|Publication number||US3079669 A|
|Publication date||Mar 5, 1963|
|Filing date||Mar 30, 1960|
|Priority date||Mar 30, 1960|
|Publication number||US 3079669 A, US 3079669A, US-A-3079669, US3079669 A, US3079669A|
|Inventors||Raymond W Bryant|
|Original Assignee||Jess L Massingill|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (10), Referenced by (6), Classifications (15)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
March 1963 R. w. BRYANT 3,079,669
ALUMINUM REMOVING WHEEL Filed March so, 1960 INVENTOR RA YMONO W HRH-4N7 @mimm/ ATTORNEY 3,079,669 Patented Mar. 5, 1963 3,079,669 AL REMOVENG WHEEL Raymond W. Bryant, Jackson, Mich assignor of one-half to Jess L. Massingill, Jackson, Mich. Filed Mar. 39, 1960, Ser. No. 18,724 1 Claim. (Cl. 29-78) The invention relates to a metal removing Wheel and particularly pertains to a revolving wheel of the abrading type which may be used with the softer metallic materials, such as muminum, brass or the like.
When removing aluminum or brass, or other similar soft metals, or nonmetals, with a conventional abrasive grinding wheel, the wheel soon clogs up and becomes ineffective for removing metal. This clogging of conventional abrading wheels is due to the softer materials adhering to the cutting edges of the abrasive particles and in a short period of time, the cutting edges, and the voids therebetween, become packed with the material being worked upon and this occurrence greatly reduces the efficiency of the wheel. This problem does not arise when working with hard metals, such as steel or cast iron, in that the chips of metal removed by the wheel do not adhere to the cutting edges in the manner of aluminum or brass, but are thrown clear of the wheel in the form of dust or small particles. To meet the above-mentioned problem when working with the softer metals, the grinding Wheel industry has provided a grinding wheel which is much softer than the wheels used with steel. While these special grinding wheels are eifective to remove aluminum, they keep themselves free of the aluminum accumulation by quickly wearing down and thus continually presenting new cutting surfaces. Such Wheels have a very short working life and, hence, become very expensive to use.
To overcome the above-mentioned problems, the invention employs a rotating wheel having teeth defined thereon, which is used in a manner similar to a conventional grinding wheel, but is particularly adapted for use with alu minum, brass, or similar soft materials. To avoid the accumulation of the metal being removed upon the wheel, the teeth of the wheel of the invention are self-cleaning and, hence, if removed metal tends to form on the wheel the tooth configuration is such as to actively cause the metal adhering thereto to break off and thus maintain relatively clean metal removing edges. A metal removing wheel in accordance with the invention may be made of steel and has a long eifective working life, and may be economically produced.
It is thus an object of the invention to provide an abrading wheel having teeth wherein the abrading wheel is self-cleaning and will not tend to accumulate removed metal thereon.
Another object of the invention is to provide an improved abrading wheel for use with aluminum and similar soft materials which is self-cleaning and is capable of producing a very smooth machined surface.
A further object of the invention is to provide a tooth configuration for metal removing tools wherein the tooth configuration resists the accumulation of chips therebetween and produces a smooth metal removed surface.
Another object of the invention is to provide a tooth configuration for metal removing tools wherein the metal removed is scraped, rather than cut, from the article being worked upon, and the chips produced by the scraping action do not interfere with subsequent scraping actions.
These and other objects of the invention arising from the structural arrangements and details thereof will be apparent from the following description and accompanying drawings, wherein:
FIG. 1 is an elevational perspective view of an embodiment of an abrading wheel in accordance with the invention,
FIG. 2 is an elevational sectional view of the abrading wheel of FIG. 1, taken along line II-II,
FIG. 3 is an elevational detailed enlarged edge view of a section of the periphery of the wheel of FIG. 1.
FIG. 4 is an elevational detailed view of enlarged scale of a side of the wheel of FIG. 1 adjacent the periphery thereof, and
FIG. 5 is an elevational detailed enlarged edge projection of a section of the periphery of another embodiment of abrading wheel in accord with the invention.
While the description of the invention is primarily directed to an abrading wheel, it will be appreciated that the tooth configuration employed on the wheel may possibly be used with other metal removing tools with attendant improved results over other known tooth configurations. As the tooth configuration is particularly adaptable to a rotating wheel tool, its use therein is esspecially advantageous.
Referring to FIG. 1, a wheel 10 in accord with the invention may take a substantially planar form having a circular periphery. The central region or hub 12 of the wheel 10 is preferably of lesser thickness than a rim portion 14 on which the teeth are formed, and a hole 16 is axially defined in the wheel for attachment of the wheel to a rotating arbor or spindle. The wheel 10 is preferably constructed of a hardenable steel alloy, and the teeth thereof may be formed by stamping or milling operations and subsequent hardening of the wheel will insure a long, effective life.
The teeth of the tool are defined on the peripheral portion of the wheel in the rim portion 14. The teeth are formed on both opposite side faces of rim 14 of the wheel as well as on the peripheral edge thereof. In this manner, either side of the wheel or the periphery may be used in removing metal, and often a combination of a side and the periphery are simultaneously employed. It will be appreciated that the ability to use the side, as well as the periphery of the wheel, is contrary to the recommended practice with conventional bonded abrasive grinding wheels of this type wherein it is not recommended that the sides of this shape of wheel'be used as a working surface for safety reasons. 7
The tooth configuration employed in accordance with the invention is best shown in FIGS. 3 and 4, and a similar configuration is used on both the sides and the periphery of the Wheel 10. The teeth employed by the wheel consist of a plurality of peaks 18 of elongated configuration wherein the surfaces defining the peaks are identical on both sides thereof. Preferably, the teeth are defined by cylindrically surfaced concave grooves 20. These grooves intersect the adjacent groove in a line 22 which constitutes the metal removing edge of the tooth. On the periphery of the wheel, the grooves 20 are disposed in parallel relationship, and the axes of the cylinders, of which the grooves are a portion, lie parallel to the axis of the wheel hole 16.
The grooves 20 defined on the sides of the wheel It? are radially disposed to the wheel, rather than being parallel to each other. The grooves formed on the side of the wheel are likewise concave cylindrical surfaces and the axes of these cylindrical surfaces are disposed at an angular relation to the general plane of the wheel. It will be noted that the side grooves 20 are related to the peripheral grooves such that the edges 22 of the side teeth in tersect a peripheral edge. Reference is made to FIG. 2 wherein the lines 24 represent the axes of the side cylindrical surfaces. In disposing the side grooves 20 at this angle, it will be appreciated that the teeth formed on the side of the wheels are of a greater depth adjacent the periphery of the Wheel than nearer the center thereof. It
3 may be noted that the minimum depth of the side teeth, e.g., that portion of the side teeth closest to the hole 16, is still of considerable depth whereby the entire edge 22 defined by the side grooves 20 maybe effectively used'.
It be appreciated, however, that most of the metal removed by this type of wheel is removed by the teeth formed on the periphery or the portions of the side teeth adjacent the periphery.
Preferably, to insure a strong tooth, thearcdefining the grooves 20:is less. than one-half of the arc of the periphery of a cylinder wherein the teeth are relatively stubby rather than being of a long and extended length. This relationship will be appreciated from FIG. 4 wherein the center of the cylindrical groove 20' is represented at point 26 The objects of the invention can be obtained with considerable variation existing on different wheels between the, distance from the edges 22, as shown in FIG. 4, to the innermost portions of the grooves 20. However, it is important that the depth of the grooves 20 in relation to the tooth edges 22 be such that the material accumulated in the groove on a single cut does not fill the groove-to the extent that the chip extends radially .above the edge 22., In the event of such an occurrence, the chip will hold the work piece away from the wheel and, hence, create a very rough andobjectionable machining action.
Theoperation of the wheel is as follows: The wheel 10 is mounted upon a rapidly rotating spindle or arbor and thematerial to be reni oved or worked upon is brought intoengagement-with the teeth thereof. The teeth, having a sharp edge 22 will proceed to remove material from the article by a scraping action, and such action will often deposit a chip? upon the portion of the grooves 20 adjacent the forward edge of the tooth. Such a, chip is represented at 2'8 inFIG. 4, when the wheel rotates in the direction of .the :arrow. Soft metals such as aluminum and brassproduce a chip of indefinite form which amounts t-o'merely a particle of the aluminum or brass which adheres to the tooth. It is this adhesion that causes the difficulty when removing soft metals that renders conventionalgrinding wheels inadequate.- As the wheel continues to rotate and the article being worked upon is held in engagement with .theteeth thereof, the accumulation of the material on the wheel tends to force the chip 28 downwardly along the curve of the grooves 20. Referring to FIG. 4, the chip 28 will tend to move toward the right. This motion of the chip across themcuate surface of the groove 20 tends to simultaneously weaken the adhesion of the chip to the wheel and causes the chip to flex, thereby, breaking thechip in. fragments.
,Upon occurrenceot movement. of the chip, the centrifugal force imposed thereon. will throw the chip fragments from the wheel and, hence, maintain the wheel in a relatively clean state at all times. It will be appreciated that the chip formation 28, illustrated in 'FIG. 4, is exaggerated for purposes of illustration, It will also be appreciated that this self-cleaning action takes place on the teeth formed on the sides of the wheel in a like manner, as well as on the periphery. r
As the wheel 10- is-rapidly rotated the ,teeth donot cause an objectionable vibration of the article being worked upon, and ithas beenfound that the wheel of the invention produces a very smooth surface upon the article being machined. This smooth surface is believed to be the result of the scraping action of the teeth in distinction toacuttingacticn as is present with conventional typesof toothed metal-removing tools havingback clearangles. In the commercial embodiment, a wheel having a maximum diameter of 6" is preferably provided with approximately 100 teeth. This number of teeth for this size'of wheel produces very acceptable results. However, the number of-the teeth may be increased or reduced if desired, :and the depth and number of the teeth can be varied according to the type of work done.
While the teeth edges 22 have beenillustrated in one relationship, it will be understood that the grooves may be related in parallel relation, but disposed at angles to the plane of the wheel other than those of the embodiment of FIG. 1. For instance, the concept of the invention may be practiced by disposing the grooves 20 as shown in FIG. 5, wherein the edges 22 are not parallel to the axis of the hole, but are obliquely arranged thereto. Such a construction has advantages from'a vibrational point of view without departing from'the self-cleaning and clean cutting action features of the described teeth. The teeth defined on the side of he wheel may likewise be disposed to the Wheel in a direction other than radially.
'Whil-e the grooves 29 have been described as being of cylindrical configuration it is to be understood that other concave :arcuate forms will produce similar results. For instance, a parabolic curve will function to keep the wheel free of chips and such a curve having a changing curvature will cause considerable chip fiexure to aid in breaking the chip into fragments that it may be thrown from the wheel. It is important, however, that there be no abrupt shoulders orcrevices in the groove that could retain the chip or prevent the movement of the chip along the groove surface. The invention can also be practiced by a tooth configuration wherein the longitudinal axis of the groove is arcuate, in such case the metal removing edge would be aircuate rather than linear.
It will thus be appreciated that the invention discloses an 'a'brading wheel for use with aluminum, brass, or other similar soft 'm aterials, which will be. self-cleaning, is capable of very rapid material removal, m aybe economically produced, and ,is safe to use. The wheel has been found to be very acceptable in machining rubber and will rapidly remove rubber without burningor unduly heating the same. Because of the fact that the Wheel is preferably formed of an integral steel member and is case hardened, thereby having a-tougher core, there i no danger that the wheel may'accidentally disintegrate, as with conventional bonded grinding wheels and, hence, both the peripheryand the sides of the wheel may be used for removingmatelial. As the wheel-of the invention is capable of safely resisting lateral forces the wheel is much more versatile in use than conventional grinding wheels and the work maybe very rapidly fed into the wheel if it isdesired'to rapidly remove'a considerable amount of material therefrom. Thewheel of the invention may be used in place of a millingtool wheel in many, instances where it is desired to remove substantial amounts of metal "and, theteethascrape, rather than cut or bit into the work, the work may be held. in the hand without the wheel. fgrabbing and will; run smoothly without loading up with :chips. The teeth may be formed in the wheel byusing: a conventional tool such as :a milling cutter, or in high'production the wheel may be formed by stamping or rolling processes and, hence, manufactured at low cost] The wheel of the invention may be produced in many'dilferent sizes without departing from the scope thereof, and it'will be understood that various modifications'to the invention may be apparentto those skilled in the without ideparting from the spirit an'dxscope thereof.
I claim: 7 I e In a high speed rotating metal removing tool compris ing a substantially planar wheel having a peripheral portron and side portions on opposite sides of said wheel ad acent and intersecting said peripheral portion,- a plural ity of teeth formed on said peripheral and side portions, said teeth being formed by a plurality of adjacent identical concave cylindrically surfaced grooves, the axes of said grooves on said peripheralportion being parallel and spaced apart a distance less than twice the radius of the groove surfaces and the grooves on said side'portions extending radially with respect .to said wheel, the axes of said grooves lying outside the configuration of the re- .tating wheel, said grooves intersecting adjacent grooves to form said teeth, the surfaces of said grooves defining the sides of said teeth and the intersection thereof defining a metal removing edge such that the groove surface adjacent said edge defines a negative rake angle, said grooves on said opposite sides of said wheel being in opposed relation whereby the teeth thereon are in opposed relation and the edges of opposed teeth intersect a common edge formed on said peripheral portion.
507,071 Hufi Oct. 17, 1893 6 Biesser Apr. 29, 1924 Jacobowitz May 31, 1927 Bolinder July 3, 1928 Kaplan Jan. 8, 1946 Hansen May 13, 1952 Schmidgall Oct. 22, 1957 Broom Nov. 4, 1958 FOREIGN PATENTS Switzerland Apr. 16, 1936 Germany Feb. 14, 1929
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|US8888790||Dec 21, 2004||Nov 18, 2014||Telebrands Corp.||Device for the removal of unsightly skin|
|US20090071491 *||Mar 4, 2008||Mar 19, 2009||Jun Yang||Skin removing implement|
|U.S. Classification||407/29.13, 83/847, 407/61, 83/846, 407/115|
|International Classification||B23D79/00, B23C5/08, B23D71/00|
|Cooperative Classification||B23D79/00, B23C5/08, B23C2210/326, B23D71/00|
|European Classification||B23D71/00, B23D79/00, B23C5/08|