|Publication number||US3081129 A|
|Publication date||Mar 12, 1963|
|Filing date||Dec 16, 1960|
|Priority date||Dec 16, 1960|
|Publication number||US 3081129 A, US 3081129A, US-A-3081129, US3081129 A, US3081129A|
|Inventors||Ann Ridder Clara|
|Original Assignee||Ann Ridder Clara|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (4), Referenced by (69), Classifications (9)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
C. A. RIDDER CHAIRS AND SEATS March 12, 1963 Filed Dec.
6 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR CLARA ANN RIDDER a ig? iiees ATTORNEYS March 12, 1963 c. A. RIDDER 3,081,129
CHAIRS AND SEATS Filed Dec. 16, 1960 6 Sheets-Sheet 2 '0 Q AQEE INVENTOR CLARA ANN RIDDER 371 gr .1 r
ATTORNEYS March 12', 1963 c. A. RIDDER 3, 2
CHAIRS AND SEATS Filed Dec. 16, 1960 6 Sheets-Sheet 3 FEDCBAABCDEF V BYgpu flaz aflaw ATTORNEYS 6 Sheets5heet 5 Filed Dec. 16, 1960 3 INVENTOR CLARA ANN RIDDER ATTORNEYS March 12,1963 c. A. RIDDER CHAIRS AND SEATS 6 Sheets-Sheet 6 Filed Dec. 16, 1960 /H 0 B o U M 9 /o/8 /a II llll O l/0 I l I I o /0 0/ 0 O 0 /O/ /2 o o A INVENTOR CLARA ANN RIDDER ATTORNEYS United States Filed Dec. 16, 1960, Ser. No. 76,321. 2 Claims. (Cl. 297-452) The present invention relates to improvements in chairs and seats The invention. is more particularly concerned with providing chairs and seats which provide support to the. body of. a seated. person in a manner to provide true comfort.
Chairs and seats produced in-the past have too often been designed with factors such as appearance, cost and structural strength as the dominating factors with little or no real attention being given to the actual comfort of. the user.. This hasresulted in chairs and seats which often contort the body into uncomfortable and even unhealthy positions. So far as I am aware, there has not heretofore been any truly scientific study of the characteristics of a chair or'seat which contribute to or detract from the comfort of the user. The present invention is the result of exhaustive research into those characteristics of chairs. or seats which are essential to true comfort. Such characteristics were found to include the height of the seat, the slant of the seat, the depression or three-dimensional contours of the seat, the slant of the chair back, the depth of the back and the three-dimensional contour of the chair back; The most important characteristic contributory to comfort was found to be the relationship in space of the seat and its contours to the back and. its contours. These characteristics and relationships are important only in the body contacting portions of the seats and backs. The portions of the seats and backs which do not contact the body may assume a wide variety of shapes and configurations: It is thus possible for a chair or seat to incorporate my improvementsand tohave any desired overall appearance.
It is therefore the primary object of the invention to provide chairs and seats which furnish true comfort to users thereof.
A further object of the invention is to provide different chairs or seatswhich will provide true comfort in each ofithree basic types of sitting positions preferred by adult persons.
The. foregoing and otherobjects and advantages of the invention will be better understood from the following description which has reference to the accompanying drawings, wherein:
FIGURE 1 is a perspectiveview of a test chair used inobtaining the data utilized in the production of the chairs and seats of the invention;
FIGURE 2 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view through the center of a test chair after completion of a typical test;
FiGURE 3 is an enlarged fragmentary vertical sectional view of a portion'of the seat'of the test chair;
FIGURE 4 is a sectional view taken in; the direction of the arrows alongthe line 4-4 of FIGURE 3;
FIGURE 5 is an enlarged fragmentary vertical sectional View of a portion of "the back of the test chair;
FIGURE 6 is an enlarged sectional View taken in the direction. of the arrows along the line 6-6- of FIG- URE .5;
FIGURE7 is a schematic side elevationalview showing the manner of measuring the positions in space of certain' elements of the seat and back of the test chair;
FIGURE 8 is perspective viewof a'straight chair embod'yihg the" invention;
FIGURE 9 is a diagram showing, the longitudinalconatent lid tours of the seat of the chair of FIGURE 8 along the lines A to F;
FIGURE 10 is a diagram showing the'transverse con toursof the seat of the chair of FiGURE 8 along the lines 1. to 11;
FIGURE 11 is another perspective view of the chair of FIGURE 8;
FIGURE 12 is a diagram showing the-transverse contours of the back of the chair of FIGURE 11 along the lines 1 to 9;
FIGURE T3 is a diagram showing the vertical co'ntours of the back of the chair of FIGURE 11 alonglthe lines A to D;
FIGURE 14 is a perspective view of an occasional chair embodying the invention;
FiGURE 15 is a diagram showing the horizontal contours of the back of the chair of FIGURE 14 along the lines 1 to'9;
FIGURE 16 is a diagram showing the vertical contours of the back of the chairof FIGURE 14 along the lines A to D;
FIGURE 17 is a perspective view of portions of a chair for relaxing;
FIGURE 3.8 is a diagram showing the longitudinal contours of the seat of the chair of FIGURE 17 along the lines A to F;
FIGURE 19 is a diagram showing the" transverse co'ntours of the seat of the chair. of FIGURE 17' along-the lines 2. to 12;.
FZGURE 20 is a perspective view of other portions" of the chair of FIGURE 17;
FIGURE 21 is a diagramv showing the vertical contours of. back of the chair of FIGURE 20 alon'gthe lines A to D; and
FIGURE 22 is a diagram showing the horizontal contour lines of the chair of FIGURE 20 along the lines 1 to 15.
The test chair is designated generally by the reference numeral 30. It includes'a base 31 on which is supported a seat assembly 32 by means of three hydraulic jacks 33', as and 35 which can be adjusted in height to vary the heightand slope of the seat assembly.
The actual body contacting portion of the seat assembly consists of the upper ends of a plurality of spring loaded plungers 36 which are arranged in longitudinal and transverse rows, as clearly shown in FIGURE 1. Each seat plunger Bio-extends through an opening in plate 37- and is provided'with an upper flange 38 to. which is attached a-ruhher cap 39. A compression spring member 40 surrounds each plunger 36 between the plate 3'7 and the flange 33. The plungers' 36 are spaced one and one-half inches apart from center to center in the longitudinal and transverse rows; The caps 39 are one and one-quarter inches in diameter. There is thus provided a substantially continuous body supporting surface composed of the caps 39 which are individually movable by compres sion of the associated springs 40. All of the springs 40 are of an equal strength of five pounds. A clamping bar 41 is slidably supported alongside each'longitudinal row of plungers. Each clamping bar has a camming surface 42 adjacent each plunger 36 in its associated longitudinal row; FIGURE 4 illustrates the camming bar 41 in a position to permit vertical movement of its associated plungers and'the camming bar 41d in a position to clam v 7 its associated plungers. against movement.
A back assembly 43 is pivotally secured to the seat assembl' 32 by'pivot pins 44 which can be positioned in any desired openings 45 to adjust the eifectivelength of the seat portion 32. Braces46 are pivotally secured 'to the upper end of the back at 47. The lower ends of the braces'45 are providedwith a' plurality of openings 48.
The seat assembly 3'2 is similarly provided with a plurality of openings 49. Pins 5t pass through the desired openings i8 and 49 to obtain an appropriate slant of the chair back.
The back assembly 43 is provided with a plurality of independently movable plungers 51. These back plungers extend through aligned openings in plates 52 and 53 of the back assembly. Each plunger 51 is provided with a row of longitudinally spaced depressions 54. Mating cavities in the plates 52 and 53 between each pair of plungers 51 receive steel balls 55 and 56. A small compression spring member 57 urges the balls toward the plungers 51, as best shown in FIGURE 6. The plungers 51 will be locked against longitudinal movement when in the positions shown in FIGURE 6, but slight rotational movement of any plunger releases it and it can then be manually moved longitudinally. It will be seen that each plunger 51 can be moved independently of the other plungers.
The plungers 51 are provided with flanges 58 to which are secured rubber caps 59. The plungers 51 are spaced one and one-half inches on centers in the vertical and horizontal rows. The caps 59 are one and one-quarter inches in diameter. The plungers 51 may be retracted to position the flanges 58 and the caps 59 in recesses 69 in the plate 53. The upper plunger 51 is shown in such position in FIGURE 5 and it will be seen that the face of the cap 59 is flush with the surface of the plate 53.
A large number of adult men and women were used as subjects for test in the test chair. The subjects were selected so that the total number would be as representative as possible of the height and weight distribution of the total adult population. Each subject was tested in three assumed sitting positions by appropriate adjustments of the height and slope of the seat assembly and of the position and slant of the back assembly. These sitting positions corresponded to: (1) Dining or writing as in a straight chair; (2) Playing table games or talking as in an occasional chair; and (3) Reading or relaxing as in an easy chair as distinguished from a lounging chair.
Each subject was seated in the test chair and adjustments were made of the height and slope of the seat and of the position and slant of the back to make the individual comfortable for the particular sitting position under test. The clamping bars 41 were in positions to permit movement of the seat plungers 36. The back plungers 51 were then moved individually and locked in those individual positions in which their caps 59 provided the most comfortable support to the back of the subject. After proper adjustment of the plungers 51 had been completed, the clamping bars 41 were moved to clamp the plungers 36 in the individual positions they had assumed by virtue of their depression by the weight of the seated subject.
The subject then arose from the chair while the plungers 36 and 51 retained their clamped or locked positions. The position of each plunger which had been engaged by the body of the subject was then determined in the manner illustrated in FIGURE 7. An upright, calibrated standard supported a horizontal bar 62 which was positioned in turn over each longitudinal row of plungers 36 and the height of the upper surface of each cap 39 was measured and recorded. The standard 61 also carried a block 63 having a face 64- which was vertically above the front edge of the seat. A calibrated bar 65 extended through the block 63 toward the back assembly. By horizontal and vertical movement of the block 63 and horizontal movement of the bar 65 it was possible to determine and record the positions of the front surfaces of the caps 59.
FIGURE 2 illustrates typical positions assumed by the middle longitudinal row of caps 39 of the seat assembly and by the middle vertical row of caps 59 of the back assembly upon completion of a test. It will be seen that a smooth curve has been drawn along the surfaces of the caps. This curve is shown dotted at 66 in the gap between the seat and the back. The tests revealed that no body support was necessary or desired in this zone. For that reason, there may be a gap between the seat and the back in the chairs of my invention. If the design of the chair permits no such gap, the chair should curve back in this zone at least as far as shown by the dotted line at 66.
The data obtained from the tests of all subjects was tabulated for each of the three sitting positions. Gratifying uniformity or similarity was found in the data for each of the three sitting positions. It was found possible to average the data for each sitting positon and to arrive at chairs for each sitting position which are comfortable to the vast majority of the adult male and female population.
FIGURES 8 to 13 illustrate a chair for dining or writing and which can be termed a straight chair. The points on the diagrams illustrate the average positions assumed by the caps 39 and 59 during the tests. The contour lines A to F of FIGURE 9 correspond to similarly designated lines in FIGURE 8. Although the contour of only one-half of the seat has been shown in FIGURE 9, it will be understood that the two halves are symmetrical. The contour lines 1 to 11 of FIGURE 10 correspond to similarly designated lines in FIGURE 8. The slant and contour of the back of the straight chair are simiportions of the back of the chair which are not contacted by the body. The contours of such portions of the chair are of no significance to the chairs comfort and may vary widely as dictated by design considerations.
It will be seen that I have provided chairs having contours corresponding to those assumed by the plunger caps 39 and 59 when the plunger caps 39 are depressed against the action of the spring members 40 while the subject's back is firmly supported by the plunger caps 59.
The invention is applicable to seats of soft or hard material. The hard seats may be made of molded or otherwise shaped wood, plastic or metal. A thin cushion can be used over the hard material without loss of the significant advantages of the invention. In chairs or seats having springs or thick cushions the construction should be such that the contours described herein are assumed when the chair is occupied. In multiple seating units such as benches or sofas it will not be possible to have the described contours transversely of the body but the contours lengthwise of the body will be found to add greatly to comfort.
I have illustrated and described what I consider to be the preferred embodiments of the invention.
1. A chair having body supporting seat and back portions, said portions having three-dimensional contours and relative positions substantially corresponding to the contours and positions determined for a person assuming a particular type of sitting position, said seat portion position substantially corresponding to the seat portion height and inclination adjusted to the comfort of the seated person, said back portion position substantially corresponding to the back portion inclination and positioning, relative to the seat portion positioning, adjusted to the comfort of the seated person; and the seat and back portion contours substantially corresponding to contours adjusted to the comfort of the seated person, with the back portion having a three-dimensional contour substantially corresponding to that formed by the exposed forward ends of a plurality of unbiased, mutually independent, closely spaced and forwardly extending back plungers, movable to individually adjusted positions, when such back plungers have been individually manually adjusted to unyieldingly and independently engage and firmly support the back of the seated person in a comfortable position, and with the seat portion having a threedimensional contour substantially corresponding to that formed by the upper surfaces of a plurality of mutually independent, closely spaced and vertically disposed seat plungers which are independently movable and equally and individually resiliently urged upwardly when the person is seated on the exposed upper surfaces of said seat plungers while the persons back is firmly supported by said back plungers in the manner described.
2. A chair having body supporting seat and back portions, said portons having three-dimensional contours and relative positions substantially corresponding to the average contours and positions determined for a selected group of persons assuming a particular type of sitting position; the seat portion position for each person substantially corresponding to the seat portion height and inclination adjusted to the comfort of the seated person; the back portion position for each person substantially corresponding to the back portion inclination and positioning, relative to the seat portion positioning, adjusted to the comfort of the seated person; and the seat and back portion contours for each person substantially corresponding to contours adjusted to the comfort of the seated person, with the back portion having a three-dimensional contour substantially corresponding to that formed by the exposed forward ends of a plurality of unbiased, mutually independent, closely spaced and forwardly extending back plungers, movable to individually adjusted positions, when such back plungers have been individually manually adjusted to unyieldingly and independently engage and firmly support the back of the seated person in a comfortable position, and with the seat portion having a three-dimensional contour substantially corresponding to that formed by the exposed upper surfaces of a plurality of mutually independent, closely spaced and vertically disposed seat plungers which are independently movable and equally and individually resiliently urged upwardly when the person is seated on the upper surfaces of said seat plungers while the persons back is firmly supported by said back plungers in the manner described.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 97,579 Wittram Dec. 7, 1869 958,356 Bode May 17, 1910 2,549,902. Hibbard et a1. Apr. 24, 1951 2,847,061 Morton Aug. 12, 1958
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|U.S. Classification||297/452.28, 297/284.3|
|International Classification||A47C31/12, A47C31/00, A47C23/00|
|Cooperative Classification||A47C31/126, A47C23/002|
|European Classification||A47C23/00A, A47C31/12C|