US 3081517 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
March 19, 1963 H. DRlEscH 3,081,517
FLEECE LINING Filed April l1, 1960 FIG. 2
:NVE/vrom HANS DRIESCH United States Patent Office atented Mar. i9, 1963 3,081,517 FLEECE LINING Hans Driesch, Wuppertal-Barmen, Germany, assignor to Vereinigte Glanzstoff-Fabriken AG., Wuppertal-Elberfeld, Germany Filed Apr. 11, 1960, Ser. No. 21,l96 Claims priority, application Germany Apr. 15, 1959 6 Claims. (Cl. 28-78) This invention relates to fleece lining which serves as a protective covering material in the form of a textile product. In particular, the invention provides an improvement in textile fabrics which are worn for protection against cold .and moisture, such as sleeping Ibag-s, quilts, quilt liners, mountain-climbing jackets, seamens clothing, and the like.
It is a well known practice to line protective garments or similar articles such as sleeping bags with a fleece in the form of a voluminous collection of natural or synthetic fibers. The fibers are not Woven or compressed but are maintained in a normally expanded condition by their natu-ral wavy or curled structure, or by artificial crimping .in the case of synthetic fibers. The outer fabric which covers the lining may also consist of natural or synthetic fibers, usually in a relatively tight weave, and this outer fabric may be made moisture-proof if desired. An inner fabric lining is also usually provided and the fleece is held between the inner and outer fabrics.
In order to prevent the fleece lining from slipping or shifting, -the completed product as a rule -is quilted, i.e., it is seamed or stitched in a regular pattern to hold the fleece in a more stationary position. Such quilting is especially disadvantageous, for example in the outdoor use of sleeping bags, because moisture can penetrate through the quilting seams into the interior even though the outer fabric cover is completely moisture-proofed with a continuous coating.
In many cases, fleece lining is unsatisfactory because body perspiration is trapped by the fleece and held close to the body, especially in those instances where lthe outer fabric cover is moisture-proofed and prevents the perspiration from being evaporated into the surrounding atmosphere. The protective covering is then relatively uncomfortable and loses much of its value.
One object of the present invention is to provide a fleece lining having a novel construction which permits Protection against cold or moisture but which does not have the disadvantages of previous linings.
Another object of the invention is to provide fleece lining in which moisture is conducted away from the enclosed body as well as being repelled from the outer surface of the lining.
Yet another object of the invention is to provide an improved fleece lined fabric article adapted to at least `partially enclose the body of a person and suitable for protective use under a wide range of climatic conditions.
These and other objects and advantages of the invention will become more obvious upon consideratlon of the Vfollowing detailed specication together with the accompanying drawing in which:
FlG. l represents a cross-sectional view over the thickner layer of fleece s not made moisture-proof and is formed in such a manner that moisture is automatically removed or directed from the inner layer to the outer layer of fleece.
The fleece lining of the invention is further characterized by the following essential features:
(1) The thickness of the outer layer of fleece should be less than one-half of the thickness of both layers, preferably about l0 to 50% of the combined thickness. The inner layer of fleece is therefore preferably 50 to 90% of -the total thickness, these measurements being made in the relaxed state, i.e. when the lining is in a normally expanded and voluminous condition.
(2) The denier of the fibers in the outer layer of fleece should be smaller than the denier of the fibers in the inner layer. For example, the outer layer fibers may have a denier of about 1 to 6 and the inner layer fibers may have a denier of about 2 to 25, but in all cases the outer fiber denier is smaller Ithan the inner fiber denier. Stated in another way, it is .preferable for the ratio of the inner denier to outer denier to `be at least about 2:1.
(3) The fibers of the outer fleece should preferably have a crimping-arc number which is smaller Ithan that of the fibers of the inner fleece. For example, the outer fibers may have a crimping-arc number of about 30 to 120 arcs/ l0 cm. while that of the inner fibers can be about 60 to 200 arcs/l() cm.
The fibers in each layer can be composed of the same material or the fibers can be derived from different sources. Various natural fibers such as wool can be employed, provided that the denier or fineness is graded to correspond with the above requirements for each layer. The natural Waviness or crimped state of wool fibers is generally sufficient for use in both layers.
It is especially desirable to use fibers in the inner layer of fleece which have a very high resistance to creasing and a correspondingly high expansion capacity. This characteristic will contribute to the insulating and moisture-removing properties of the combined layers. It iS therefore especially desirable to employ polyester fibers, such as polyethylene terephthalate, for the inner layer of fleece. However, other synthetic fibers are also useful, including polyamides, polyacrylonitrile, polyvinyl chloride and the like.
With reference to .the drawing, the fleece lining as shown in FIG. l is essentially composed of an inner layer of fiber fleece 1 and an outer layer of fiber fleece 2 which lie adjacent to each other. As indicated by FIG. 2, the fleece is prefer-ably held between an outer covering 3 and an inner fabric lining 4, and the nished product may be quilted in the usual manner. The ltwo layers of fleece may Ibe separated by a thin or open-weave porous fabric or may be in direct contact. Direct contact is especially preferred since the fibers in each layer of fleece will tend to intermingle or become loosely connected by tangling of the individual fibers. Quilting seams or stitches can then be made only in the outer layer of fleece, connecting it to the outer protective coating or sheath 3, and the inner layer of fleece will then be held in position merely by contact Iwith the outer layer and will not tend to slip. For very large areas, the inner fleece can also be stitched in place'by a quilt pattern, e.g. such that the stitching seams form rectangles or squares, whereby the rectangular area enclosed by the stitches of the inner layer is much larger than that of the outer layer. in this case, the outer layer of fleece is first stitched to an outer protective sheath 3 and the inner layer is ysubsequently stitched thereto or to the inner fabric lining 4.
The outer layer of fleece should be made moistureproof, either by treating all of the fibers in this layer with a suitable moisture-proofing, water-repelling or hydrophobing agent or by treating only the outermost fibers in this layer. Por example, the libers can all be immersed in a moisture-prooling agent and then formed into the outer layer of ileece, or the moisture-proofing agent can be sprayed on the outside of the preformed layer. Also, the outer layer of eece can be made more moisture-proof by covering it with a moisture-proofed fabric or protective synthetic resin sheath 3 as indicated in FIG. 2. By using both the sheath and a treatment of the outer fibers, moisture entering through quilting stitches or through a partially moisture-proofed sheath is more readily prevented from penetrating into the inner lleece.
The terms moisture-proof, water-repellant and the like are employed herein to mean either a partial or complete exclusion of water. It is well known that textile articles can be treated in a number of ways to prevent the penetration f water through the surface of the article. For example, a fabric which is completely impervious to water is obtained by completely covering or lling the interstices or pores between fibers with a suitable water-proofing agent. Thus, a completely waterproof fabric is obtained by impregnating or coating the cloth with rubber, pyroxylin, cellulose acetate, linseed oil, tar, or various synthetic resins. On the other hand, partial water-proofing usually does not close or substantially reduce the interstices or pores between bers, but is obtained by treating the fibers with a compound which increase the surface tension between fibers and the water so that it becomes quite diliicult for the water to penetrate through the surface into the article. Such compounds are often referred to as surface active or hydrophobing agent, and the following are typical examples: aluminum acetate, parafn Wax emulsions, metallic soaps, cuprammonium solution or various long chain quaternary ammonium compounds.
For the purpose of the present invention, it has been found that certain silicon-containing compounds are especially advantageous as a water-prooling or moistureproong agent to be sprayed on the libers of the outer eece. -As a class, these compounds may be defined as methylpolysiloxanes. The exact composition of these products which are called siliconeoils and produced under trade names by several firms is not known e.g. Perlit Sl and Silicone Emulsion Bayer H by Farbenfabriken Bayer or Siliconhydrophobierungslsung 138 by Goldschmidt or Phobotex FII-I by Ciba.
The fleece lining or" the invention will prevent penetration of moisture so that the enclosed body of a person will not become wet, and the lining also permits the escape of vapors from respiration and removes perspiration from the body. For example, if rain water penetrates through the quilting stitches or seams in those cases where the article is substantially completely Waterproofed, the drops of moisture are halted or prevented from further penetration at the surface of the outer liber fleece. At the same time, perspiration in vapor form can escape through the inner lleece and also through the wholly or partly moisture-proofed outer lieece, and can also pass through the covering fabric or the quilting seams to the outside atmosphere.
Partial moisture-proofing of the outer fleece is especially advantageous for the eliicient removal of perspiration away from the enclosed body. Because of the smaller denier, smaller crimpling-arc number and correspondingly smaller resistance to creasing or compacting of the outer liber iieece, this layer has a relative small proportion of open spaces intermediate the fibers. The inner fiber fleece, on the other hand, has a considerably greater proportion of open spaces between fibers, i.e. is more voluminous and open because of the higher denier, greater crimping and greater resistance to creasing or compacting. The open spaces intermediate the t'ibers act as capillary conduits for the movement of vapor or moisture. Since water moves from coarse or large capillary intermediate spaces to small or tine capillary Spaces, the unevaporated perspiration will first be absorbed "by the inner liber fleece and conveyed to the tine capillary intermediate spaces of the non-moisture-proofed portion of the outer liber fleece where it will collect and slowly evaporate. In the same manner, the outer layer of fleece will absorb condensed perspiration which may form because of low atmospheric temperatures. Thus, with the eece lining of the invention, moisture moves or is collected by capillary preference from the inner layer of eece into the outer layer of eece.
The invention is further illustrated, but not limited, by the following examples which given the composition and physical characteristics of the fleece in each layer of various linings.
Example A.-Sleepng Bag Lining (l) Inner fleece: 40() g./m.2 of polyester bers, in which the individual libers are 30 mm., 3 denier, with 100 arcs/ 10 cm.
(2) Outer fleece: 75 g./m.2 of polyester tibers of 40 mm.,
1.4 denier, with 40 arcs/ 10 cm.
Example B Sleeping Bag Lining (l) Inner eece: 250 g./m.2 of polyester fibers of 60 mm., 6 denier, with 80 arcs/10 cm.
(2) Outer fleece: 60 g./m.2 of polyester fibers of 60 mm., 3 denier, with 50 arcs/ l0 cm.
Example E.-Quit Liner (l) Inner eece: 250 g./rn.2 of polyvinyl chloride fiber of mm., 20 denier, with 100 arcs/ 10 cm.
(2) Outer ileeee: 90 g./m.2 of polyvinyl chloride fiber of 60 mm., 6 denier, with 6() arcs/ 10 cm.
The above l'leeces can be obtained by well known methods or from readily available sources. If desired, it is also possible to employ mixtures of different fibers and the denier may be varied or mixed within the stated limits of the invention. The outside surface of the outer lleece layer Z is sprayed in each case with a moistureprooling agent, e.g. in the above examples, each square meter of surface was sprayed with 40 grams of an emulsion containing g. per litre Perlit SI (a siliconeoil produced by Farbenfabriken Bayer) and having a pH value of 6. The sprayed fleece was then dried at 100 C. and eventually heated for 10 minutes at 140 C.
In order to provide a particular textile article, the tleece layers were quilted in the usual manner. In actual use, the eece lined products of the present invention provide excellent protection against cold and moisture even during use for extended periods of time. The eece lining is especially advantageous in mountain clirnbing where there are extreme temperature and weather conditions. Chilling of the body vbycontact with condensed perspiration is much more easily avoided because of the specific construction of the two-layer tleece lining.
The invention is hereby claimed as follows:
1. A eece lining for a protective covering material adapted to at least partially enclose the body of a person, said lining comprising two layers which are porous to the passage of vapors therethrough and which consist essentially of an outer moisture-proofed layer and an inner moisture-absorbent layer of liber iieece in vaporous communication, the outer layer of fleece with respect to the body to be covered being moisture-proofed by treating at least the outermost fibers therein with a moistureprooing agent, said outer layer being composed essentially of bers having a denier of about 1 to 6 and a crimp of about 30 to 120 arcs per 10 om., said inner layer being composed essentially of fibers having a denier of about 2 to 25 and a crimp of about 6G to 200 arcs per 10 cm., the denier and crimping-arc number of the fibers in said outer layer being respectively smaller than the denier and crimping-arc number of the fibers in said inner layer, the inner layer of fleece forming at least one-half the thickness of both layers in the relaxed state and having a greater open space intermediate the bers in the relaxed state than said outer layer whereby moisture moves by capillary preference from said inner layer to said outer layer.
2. A fleece lining as claimed in claim 1 wherein only the outermost bers of said outer layer have a moistureproofing agent applied thereto.
3. A fleece lining as claimed in claim 1 wherein said inner layer provides from about 50 to 90% of the thickness of both layers in the relaxed state.
4. A fleece lining as claimed in claim 3 wherein the fibers in both layers are composed of a polyester.
5. A fleece lining as claimed in claim 3 wherein said layers of fleece are held between an inner fabric lining and an outer water-repellant fabric protective sheath, said inner lining and said outer sheath being sufficiently porous to permit the passage of vapors therethrough.
6. A eece lining as claimed in claim 5 wherein only the outermost fibers of said outer eece layer have a moisture-proofing agent applied thereto.
References Cited in the le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 46,837 Waite Mar. 14, 1865 970,950 Rasch Sept. 20, 1910 1,332,549 Fowler Mar. 2, 1920 1,454,049 Genung May 8, 1923 2,217,621 Katzner Oct. 8, 194()