US 3081009 A
Abstract available in
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
March 12, 1963 F, D, COOPER 3,081,009
SOLIDS FLOW SYSTEM Filed Feb. 27, 1959 5 sheets-sheet 1 Fg.4. A Fg.|.
March 12, 1963 `F. D. cooPER n 3,081,009
SOLIDS FLOW SYSTEM Filed Feb.r 27, 1959 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 |NvEN1-oR Franklin D. Cooper March 12, 1963 F. D. COOPER 3,081,009 soLIDs FLow SYSTEM Filed Feb. 27, 1959 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 Fig .6.
INVENTOR Franklin D. Cooper A', Wy
March 12, 1963 F. n. cooPER 3,081,009
SOLIDS FLOW SYSTEM Filed Feb. 27, 1959 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 los |02 lNvEN-ron Franklin D. Cooper March 12, 1963 F. D. COOPERr soLIns FLow SYSTEM 5 sheets-sheet 5 Filed Feb. 27, 1959 lNveN-roR Franklin D. Cooper United States Patent Othce 3,931,099 Patented Mar. 12, 1963 3,081,009 SOLIDS FLOW SYSTEM FranklinV D. Cooper, Worthington, Ohio, assigner to B1- tuminous'Coal Research, Inc., Pittsburgh, Pa., a corporation of Delaware i Filed Feb,v 27, 1959,Ser. No. 795,994 Claims. (CL` Z22- 459) This invention relatesto new bin, hopper` and/or conduit vmeans from which particulatelsolid materials', of varying or uniform size, may be caused to flow vas desited, `even though in a condition that might heretofore have'been considered as in either a non-flowable condition or a poor liowable' condition, without packing, jammingg, arching and/or channeling. More particularly, this invention pertains to new hopper-type devices for, and novel liow therethrough of, such solid materials, such devices having an invertedconical or tapered passage terminating in an outlet of practical size opening or openable into a relatively openv spatial discontinuity.
Simply by way of illustration, a reference may be made to bituminous coal which is made available in a variety of sizes and in a variety of conditions of surface moisture. It long has beenknown that when the separate particles and lumps of such a substance have too much surface moisture for particular storage or movement conditions or service, packing or jamming of suchY coal would result. Indeed, in many industries using, coal and other substances in which difculty with free iiowis often encountered, workm'en are employed with routine duties to punch or rod or poke or hammer on bins, hoppers 'and conduits heretofore used in an effort to start or maintain flow' of such substances. Other means'to avoid the'antici'- pateddifficulties include in some prior practicesequipment for drying such substances before they are stored or put into the flow passages of the system inwhich they are to be treated `or used; in other cases, various electrical means havebeen used or various vibration orstructural means-have been attached to the equipment, or various additives have-been added to the solids, to try to improve storage and/ or flow characteristics of such solids; Further, When such a substance did flow as froma bin or in a hopper of prior kinds, the flow that would occur would often tend to funnel or channel with, in some cases, arching or ratholing or segragation of different sizes or uneven rates of flow, or several of these diiiiculties might occur at the Sametime; And, almost invariably relatively large quantities of material would stick orremain in such a prior bin or hopper.
In the new 'solids flow system'of my invention disclosed herein, those problems which-might normallybeanticipated. with coal and other substances having separate particles includiugpieces, lumps, granulesand nodules, of varying or4 uniform size, are inhibitedand within the capacity of the particular'equipment used, are avoided; I have discovered that by providing my mechanism having an annular inverted conical passage with a terminal outlet communicating `with. av` relatively open spatial discontinuity, particulate substances which, because of wetness, moisture content or inherentv characteristics, would n ormally be expected in the storing'. and/or gravity flow movement thereof'to givediii'iculty even up to the point lof refusal to start flowing from storage or ofthe cessation of ilow in the `course of movement, such substances handled under my invention will store well in static conditionand upon anyr opening-of the: outlet at the'bottom of such annular inverted conical passage will llow relatively freely including flow'under conditions where it` would be impractica-lor impossible to'luse prior equipment; Moreover, the ow of such solids pursuant tolmy'V new syster'riwill operate` with lower lateral hopper pressures. uponV the equipment, the course ofV flow, with: uniform lowering ofrthe levelof the surface of such material as flowl occurs, withrapidl attainment of maximum flow consonant with the openingprovided at the apex of the annular inverted conical passage, with relatively uniform and full how discharge from the new'system even though fresh material may be being. fed to one sideof the entry portion of the passage, with self-cleaning bythe complete emptying of the interior ofthe equipment in my new system when flow to thatextent is desired, with the ability to interrupt flow' as desiredl without detriment to resumption and to resume flow again by the mere reopening of the outlet at the bottom of the annular inverted conicalpa-ssage, Withitrouble-freeV storage if? desired above such annular inverted. conical passage surrounding a conical recess in general registry with the base of the in-vertedconical center in the interior'` of said'annular inverted conical passage, and, without n'eed for vibrators, or other tiow aids commonly employed heretofore.
Other objects,vfeatures and advantages of my new solids flow system will be apparent from the following description and the accompanying drawings, whichv are illustrative only, in which:
FIGURE l is a view in eleva-tion and section, with parts ofthe ca-p cone and an inverted cone inA the inside thereof partly' broken away, to illustrate a cooperating bin and hopper embodiment of my invention.
FIGURE 2 is a plan view takenV generally along line II-II of FIGURE l, Withthe cap cone shown inFIG- URE 1 removed;
FIGURE 3 is a detailed view in elevation taken generally along line III-IIIV of FIGURE 2;
FIGUREJ4 is a view like that shown in FIGURE 1 of a somewhat modified embodiment of my invention;
FIGURE 5 is a view in elevation and section of a further modiiication of my invention Vshow-ing a conduit hopper embodiment at a junction between `two conveyor belts for the solids nbeing conveyed;
FIGURE 6 is a perspective view, partly broken away, of another cooperating bin and hopper modification of my invention with the cap andinverted cones and the conical hopper shell'in pyramidal form;
FIGURE 7 is-a front View, with a portion of the exterior thereof broken: away, of a rectangular modification of my invention;
FIGUREv 8 is an end view, with a portion of the exterior thereof 'broken away, of the modification shown in FIGURE 7;
FIGURE 9 is a planview of the modification shown in FIGURES 7` and 8`;
FIGURE l0 is a somewhat more detailed view of the bottom of'tlie bin discharge device modification shown in EIGURES to illustrate a novel closure means therefor;
FIGURE l1 is a front View of a rectangular modification of the tylpe shown in FIGURES 7 to l0 utilized as a binandfdischar'ge device for a coke oven in cooperation with aV larry carembodiment of myY invention, t an external portion of which has been broken away, said` ligurefhaving been taken generally along line XI-XI of FIGURE 12Y with the' covers removed fromv the ports shown'iin FIGURE l2; and
FIGURElZ is a view in" section taken along line XII-XII-of; FIGURE l1;
Referringto FIGURES l to`3 'of thev drawings, a new solidsiiowdevice 10`may-comprise a` cylindrical bin shell1portion`11 havinga cap cone4 l2 positionedv coaxially therein,` a taperedl hopper shellV 13 and an inverted hoppeiz. cone lflfpositi'oned coaxially therein. AsV shown, shell 11 is" provided with an upper ilange l5 vfor attachment, ifdesired, tofthebottom or side of a bunker or silo tol keepg'biir, shell. lltilled with aV materialr to' be. dispensed or distributed as and when desired by the flow discharge thereof out of an outlet 16 adjacent the bottom of hopper 1.3-14, by gravity flow, whenever, a slide gate 17 is partially or fully opened dependent upon the rate of flow desired. Or, device may receive solid particles from a conveyor or a receptacle emptying into the top of shell 11 normally from a height consonant with the avoidance of undesired and known compacting to which the material may otherwise be inherently subject. Still further, my new solids ow device 10 may be made in the form of a mobile unit by being mounted on a wheeled vehicle or frame either alone or in assemblage with other such units 10 for use, as an example of a mobile form, as a larry car for coke ovens.
The shells 11 and 13 and the cones 12 and 14 may be made of any suitable material such as sheet metal or carbon steel of sufficient thickness for its capacity. As shown, portions of the bin and hopper shells 11 and 13 may be made in flanged ringlike sections joined together, if such sectional construction is preferred, as may be the case with larger capacity devices. Cap cone 12 is preferably provided with a ller plate 18 in its base and the inverted cone 14 is provided with a filler plate 19 closing its base. Both cones may be supported in operative adjoining base to base position by a spider 20 having radially extending angle arms joined at the crossover center as shown in FIGURE 2 and having a central hole in which an upwardly and downwardly coaxially extending pin 21 may be fixed for centering purposes, a central hole being provided in each of the filler plates 18 and 19 for such centering purpose. The cones 12 and 14 may be fastened in unit 10 by tack welding of the cones to the spider 20.
In device 10, the elevation of spider 20 and therefore of the respective bin and hopper cones 12 and 14 may be adjusted in a variety of ways one of which is shown in detail in FIGURE 3. Thus, at cardinal points around the device 10 above the junction between the bin shell and hopper shell portions thereof, vertical slots 22 may be provided so that internal brackets 23 may be affixed at the selected height to the outer shell of device 10 by a stud, lock washer and nut assembly 24. The outer ends of the spider 2t) are supported on the horizontal flange of the respective brackets 23 and rigidly connected thereto by bolt and nut assemblies 25 in the illustrated embodiment. Any portion of the respective slots 22 above the brackets 23 may be closed by a slidable shield 26 aixed to such bracket. In this way, an adjustment may be made in the height of the central cones for optimum positioning principally of the inverted hopper cone 14 in hopper shell 13 with the apex 27 of the inverted cone adjacent the restricted outlet 16 at the bottom of hopper 13--14.
In operation, a batch of wet coal of small size including slack may, for example, originally be at a level 28 when gate 17 is opened by moving the gate to its dotted line position shown in FIGURE 1 until the level in bin 11-12 falls to the level 28a. In the course of such flow, the top surface of the coal remains relatively level and undisturbed. Moreover, the flow of coal from the outlet 16 is a solid uid-like flow which quickly attains a maximum consonant with the opening provided by the extent that gate 17 is moved and which, moreover, remains approximately at that maximum despite the change in the height of the coal above outlet 16 during the course of the movement of the top surface thereof, e.g., from a higher level 28 to a lower level 28a. During such flow, the coal moves through the annular inverted conical passage 29 between the exterior surface of cone 14 and the interior surface of hopper shell 13 with fasten movement in the portions of coal bordering the surface of cone 14 relative to the portions of the flowing coal bordering the interior surface of the shell 13. And, those unique ow characteristics described remain even though the coal may be fed into the top of bin shell 11 from one side thereof rather than evenly across the entire area of the same. Such interior surface of shell 13 is at a relatively steep angle to the horizontal greater than the respective angle of repose in a relatively dry condition of the particular solids particles being handled. While ow is going on, the lateral pressure outwardly from the vertical axis of device 10 decreases against the upper part of shell 13A and increases slightly against the lower part of shell 13 relative to static non-flow pressure conditions. The lateral pressure against the interior of shell 11 opposite the sides of cap cone 12 under flow conditions appears to increase somewhat. The new flow results also obtain even though gate 17 is opened but a slight amount so that the opened portion of outlet 16 is somewhat offset from the vertical central axis of the device 10. Still further, if, for example, when the level of the coal in device 10 reaches level 28a, the gate 17 is quickly shut closing outlet 16, the coal remaining in device 10 will not compact or wedge or arch but will be retained in owable condition and resume the new ow characteristics upon the reopening thereafter of gate 17.
As an example, by way of illustration only and not by way of limitation, a test demonstration of a device like device 10' provided a discharge flow at a maximum rate of 2500 pounds of wet coal per minute of *A x O-inch bituminous coal having about 13% of surface moisture based on the combined weight of dry coal and water. Moreover, the rate of How has been throttled to as low a rate as 9 pounds per minute by the use of a moving horizontal conveyor placed below and near to open outlet 16 to remove such coal at that rate. Further, even when gate 17 was closed very rapidly shutling ctf the coal,
ow rapidly began again upon reopening of the gate, showing that in my new device such closure of the hopper opening does not cause wedging or jamming of the coal in the device despite the high surface water content thereof. In another test with the device, M4 x O-inch coal in admixture with M6 x O-inch coal in the volumetric ratio of and 20% respectively and having 9 weight percent surface moisture provided the same new ow characteristics which have been described in the preceding test. Indeed, small size coals, including slack, having surface moisture quantities up to 16% by weight based on the combined weight of coal and wafer owed whenever the hopper outlet 16 was opened without arching, compacting, wedging, jamming, ratholing or interrupting itself. In feeding larger sized particles such as egg coal to a device such as that illustrated in FIGURE 1, which egg coal may have a general size about 2 x 3inches with pieces as long as 5 inches, it was also noticed that there is a tendency in the use of such devices of this invention for such larger pieces to become oriented so that the longest axis thereof is in the general direction of flow, thereby further promoting the ow of such materials.
In such illustrative tests, the device used was in substantial conformance with device 10 with the interior apex angle and base angles of cap cone 12 each equal to 60; the interior base angles between filler plate 19 and the sides of inverted cone 14 were 77; and the interior apex angle of the inverted cone 14 was 26; the beginning taper of the two uppermost tapered ring sections of hopper shell 13 made an angle of 60 with the horizontal while the three lowermost tapered ring sections thereof were at an angle of 75 from the horizontal. The apex point 27 of hopper cone 14 was positioned 2 inchesy above the plane of outlet 16, which outlet had an internal diameter of 8*/2 inches. The internal diameter of shell 11 was 36 inches and the diameter of the bases of the respective cones was 20 inches. The foregoing figures and the following tabulated dimensions and areas of that test device are provided herein by way of illustration only and not by way of limitation, the heights in the table being ltaken .between horizontal. planesat the respectivel levels ymarkedby` theletters.A tofG, inclusive:
The somewhatrnodified form of my device illustrated in FIGURE 4 has-its parts in substantial correspondence with the respective parts shown in device in FIGURE 1, such correspondingparts in the FIGURE 4 vform being provided with the same reference numerals respectively with the addition of arprime accentthereto. Device 10' is` particularly useful in the case. of solidsubstances of a more diflicult ow condition character in terms of the Vnormal difficulty which might be encountered in trying to cause such substances to .flow or to retaina flowable condition when stored, such as `would be found in a slack coal having surface moisture contents yin the neighborhood of 13% and above by weight'based on the combined weight of coal and water. In such a situation, device 10 facilitates the ow pursuant to this invention of such more difficult solid materials. It will be noted that'there is a more sharply peaked cap cone 12 which 4.0 tends to reduce` the lateral pressure against theinteriors vof shell 11 during the course of such ow andthat all of the tapered portion -ofhopper shell 13 isat-a uniform'angle of about 75 relative to the horizontal. In the case of the `modified `form of device like that shown in FIGURE 3, with a 12-inch diameter outlet, a maximum` outiiow rate per minute would be about 7000 pounds for wet 1A; X G-inch coal having a 12.6 weight percent moisture content, which is equal to about 6100 pounds per minute of lmoisture-free coalin the outflow material. It'is also to benoted that devices of this invention are fully Selhcleaning when a cap cone is used with a` hopper cone in thatthey will clear, themselves entirely of all of the solids therein if the outlet is left open Vuntil emptying takes place, which self-cleaning feature is Van advantageous feature with many-materials such as coal and grains concerning which the phenomenon `of spontaneous combustion is often a problem.`
In the further embodimentv illustrated in FIGURE 5, parts therein corresponding generally in construction and functioning to parts of thestructure shown inV FIGURE l, are` provided with the same reference numerals respectively'with the; addition ofthe-suiiix letter a thereto. Inthat embodiment'of FIGURE 5, it willlbe; noticed that `device 10a is used substantially'as a iiow4 conduit at` a: junction `between two-conveyor belts 30 and 31, vone or both ofwhichemay be of intermittent operation relative tothe other; It Will'be realized ythat the-'solids fed by conveyor 30and carried away by conveyor 31'wil1 cease flowing through device 10a whenever conveyor' 31 is stoppedA andY thelevel of the solids thereon rises to -block outlet 16a. thus serving as an.. automatic shutoff for-device 10a even though conveyor 30 may still be bringing material and feeding it into the topof device 10b. It will also bernoticedthat `the portion Z7atof'iin- 75 verted cone 14a is truncated although the theoretical apex point is-still adjacent the plane of outlet 16a.v It may still further'be noted that the annular linverted lconical passage 29a diverges somewhat-in yaV downward-directionin termsoi-the-elements of conical shell 13a and inverted cone 14a `lying in a planev through the vertical axis. of device 10a. By means of the new conduit device 10a, my new solids flow principle is achieved and jamming and packing, which' commonly occurred at `junctionsbetween conveyors, are eliminated.
While solids How devices of this invention having curved or round horizontal crossl Sections are preferred, the principle ofthe invention nevertheless-isobt-ainablein respectof hopper devices or oooperatingfbinand hopper devices in which the inverted cone is `in the form of a pyramid.` As used herein, the-terms cone and conical shall be deemed to include the terms pyramid and pyramidal respectively, whether square or rectangular, hexagonal, octagonahetc. inasmuch as a vcone can be considered as apyramidal ligure having an iniinitude o-f sides aroundwhich acircle or other closed ligure (e.g'., Ian ellipse).` canbe circumscribed. Accordingly, another modification of `my invention having a pyramidal form in the respective cones and in the hopper shell is illustrated in FIGURE 6, theV parts thereof otherwise corresponding generally in `construction andfunctioning to parts show-n in the FIGURE l form of the device being provided with the" same reference `numerals respectively with lthe addition of the suiix letter b thereto. As shown, a plane through the vertical centralk axis of the device '10b andi-the diagonal corners ofthe respective pyramidal cones 12b and 14b will also pass through the correspond'- ing diagonal cornersy of shell portions 11b and 13b, although if desired the diagonal oorners'of the `respective pyramidal `cones may rotateabout the yaxis of the device so astobe out of Aregis-try with -the respectivesplanes passing th-rough such diagonal corners of the shell portions of devi-ce 10b.
FIGURES. 7 to l0, inclusive, illustrate a rect-angular modification 10% ofv my invention employing a novel closure means. `Suchirectangular modification may'be itself A'arcornbined bin and bin dis-charge device embody-r ing `the principle of my invention, or a` bin discharge alone -to be used in' conjunction with'a larger silo, bunker, or other equipment. It is rigidly connected to andsupported by agirding/frame lllihaving vertical Ymembers'ltlZ 'and bin-ding cross vmembers 103 rigidlyioonnected to device ltl. As shown, device 104! has a laterally enclosing outer shell 104 which may ybe of welded plate construction. The ends ltlS'thereof are vertical while the fron-t-andback thereof may utilize vertical plates 106 and 107A in the upper and intermediate` portions-` thereof connected by inclinedplates 10811: which make anangle-tothe horizontal above thenorrnal angle of'repose ofthe loose material or materials to VbeV handled by I device 100. Plates 107 rare joined vin ush relation `toeplates '108 respectively -whichltaper to4 'ar-terminal outlet-109. Outletlg conrmunicates with a relatively open spatial discontinuity,- vas do the outlets intheearlier, described embodiments. Plates 108fform afrusturn. of .anA inverted cone in end view cross section. An-elongated `doublercone-shaped `in cross section mem-ber lltfwith -an upper or cap vportion liland a llower vor hopper portion 1112 is welded offplates in? `coinciding Abasefto -base"relationnat. a common plane 113 whichY isabove -aplane-1114 passing through thejoints or bendswhere the respective plates-107 andilmeet From end-toend; the'doublecone-:shaped member lli)` is 'also somewhat-like aadiamondshapein crossA section and has its respectiveV ends terminating-'attire plates 105 to'whichit'may be frigidlyf'astened bywelding Asshown in FIGURE-Eithedouble cone 1lii-iiairesz downwardly from its upper t apex-'115 tokcornerprojections 11.16 atthe front. andback-:Whererthe bases of 'the' respective cone sections; `moet and then the double cone-21,10- tapers :downwardly on each side to a lower lapextlfl-'Ilin)juxtaposition to outlet 109'. Thus, outlet 109 is divided into front and back portions either or both of which may be left open, or opened, as desired, in connection with the particular service to which device 100 is applied, whether stationary, or mobile. Device 100 and its supporting frame -may be made mobile by supporting the same from a crane, or on a vehicle or other carrier and placement means.
The various plates of device 100 also instead of being welded at the joints are capable of being made by bending at those locations, or otherwise shaped as desired and various fastenings other than welding may be used in constructing the device as and when so desired. Preferably, the inner surface 118 presented by the double cones 110 and outer surface 119 presented by the shells 107- 108 generally facing the inner surface, inclusive of the end portions 105 thereof, are relatively smooth and flush respectively. Those surfaces define a collective conical passage 120 in end view section below plane 114 comprising front and back inwardly and downwardly inclined portions terminating at outlet 109. 'Ihe horizontal area of the opening bounded by pla-tes 105 and 107 and of the distance between plates 107 should be selected at no less area and/or minor dimension respectively than one of the order -at which particulate solids having more or less diicult ow characteristics will normally flow as a general rule. An opening of such an area inclusive of any such lesser dimension will, however, be impractical in general for the storage and/or feeding of such material into a boiler, furnace, heater, vehicle, or other customary receivers thereof. Consequently, my invention provides a means for effecting ow and feeding through a practical size outlet at controllable rates irrespective of whether or not the material has relatively difficult flow characteristics as is the case with wet coals especially in the smaller sizes. Flow through one or both sides of device 100 appears to follow the principle and achieve the novel ow character of my earlier described embodiments; and even when outlet 109 has been closed for a relatively long period of time, the opening thereof will immediately restart such flow. Further, it would appear that if a distributor or conveyor were utilized below an outlet of an embodiment of my invention and is extensive enough to carry away all flow from said outlet, there also exists a relatively open spatial discontinuity which would also exist in such a case as it does in the case of such outlet opening into a greater and relatively unconfined space.
A closure gate assembly 121 is provided for the front and back portions of outlet 109 in the illustrated embodiment which enables such ow to be relatively easily regulated between the included extremes of no-ow and fullow. Closure assembly 121 may comprise a vertical hinge plate 122 which passes between the plates 112 at the apex 117 where it is secured thereto; such plate 122 extending horizontally to the end plates 105 where it may also be welded. Piano-type hinges 123 are fastened in horizontal fashion to each side of plate 121 below the bottom of shell 108 defining the edges of outlet 109. A gate 124 in turn is fastened to movable leaves of the respective hinges 123 and each may be provided with eyes 125 along the outer edge thereof near its ends. Eyes 125 are engaged by cables 126 the upper ends of which are adapted to be wound on drums 127 fixed to a windlass shaft 128 when a handle 129 is turned in a winding direction. Shaft 128 is fastened by suitable brackets to frame 101 and the windlass on each side of device 100 is provided with a ratcheting wheel and releasable pawl (not'shown) to hold the respective gate 124 connected thereto in whichever angular position to which it may be moved by a person turning handle 129. Thus in FIGURE l0, the right-hand gate is shown fully open while the left-hand gate is shown held in a partially opened position. The fright-hand gate is shown in chain outline also to indicate a fully closed position. v
Each gate 124 may be provided with a step 130 to assist in the control of flow through the portion of outlet 109 thereabove, such step appearing to have an impeding effect helpful in such regulation which is a function of the angle to which a gate is adjusted by handle 129 for flow control between its fully open and fully closed positions, respectively. Further, whenever a gate 124 is moved to full closure position, no detrimental jamming of material occurs in the vicinity of the hinge and as and when that gate is lowered to a selected flow position, flow from the outlet portion thereabove will recommence irnmediately in the manner of a free-fiowing material.
Such a type of rectangular modification is shown in FIGURES l1 and 12 as a storage and free-flow feeding device for the larry car or cars of a coke oven or ovens and parts thereof corresponding generally in construction and functioning to parts shown in FIGURES 7 to l() are provided with the same reference numerals respectively with the addition of a prime accent thereto. Thus, device is fixed to a frame 101 mounted on the binding of a by-product coke oven 131 with transverse retorts to a selected one of which coal for coking is fed periodically through its ports 132 by a larry car. Ports 132 normally are covered by covers 132a which have been removed in FIGURE ll for the purpose of showing how a larry car 133 embodying this invention would be utilizable to refill such a retort with coking coal in a more rapid and troublefree manner after device 100' had been shut off and car 133 moved into position directly above such ports in the selected retort oven. Remotely controllable motor operators 134 provided with magnetic brakes or other holding mechanism are shown for the powered operation of windlass drums 127 in the operation of device 100.
Larry car embodiment 133 is provided with a rigid vehicle frame 135 having downwardly extending legs 136 which terminate in flanged wheels which travel on rails 138 fastened to the top of the coke producing battery so that the larry car can be replenished from bin device 100' as needed to feed the respective retorts in the furnace. A coking coal receiver body 139 is rigidly connected to frame 135 and the inside thereof is integrally connected in a relatively flush manner to a plurality of spout feeders 140 extending across the whole bottom thereof. Each such feeder spout is circular in plan and comprises a shell having a vertical upper portion 141 and a tapered lower portion 142 with a right circular double cone member 143 positioned therein and rigidly held in place by a spider 144 defining a common base plane for the upper cone shaped portion 145 and the lower inverted cone shaped portion 146. Such common base plane is above a horizontal plane 147 passing through the joint or corner where the upper and lower shell portions of feeder 140 meet. The downwardly tapered passage 148 between the inner and outer surfaces in each feeder 140 extends to an outlet 149 in juxtaposition to the apex 150 of the lower cone shaped member. The outlet is normally closed by a slide 151 remotely operable in guides 152. A cylinder 153 may be connected to each slide gate 151 with the piston rod 154 thereof pivotally fastened to the outside of feeder 140 so that upon suitable opening or closing actuation of the slide operator 153-154 by suitable valve and flexible fluid flow connections (not shown), the door of one or more of the feeders 140 can be operated individually or groupwise as desired when car 133 is directly above a set of open ports 132 to charge such retort with coking coal. It will be understood that other uses and forms of materialhandling car and vehicle constructions may be made within the contemplation and teaching of my invention.
From the foregoing, it will be evident that a major new principle has been discovered to obtain flows of particulate solids as an when desired. Moreover, it will be apparent that the new constructions hereunder may be made of a variety of substances including common materials and that such constructions will be of relatively low cost. Still further, it will be apparent that while the sli embodimentsillustrated include both cap and inverted cones or cone-shaped sections, the principle of this inven- LOI; is utilizable if material is Ifed into a taperedhoppe-r of my invention around the topof or in the annular inverted conical or downwardly and inwardly inclined space between the `exterior ofthe inverted cone orl cone shaped section. and the interior of the hopper shell in which event n o cap cone or bin shell would be used. it will be apparent, again, that while the new devices-of this Ainvention 'have been illustratively described in con- ,IlCCliQll with the flow of coal `which heretofore has been regarded as posing a problem to place or retain in flowable condition as moisture content thereof l increased, mynew principle isapplicable also to other solids which, because of surface moisture, whether water or other liquid, o r internal moisture, or frictional characteristics, orideiormability under pressure, might normally be-expeered to cause diiliculty inv flowing or to have their llowable, condition depreciate when stored, may be han.- dled byv devices ofthis invention with improvement of iljowable quality because of' the forces operative upon such` lids when in or. flowing through devices ofthis invention. Such solids in addition to coal might include for example but withoutlimitation thereto, various grains, chemicals, elastic and plastic materials, ore, fly ash, slag, cernent, coke and `coke breeze, crushed stone,
clay, sand, gravel, sawdust, asbestos dust, starchy-contentV and like materials, mica and vother substances, whether inherently discrete particles or otherwise placed inA particle, lump, granule, nodule, pellet or other separate subdivided `or agglomerated particulate form which `it may be desired to subject substantially to gravity flow in the course of the-handling, transportingand/,ortreating thereof; While devices; n lale in accordance with my invention appear to work best when the parts thereof are in vertical coaxial orsynnnetrical relation with the conical or cone shapedinernbers thereof being in the nature of a rightangled"2 cone, nevertheless advantages are obtainable pursuant to my new principle if the axis of such adevice iS. positioned somewhat out of `a vertical position, or when 4sonic eccentricity may exist in the axial positioning of the cone or cones as the case may be relative to their respective shell or shells, or when any such cone has the vertex thereof oiset from a vertical axis normal to `the base and passing, through the center thereof of said base. And conoids and conoidal members may be utilized also in practicing my invention, the terms cone and conical Vherein to be deemed further to include the term conoid and conoidal respectively.
This application is a continuation-in-part of my copending application, Serial No. 639,355, iiled February 1l, 1957, now abandoned.
It will also be apparent that various modiiications may be made in embodiments of this invention without departure from the spirit thereof or the scope of the appended claims.
l. In a solids ilow system device for particulate materials such as moist coal or the like, apparatus comprising, in combination, an upright circular bin shell having an opening at the top substantially equal to the internal diameter of said shell, an inverted substantially right circular conical hopper shell, the bottom of said bin shell having an internal diameter equal to the internal diameter of the top of said hopper shell, the bottom of Said bin shell being joined to the top of said hopper shell in respective coaxial relation, said hopper shell having a steep slope and a central outlet substantially at the bottom thereof in a plane normal to the axis of said shells, said axis further intersecting said plane at the center of said outlet, a right circular cap cone positioned in said bin shell in substantially coaxial relation thereto, an inverted right circular hopper cone positioned in said hopper shell in substantially coaxial relation thereto, said cones having bases substantially contiguous and positioned above the joint between said shells, said joint between said shells being positioned considerably closer to said bases of said cones than it is to said outlet, the base diameters of said respective cones being substantially equal and less than the internal diameter or" said bin shell, means lfor holding said cones rigidly in substantially coaxial relation to said shells, the perimeter of the bases of said cones being horizontally and radially inwardly spaced from the inside of the lower end of said upper shell to provide an annular passage of somewhat increasing area in a downward direction between the base of said hopper cone and said joint between said shells, the lower end of said hopper cone being about at the level of 'said'outleh said hopper cone and said hopper shell having substantially coincident axes and together extending substantially directly to said outlet, the base interior angle of said hopper cone being steep and substantialiy at least-'as great as the base interior angle of said cap colle, the interior surfaces of said shells and the surraces of said cones being smooth and the annular space therein relatively'unimpeded.
2, In a` solids yflow system device for particulate materials such asY moist coal or the like, apparatus comprising, in combination, an upright cylindrical bin shell open at the top and bottom, an inverted conical hopp-er shell, the lower end of said bin shell having an internal diameter substantially equal to the internal diameter of the upper endof said hopper shell, the lower end of said bin shell being joined to the upper end of said hopper shell in respective coaxial relation, said hopper shell vhaving a steep slope and an outlet substantially at the bottom thereof extending at an Aangle to the axis of sai-d hopper shell, said device substantially terminating at said outlet, `an upright cap cone positioned with its base adjacent the lower end of said bin shell in rigid coaxial relation thereto, and an inverted hopper cone positioned in said hopper shell in rigid coaxial relation thereto with its base in ysubstantially adjoining base to base relation with the base of said cap cone and the lower end of said hopper cone being adjacent said outlet, the bases of said respective cones being positioned above the junction of said shells, said junction vbeing nearer said bases and farther from said outlet, the diameters of said bases being approximately equaland less than the internal diameter of said bin shell, the base interior angle of said hopper cone being substantially -as steep as the slope of said hopper shell, said hopper cone and hopper shell deiining a passage around said hopper cone which is relatively unirnpeded to said outlet, said bases of said cones being horizontally and radially inwardly spaced from the inside of the lower end of said bin shell to provide an annular passage of somewhat increasing area downwardly at least between the base of said hopper cone and said junction of said bin and hopper shells.
3. In a solids iiow system device for particulate materials, such as coal or other moisture-retaining substance, apparatus comprising, in combination, an upper shell with substantially Vertical walls forming a lateral boundary, .said upper shell being open at top and bottom and having a cone positioned generally uprightly adjacent at least the lower end thereof, said cone being spaced inwardly from the inside of said upper shell in fixed relation thereto, a lower shell forming a lateral boundary, said lower shell tapering steeply in a downward direction to an outlet tor discharge therethrough, said outlet being at an angle to the axis of said lower shell adjacent the lower end thereof, said apparatus substantially terminating at said outlet, said lower shell at its upper end being at least as large as the lower end of said upper shell and joined thereto, an inverted cone positioned in said lower shell with the base of said inverted cone adjacent the base of said first-named cone and positioned above the joint between said shells, said joint between said shells being positioned considerably closer to said bases of said cones than it is to said outlet, the
lower end of said inverted cone being adjacent said outlet, said inverted cone being spaced inwardly from the inside of said lower shell in substantially immovable relation thereto, said bases of said cones being horizontally and radially inwardly spaced from the inside of the lower end of said upper shell to provide at least one passage of somewhat increasing area downwardly between said bases and the joint between said upper and lower shells, said inverted cone and the inside of said lower shell generally defining a steeply sloping inverted unimpeded conical passage, whereby when such a material is introduced into said upper shell it will ow downwardly by gravity for discharge through said outlet in a relatively solid flow having a cross section approximating that of said outlet.
4. In a solids ow device for particulate materials which relatively readily pack or arch, apparatus comprising, in combination, a laterally enclosing shell having a substantially vertical upper portion and a downwardly tapered lower portion, the angle of said taper to the horizontal being steeply sloped and at least equal to the angle of repose for said materials in loose condition relative to the substance of said shell, said shell having a substantially horizontal outlet at the lower end thereof for discharge therefrom, said apparatus substantially terminating'at said lower end, a double conical member positioned in the middle of said shell, said member having the upper and lower portions thereof cone shaped in cross section with the lower such cone shaped portion being inverted and the respective bases of said portions substantially coinciding, said bases being positioned above the meeting line between said upper and lower portions of said shell, said meeting line between said shell portions being positioned considerably closer to said bases of said cone shaped portions than it is to said outlet, said inverted cone shaped portion forming an annular funnelshaped unimpeded discharge passage with said lower portion of said shell and having its lower end in 'juxtaposition to said outlet, said bases being horizontally and radially spaced inwardly from said substantially vertical upper portion to define an annular passage portion of increasing area in a downward direction between the level of said bases and of said meeting line, and a selectively operable shut-oit member for said outlet positioned in juxtaposition thereto.
5. ln a solids i'low system device for coal and other particulate materials, apparatus comprising, in combination, a shell forming a lateral boundary, said shell having at least an upper generally upright portion and a lower portion tapering in a substantially steep downward slope in the neighborhood of at least about directly to an outlet extending across said shell at the lower end thereof for discharge therefrom, said device substantially terminating at said outlet, an upright cone member and an inverted cone member positioned in said shell substantially in base-to-base relation with the base of said inverted cone member positioned above the top of said tapering portion, said top of said tapering portion being positioned considerably closer to said cone bases than it is to said outlet, said inverted cone member extending downwardly in said shell to said outlet with a substantially steep slope, the exterior of said inverted cone member being substantially in inwardly spaced relation to the inside of the lower portion of said shell to dene a pas'- sage around said inverted cone substantially unimpeded to said outlet, said passage decreasing in horizontal cross sectional area at a rate of approximately one square foot per unit of linear axial distance, said unit being chosen between the limits of about seven inches and about sixteen inches, extending toward said outlet within said lower tapering portion of said shell, said inverted cone member above said lower tapering portion of said shell further dening with the lower end of said upper upright portion of said shell a passage of increasing horizontal cross sectional area in a downward direction between the base of said inverted cone member and the top of said lower tapering portion, said base being inwardly spaced from the inside of said shell above said lower tapering portion.
References Cited in the tile of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 575,550 Mathews Ian. 19, 1897 846,751 Melvin Mar. 12, 1907 1,339,682 Allen May 11, 1920 '1,732,442 Jaeger Oct. 22, 1929 2,471,288 schulz May 24, 1949 2,611,876 Hartmann Sept. 23, 1952 2,670,105 Huhn Feb. 23, 1954 2,765,894 Craig Oct. 9, 1956 FOREIGN PATENTS 462,709 Germany I uly 17, 1928 471,223 Germany Feb. 8, 1929 502,663 Italy Dec. l, 1954 982,017 France J an. 24, 1951