldable support of the hollow valve pin further functioning as a safety release to disengage the valve pin from the chamber in the piston upon creation of excess pressure to reopen the full dow of uid from the piston chamber.

Other objects and advantages of the invention will be apparent from a consideration of the following description and claims. The drawings, of which there is one sheet, illustrate a highly practical form of the invention.

PEG. l is a fragmentary elevational View of a door with the door closer of the invention operatively associated therewith.

FIG. 2 is a fragmentary longitudinal cross sectional View through the cylinder and valve connections of the closer taken along the plane of the line 2-2 in FIG. l and illustrating the mechanism during door opening motion of the door.

FIG. 3 is a fragmentary enlarged cross sectional view similar to FIG. 2 but showing the mechanism in the fully closed position of the door.

FIG. 4 is a fragmentary transverse cross sectional view through the door closer cylinder and piston taken along the plane of the line 4 4 in FIG. 2.

FlG. is a transverse cross sectional view through the end block of the cylinder taken along the plane of the line 5 5 in FIG. 2 and illustrating the manual adjusting valve of the closer.

FiG. l illustrates the relationship of the door closer of the invention to the door which it is arranged to control. As shown in FlG. l a swinging door 1 is mounted in a doorway 2 with the door closing cylinder 3 of the invention mounted in the space which already exists in the usual header of the door frame. The cylinder 3 is provided with a reciprocaole piston rod 4 which is actuated by a suitable cam or crank mechanism indicated generally at 5 to withdraw or advance the piston rod from the cylinder when the door is opened and to control the retraction of the piston rod into the cylinder under spring pressure as will be described to regulate the closing motion of the door. The cam or crank mechanism 5 has a drive pin 6 which is connected to the door to couple the door to the closer mechanism. Details ofthe crank or cam mechanism 5 are not disclosed as a variety of door closing cams and cranks are well known in the prior art and can be utilized in combination with the piston rod 4.

As appears more clearly in FIGS. 2 to 5, the door closer cylinder 3 is provided with a rear end block 7 and a front end block 8 considering the front of the cylinder as the end from which the piston rod 4 extends. One of the end blocks, in this case the front end block 3, is provided with mounting anges 9 for securing the cylinder to a suitable support located in the space within the header of the door frame. The piston rod 4 carries a piston l1 at its inner end and both the piston and the piston rod are urged inwardly of the cylinder by a relatively heavy door closing spring l2 engaged with the abutment ring i3 on the piston rod and the inner side of the front end block 8. Upon inward retracting motion of the piston and piston rod toward the left as viewed in FIG. 2, hydraulic duid hereafter referred to as oil, is displaced by the piston 'l1 through the hollow valve pin 14 to passages in the rear end block 7 from which the oil is delivered past a manually adjustable metering pin 15 to the passage i6 and return pipe 17. The pipe 17 connects with the front block S and passages 18 therein to return the oil to the opposite or front side of the piston.

Considering in greater detail the construction of the piston 11 and its mounting on the piston rod 4, it will be noted that the piston has a cylindrical body with a groove therearound for the seal ring i9. The center of the piston ii defines a bore slidably receiving the reduced inner end portion 29 of the piston rod 4. A pin 2l passed diametrically through the piston is loosely received in an oversized bore 22 in the piston rod permitting the piston to shift axially along the piston rod. The side of the reduced portion 29 of the piston rod is attened or cut away as at 23 (see FIG. 4) forming a passage completely along the side of the reduced portion and through the piston so that when the piston rod moves outwardly to the right as shown in FIG. 2, the outer face of the piston il moves relatively inwardly away from the shoulder 24 on the piston rod exposing the outer end of the flattened area 23 and oil can be displaced from the right hand end of the cylinder 3 along the lat 23 to the left hand side of the piston. Upon inward motion of the piston rod the resistance of the oil against the inner face of the piston moves the piston against the shoulder 2d and prevents return ilow of oil through the center of the piston. The piston and piston rod thus form a one way check valve for introducing oil to the left side of the cylinder.

On its right side the piston 11 carries a cylindrical liange 25 to which is secured a short cylindrical wire screen 26 with a bushing 27 on its outer end which slides on the piston rod 4. The inner end of the piston rod 4 projects through the piston 11 and has a short bore or recess 28 formed therein coaxially with the valve pin 14. The recess 23 cooperates with the regulating valve 14 as will be described is greater detail.

Considering the rear end member 7 and the regulating valve 14 in greater detail, it will be noted that the end member defines a central bore or chamber 29 which communicates at its rear end with the bore 3@ and in turn with the stepped lateral bore 31 within which the manually adjustable needle valve is mounted. The outer or right end of the end member 7 defines a counterbore 32 around the end of the chamber 29 and a very line inclined notch 33 is cut in the shoulder between the bore 29 and the counter bore 32. The hollow tubular needle valve 14 has an enlarged shoulder 34 which lits slidably .and sealingly in the chamber or bore29 with -a spring 35 bearing against the inner end of the needle valve and Apressing the shoulder axially outwardly against a retaining ring 35 pressed into the counter bore 32. The outer elongated end of the needle valve is passed guidingly but in nonsealing relation through the retaining ring 36.

The outwardly projecting right end of the tubular needle valve 14 is tapered as at 37 so as to have a selfcentering engagement with the `recess 2S in the piston rod and the tapered end of the needle valve is provided with a small calibrated notch 38 forming a small controlled opening into the chamber 2S and the outer end of the needle valve when the inner end of the piston rod Y isV pressed inwardly over the outer end of the needle valve as shown in FIG. 3. j

From the foregoing description of the structure of the cylinder and valve mechanisms vit will be apparent that when the piston rod and piston .have moved fully to the .rightras viewed in FIG. 2 most of the oil is displaced into the left end of thecylinder. ln being so displaced the oil passes through the screen 26 before it reaches the passage along the hat 23 on the piston rod where the rod passes through the piston. Subsequent inward retracting motion of the piston rod caused by expansion of the spring 12 and closing motion of the door will rst displace oil freely from the left end of the lcylinder through the exposed open end of the hollow needle'valve 14, chamber 29, passages 30 and 31 andl past the adjusting valve 15 tothe return tube 17 from where the oil reenters the right side of the cylinder. The initial displacement is relatively unobstructed and is Vcontrolled primarily by the adjusting valve 15. Initial closing motion of the door vby the spring 12 and piston rod 4 is'accordingly relatively rapid. As the piston 1'1 approaches the hollow needle valve 14 `the tapered end of the Valve enters the recess 28 so that any continued displacement of oil must be through the metering notch 38 in the end of the needle valve and ,through the small metering notch 33 at the outer end of nthe valve chamber 29vin the end member 7 The combined oil vtlow through these two metered passages constitutes a iirst reduced ilow to impose a first degree of restriction to .further inward motion for the piston 11. As the piston lcontinues inwardly at the rst reduced rate of travel, the hollow needle valve Ais pressed rearwardly or inwardly by engagement with the piston rod around the recess 28 so that .the enlarged portion 34 around the needle valve moves inwardly beyond the notch 33 as is shown in FIG. 3 thus cutting olf the flow through the notch 33 and creating a second reduction and a second degree of increased resistance to inward motion of the piston. All oil dis- .placed by final inward motion of the piston rod and piston Ymust flow through the irst reduced passage 38 and through the hollow tubular needle valve to the return pipe 17. The vfinal closing motion of the door is thus slowed to a minimum to prevent objectionable slamming.

Should the pressure created in the left end of the cylin- "der 3 by inward movement 'of the piston 11 be raised substantially above the normal pressure created by the spring 12, -this increased pressure acts against the Youter -face of the enlarged portion 34 of the needle valve and compresses the needle valve against the pressure of spring 29 to retract the needle valve further than the recess or cavity 2,8 thus reopening the outer end of the tubular needle valve to the left end of the cylinder 3. This reopening ofthe needle valve reduces the'resistance to inward motion `of .the piston permitting .relief of excess pressure through the needlevalve Vand in addition permitting more rapid inward motion of the piston rod and piston.

4 The hollow needle valve 14 with its enlarged portion 34 and the spring 29 thus constitute a safety relief valve cooperating with the pistonY 11 to permit more rapid closing of the door 2. The safety valve arrangement will Y become operative, for example, should a person push the door closed at a faster rate than the normal closing rate of the .return spring 12. The safety valve prevents the building up of excess pressures in the left end of the cylinder 3 which might damage other parts of the system and also permits the door to be closed manually at a faster rate than by the closing spring without forcing the door against the normal restraining pressure in the left end of the cylinder. lt is a feature of the'valve system that the two primary restricted passages formed by the notches -33 and 3S are opened regularly by each operai'ton of the door and are thus self cleaning as oil is forced over the notches. It, therefore, ris practically impossible for the metering passages to become clogged and inoperative.

-What is claimed as new is:

l. Door closer mechanism including in combination a cylinder'having inner and outer end members with a piston rod projecting through the .outer end member,

an oil return pipe extending between Asaid end members and communicating 'through return passages in the end members with opposite ends of said cylinder,

a manually adjustable regulating valve in one of said passages,

a piston in said cylinder connected to said rod for reciprocation by the rod,

a spring 'biasing said rod inwardly into said cylinder,

means providing a limited sliding engagement between said `piston and said rod, and a passage formed by a ilattened area on therod uncovered by inward displacement of the piston relative to the rod forming an inwardly opening and outwardly closing check valve through said piston,

a bore formed in the inner endmember as part of the return passage therethrough,

a hollow needle Valve having an enlarged portion slidably and sealingly received in said bore,

a second spring biasing said needle valve outwardly of said bore,

a groove in the wallrat the outer end of said bore forming a first restricted passage past said enlargedportion of said needle valve inthe outwardly projected position of the needle valve,

a recess formed in the inner end of said rod positioned vto receive and substantially close the hollow outer end of the needle valve in an inwardly retracted position of said rod,

the end .of said needle valve being tapered to enter into said recess and having a small groove in the tapered surface of the valve cooperating with the Wall of the recess to form a secondrestricted passage to the 'end of the hollow needle valve when said piston is retracted over .said needle valve.

2. Door closer mechanism including in combination a cylinder Yhaving inner and outer end members with a pis- Vton rod projecting through the outer end member,

an 'oil return pipe extending between said endmembers and communicating through return passages in the end members with opposite ends of said cylinder,

a piston in said cylinder connected to said rod for vre-Y ciprocation by the rod, l a spring biasing said rod inwardly intosaid cylinder, means providing a limited'sliding engagement between said piston and said rod, and apassage uncovered byV inward displacement of the piston relative Yto the rod vforming an inwardly opening and outwardly closing check valve through saidpiston,

a boreV formed in the inner end member as'part of the return passage therethrough,

a hollowneedle valve having an enlarged portion slid- Aablyfand sealingly .received in j'said bore,

a second spring biasing said needle valve outwardly of said bore,

means forming a rst restricted passage past said enlarged portion of said needle valve in the outwardly projected position of the needle valve,

a recess formed in the inner end of said rod positioned to receive and substantially close the hollow outer end of the needle valve in an inwardly retracted position of said rod,

the end of said needle valve having a small groove in the tapered surface of the valve cooperating with the wall or" the recess to form a second restricted passageV to the end of the hollow needle valve when said piston is retracted over said needle valve.

3. Door closer mechanism including in combination a cylinder having inner and outer end members with a piston rod projecting through the outer end member,

a liuid return pipe extending between the inner one of said end members and the other end of said cylinder and communicating through a return passage in said one end member with opposite ends of said cylinder,

a manually adjustable regulating valve in said passage, a piston in said cylinder connected to said rod for reciprocation by the rod,

a spring biasing said rod inwardly into said cylinder, means providing a limited sliding engagement between said piston and said rod, and a passage uncovered by inward displacement of the piston relative Ato the rod forming an inwardly opening and outwardly closing check valve through said piston,

a bore formed in the inner end member as part of the return passage therethrough,

a hollow needle valve having an enlarged portion slidably and sealingly received in said bore,

a second spring biasing said needle valve outwardly of said bore, l

a groove in the wall at the outer end of said bore forming a first restricted passage past said enlarged portion of said needle valve in the outwardy projected position-of the needle valve,

a recess formed in the inner end of said rod positioned to'receive and substantially close the hollow outer end of the needle valve in an inwardly retracted position of said rod,

the end of said needle valve being adapted to enter into said recess and cooperating with the wall of the recess to form a second restricted passage to the end of the hollow needle valve when said piston is retracted over said nee le valve.

4. Door closer mechanism including in combination a cylinder' having inner and outer end members with a piston rod projecting through the outer end member,

a fluid return pipe extending between the inner one of said end members and the other end of said cylinder and communicating through a return passage in said one end member with opposite ends of said cylinder,

a piston in said cylinder connected to said rod for reciprocation by the rod,

a spring biasing said rod inwardly into said cylinder,

means forming an inwardly opening and outwardly closing check valve through said piston,

a bore formed in the inner end member as part of the return passage therethrough,

a hollow needle valve having an enlarged portion slidably and sealingly received in said bore,

a second spring biasing said needle valve outwardly of said bore,

a groove in the Wall at the outer end of said bore forming a first restricted passage past said enlarged portion of said needle valve in the outwardly projected position of the needle valve,

the inner end or" said rod being adapted to substantially close the hollow outer end of the needle valve in an inwardly retracted position of said rod,

the end of said needle valve being cooperative with the end of said rod to form a second restricted passage to the end of the hollow needle valve when said piston is retracted against said needle valve.

5. Door closer mechanism including in combination a cylinder having inner and outer end members with a piston rod projecting through the outer end member,

a uid return pipe extending between the inner one of said end members and the other end of said cylinder and communicating through a return passage in said one end member with opposite ends of said cylinder,

ya piston in said cylinder connected to said rod for reciprocatiou by the rod,

a spring biasing said rod inwardly into said cylinder,

means forming an inwardly opening and outwardly closing check valve through said piston,

a bore formed in the inner end member as part of the return passage therethrough,

a hollow needle valve having an enlarged portion slidably and sealingly received in said bore,

a second spring biasing said needle valve outwardly of said bore,

the inner end of said rod being adapted to abut and 'substantially close the hollow outer end of the needle valve in an inwardly retracted position of said rod,

the end of said needle valve being cooperative with the end of said rod to form a restricted passage to the end of the hollow needle valve when said piston is retracted against said needle valve.

6. Door closer mechanism including in combination a cylinder having inner and outer end members with a piston rod projecting through the outer end member,

a tiuid return pipe extending between the inner one of said end members and the other end of said cylinder and communicating through a return passage in said one end member with opposite ends of said cylinder,

a piston in said cylinder connected to said rod for reciprocation by the rod, i

a spring biasing said rod inwardly into said cylinder,

means forming an inwardly opening and outwardly closing check valve through said piston,

a bore formed in the inner end member as part of the return passage therethrough,

a hollow needle valve slidably and sealingly received in said bore, v

a second spring biasing said needle valve outwardly of said bore,

the inner end of said rod being adapted to abut and substantially close the hollow outer end of the needle valve in an inwardly retracted position of said rod,

the end of said needle valve being cooperative with the end of said rod to form a restricted passage to the end of the hollow needle valve when said piston is retracted against said needle valve.

'7. Door closer mechanism including in combination a cylinder having inner and outer end members With a piston rod projecting through the outer end member,

a huid return pipe communicating through a return passage in the inner one of said end members with opposite ends of said cylinder,

a piston in said cylinder connected to said rod for reciprocation by the rod,

a spring biasing said rod inwardly into said cylinder,

means providing a limited sliding engagement between said piston and said rod, and a passage uncovered by inward displacement of the piston relative to the rod forming an inwardly opening and outwardly closing check valve through said piston,

a bore formed in the inner end member as part of the return passage therethrough,

a hollow needle valve having an enlarged portion slidably and sealingly received in said bore,

a second spring biasing said needle valve outwardly of said bore,

and means forming a restricted passage past said envlargedportion of 'said needle valve in the outwardly projected position of the needle valve,

`a recess formed in the inner end of said rod positioned to receive Vand substantially close the hollow outer end of the needle valve in an inwardly retracted position of said rod.

S. .Door closer mechanism including in combination 'a cylinder .having inner and outer end members with a piston -rod projecting through -the outer end member,

a uid return pipe communicating through a return passage .in Ithe inner one of said vend members with opposite ends of said cylinder,

a piston in said cylinder connected to said rod for reciprocation by Ythe rod,

a spring biasing said `rod inwardly into said cylinder, means forming an inwardly opening and outwardly :closing check valve through .said piston,

a bore formed in lthe inner end member as part of ythe return vpassage therethrough,

a hollow needle valve having an enlarged portion slidably and sealingly received .in said bore,

a second spring biasing said needle valve outwardly of said bore,

and means forming va restricted passage past said enlarged portion of said needle valve in .the outward- Y yly projected position `of the 'needle valve,

said .rod being arranged .to substantially close the -hollow outer 'end of the needle valve inan inwardly retracted position of said rod.

'9. Door closer vmechanism including in combination `aE-,cylinder having inner and -outer end members :with a piston rod projecting through vthe outer end member,

a fluid return pipe forming a return passage extending betweenr the inner one of said end members and the opposite end of said cylinder,

a piston in said cylinder connected to said rod for reciprocation bythe rod,

a spring biasing said rod` and piston inwardly into 'said cylinder,

means forming Aan inwardly opening and outwardly closing check valve through said piston,

a Vbore formedin the Vinner end member as part of the return passage therethrough,

'a hollow needle-valve slidably and sealingly received in said bore,

a second spring biasing said needle valve outwardly of said bore,

said rod being arranged Ito substantially close the hollow outer end of the needle valve in an inwardly retracted position of said rod.

l0. In a hydraulically retarded door closer having a a cylinder member and a Vpiston member reciprocable therein and spring biased to a retracted position,

said members being adapted to be connected between a Ifixed point and a door to'reciprocalte relative to each other with movement of the door,

.means including a one way check valve forming a iirst passage between .the opposite ends of said cylinder and through 'said piston member,

means forming a second passage between lthe opposite ends of said cylinder and including a bore formed in one end of said cylinder and a conduit communi- `eating with the bore and the other end of said cylinder,

means forvarying the effective size of said second passage including a vhollow tubular needle valve axially slidably mounted in one of said members and engageable with the other of said members near the end .of Ithe retracting motion of the members,

said other of said members; having .a seat Vformed thereon engaged by said valve and coacting therewith to form a'substantial 'closure on said seat with 'a small metered opening therebetween .between the Vinterior of said'cylinder and vsaid second passage lthrough .said .hollow .needle valve,

and a spring acting between said valve and said one of said 4members urging .said valve toward said other 0f said members,

said valve'and saidone member in which it is mounted dening asecond metered opening from said cylinder to said second passage which is open in the extended position of the valve and closed when said valve is pushed in against said spring.

References Cited ,in the le of this patent UNITED `STATES PATENTS 12,735,132. Wartian Feb. 21, 1956

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2735132 *Jan 14, 1953Feb 21, 1956 Wartian
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3343203 *Nov 17, 1966Sep 26, 1967Schuermann & Co HeinzTelescoping door closer
US3375542 *Sep 13, 1965Apr 2, 1968Lock IncDoor closer
US3396424 *Jun 19, 1967Aug 13, 1968Norris IndustriesDoor closer
US3449789 *Oct 3, 1966Jun 17, 1969Norris IndustriesDoor closer and check
US3483585 *Nov 7, 1967Dec 16, 1969Ver Baubeschlag Gretsch CoDoor closer with means for damping the closing movement of the door
US3574886 *Jul 10, 1969Apr 13, 1971Norris IndustriesPosition control hydraulic snubber
US4048694 *Mar 1, 1976Sep 20, 1977Ogden Industries Pty. LimitedHydraulic door closer with adjustable time delay dampener
US4080687 *Sep 15, 1976Mar 28, 1978Dorma-Baubeschlag G.M.B.H. & Co. K.G.Door closer
US4185356 *Dec 5, 1977Jan 29, 1980Oy Wartsila AbDoor closer
US4234996 *Oct 25, 1978Nov 25, 1980Dorma-Baubeschlag Gmbh & Co. Kg.Automatic door closer constructed for releasably holding a door in a predetermined partly open position
US5090089 *Jun 10, 1988Feb 25, 1992Eco Schulte Gmbh & Co. KgAutomatic door closing device
US8162112 *Feb 11, 2008Apr 24, 2012Competition Tire EastMethods and apparatus for protecting a shock absorber from bottoming
US20140068893 *Sep 7, 2012Mar 13, 2014E Tai Enterprise Co., Ltd.Door damping apparatus and manufacturing method thereof
Classifications
U.S. Classification16/52, 137/625.3, 188/289
International ClassificationE05F3/10, E05F3/00
Cooperative ClassificationE05F3/108
European ClassificationE05F3/10E