US 3082577 A
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March 26, 1963 G. A. FASOLD ET AL 3,082,577
METHODS OF PREPARING ASPHALT SHINGLES FOR ADHESIVE ATTACHMENT IN ROOFS Original Filed July 22, 1957 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 III Q IN VEN TORS G's-wen: flew/0 55501.0 s? #47110 I. lz'laeaoK,
March 26, 1963 G. A. FASOLD ET AL 3,082,577
METHODS OF PREPARING ASPHALT SHINGLES FOR ADHESIVE ATTACHMENT IN ROOFS Original Filed July 22, 1957 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTORS- 5:01amllnlae JZsaa M470 K ZE/BgaaK,
40a BY ATTORNEYS- United States Patent Ofiice 3,082,577 Patented Mar. 26, 1963 6 Claims. (Cl. 50-243) Our invention relates specifically to methods of preparing strip shingles for laying on a roof in a double or triple coverage arrangement wherein stripes of adhesive between the shingles of different courses secure the shingles in a wind resistant assembly. This application is a division of our application Serial No. 673,257 filed July 22, 1957 now abandoned.
Our invention consists broadly, during the coating of the web from which the shingles are to be cut, in controlling the application of the coating to vary the thickness of the shingles in areas which, when the shingles are laid, will form a vertically convex area bulging upwardly across the roof and controlling the lines of application of the adhesive stripes so as to match with the upwardly bulging areas so as to seal the shingles in the roof formation in a securely wind resistant assembly.
To prepare the strip shingles for laying in a double coverage arrangement it will be understood that the shingles have tab defining slots extending upwardly from the butt edges of the shingles. These strip shingles are adapted to be laid in courses with other similarly shaped shingles in a lapping arrangement of courses. The butt edges of each overlapping course extends along the lines of the tops of the slots of intermediate courses. The most underlying course has a head lap in double coverage of several inches under the intermediate course. In triple coverage the head lap is sufiicient to provide three thicknesses of shingle throughout the roof.
Laterally extending stripes of pressure sensitive adhesive extend along each shingle element adjacent its butt. It is a feature of our invention that the thickness of the shingle elements in the courses varies adjacent the shingle butts to provide bulging areas of the upper surfaces against which the adhesive stripes between the outer course and the intermediate course form a quick seal when the courses are laid in a roof. This provision of the upwardly bulging areas insures sealing in a wind resistant assembly.
To cause these upwardly bulging areas extending laterally along each course many modifications in structure will accomplish the desired purpose. For example, an end edge of the shingles in one course can be thick ened. The thickening of each course of shingles is not necessary if the upper ends of underlying courses are made thin. Where the three layers of shingles come to gether the upwardly bulging area can be caused either by removing material from the upper surface of the shingle units or from the lower surfaces. Wherever there is a non-uniformly thick layer of three overlapping shingles, an upward bulge of the upper surface may be provided and our invention consists in matching the adhesive stripe with this upward bulging surface thereby causing quick adhesion and a wind-proof combination in the finished roof.
Referring to the drawings in which we have shown several modifications in structure:
FIGURE 1 is a plan view of one type of shingle.
FIGURE 2 is a sectional view along the lines 22 of FIGURE 1.
FIGURE 3 is a perspective view of a portion of a roof laid with shingles formed in accordance with our invention.
FIGURE 4 is a sectional view along the lines 44 of FIGURE 3, the shingle being of the type of the modification shown in FIGURE 2.
FIGURE 5 is a sectional view of a modified type of shingle.
FIGURE 6 is a sectional view of a further modified type of shingle.
FIGURE 7 is a sectional view of a still further modification.
FIGURE 8 is a sectional View of a roof laid with shingles like the modification shown in section in FIG- URE 7.
Generally speaking, the shingles or shingle units are cut from a web of shingle material which is coated and surfaced on the lower surface and coated on the upper s ur-face with mineral granules used as surfacing. In our copending applications Serial No. 665,957, filed June 17, 1957 now Patent No. 3,008,288, and Serial No. 665,958 filed June 17, 1957 now Patent No. 3,003,289, we have discussed several modifications of shingle construction in which one specific application of our invention as set forth herein is disclosed.
In these co-pending applications, we have explained the type of adhesive which we prefer to employ which is pressure sensitive. We have further disclosed the construction of shingles having a nesting groove on the under surface so that the adhesive line will not be flattened out or mashed out when packaged. We have further disclosed various modifications in the positioning of an adhesive covering tape normally to be removed when the shingles are laid and we have disclosed a specific modification of one type of shingle in which a band or stripe of pressure sensitive adhesive is disposed in such position (about two inches above the butt) so that firm adhesion occurs along the bulge or fulcrum formed by the top edges of shingles of underlying courses causing the upper surface of the shingles to which the adhesive is to be applied to bulge upwardly.
This application involves the preparation of the web to be cut into shingles so that predetermined areas of the shingles will have such varying thicknesses that this bulge in the upper shingle surface will automatically occur in desired positions.
Referring now to the drawings, FIGURE 1 to FIG- URE 4, the shingle is formed from a web of felt I having its under surface coated with coating 2 and having a layer of sand 3 forming the exposed under surface. Tab defining slots 4 extend up from the shingle butts. The upper surface has a coating 2a and a surfacing with granules 3a.
In the formation of the web by means of scraper knives in a manner well known in the art, the portions which will form the butt edges of shingles are thickened to a greater extent than the normal thickness of the shingle. Thus in FIGURE 2 the shingle unit has a thick butt 5. At the sides of the nesting slots 6 the thickness of the shingle is also increased as indicated at 7.
The upper edge 8 of the shingle has a layer of coating and granules rubbed oif in the coating operation so as to provide a narrow tip 9 with the recessed portion on the upper surface of the shingle.
In this modification the stripe of pressure sensitive adhesive 10 is applied slightly above the line of the top edge of the slots 4. The adhesive 10 is covered with a strip of tape 10a to prevent the shingles from sticking together when packaged.
The stripe of adhesive is shown as applied to the upper granule surface of the shingle. In laying the shingles the shingle is placed in position and then the strip of tape covering the adhesive is manually removed. Since the roof illustrated in FIGURE 3 is a double coverage arrangement, the butts of overlying courses are positioned adjacent the upper edges of the tab slots. The stripes of adhesive are also arranged adjacent the shingle butts.
The upper ends of the shingles with the narrow tips 9 are laid in the usual manner but the line of regular thickness of the shingle has an edge 11 or ledge which provides a bulge above the edge and the thick butts S of the overlying course meets the bulge caused by the edge 11 and since the stripe of adhesive is positioned along this same line, very secure adhesion and wind resistance is achieved in the assembly. The shingle nails as indicated at 12 will be driven in above the line of the adhesive.
FIGURES 5, 6 and 7 show various modifications in the principle involved. In FIGURE 5 the recess in the upper tip of the shingle is caused by control of the coating of the under surface of the shingle rather than the upper surface as shown in FIGURE 2. The same efiect is produced however, in causing a bulge in the upper surface of the shingle where the adhesive stripe is placed.
In FIGURE 6 the upper coating 2a and the lower coating 2 are both controlled so that there remains only the thickness of the Web '1. However, the edges 11a have the same effect in forming a bulging area on the upper surface.
In FIGURE 7 the normal thickness of the shingle is maintained but a band of thickened coating and granules is formed as indicated at 13. This thickened band, when the shingles are laid in courses, provides an upwardly bulging area which provides the desirable line of sealing adjacent the shingle butts of the shingles in the upper or exposed course.
In FIGURE 8 it will be observed that the line or stripe of the adhesive is on the'upper coated surface of the shingles as in FIGURE 4, but as taught in our co-pending applications, Serial Nos. 665,957 and 665,958, it is immaterial as to the wind resistance of the roof, after it is laid, whether the adhesive is applied to the upper granule coated surface of the shingles or to the underneath sand surfaced face of the shingles.
All that is needed is the preparation of the web from which the shingles are to be cut, so that there will be an upwardly bulging convex area or band against which the adhesive between the courses forms a. permanent win-d resistant seal.
Where adhesive which requires solar heat to form a tight adhesive joint is employed, instead of the pressure sensitive adhesive, which, we prefer to employ, the same principle of'positioning adhesive to upwardly bulging surface will of course be applicable.
' Having thus described our method of preparing the shingles for secure adhesive attachment, what we claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
l. A high wind resistant roof covering comprising a plurality of similar flexible shingles laid in a double coverage arrangement, wherein the most underlying shingle has a headlap of not less than two inches, so that in the headlap 'area portions of three shingles are superposed upon each other, and wherein there is an abrupt change in thickness in the headlap area of the most underlying shingle along a line which is spaced from the upper edge of the said most underlying shingle, and which forms an upwardly bulging fulcrum in the surface of the intermediate shingle in said area, and having a substantially thick stripe of pressure sensitive adhesive of a tacky nature extending thereacross in alignment with the upwardly bulging fulcrum formed in the intermediate shingle where the change in'thickness occurs in the most underlying shingle, and substantially in alignment with the butt edge of the uppermost shingle, and said adhesivebeing in the unexposed area of said shingle, whereby said stripe of adhesive is disposed between the uppermost and intermediate shingle in said headlap area adjacent the butt edge of said uppermost shingle.
2. A roof covering according to claim 1, wherein there is an increase in thickness in the headlap area of the most underlying shingle.
3. A roof covering according to claim 1, wherein there is a reduction in thickness in the headlap area of the most underlying shingle and said shingle element being of increased thickness along the lower edge of the butt portion.
4. A roof covering according to claim 1, wherein said adhesive is a pressure sensitive asphalt-rubber adhesive of a tacky nature.
5. A roof covering according to claim 1, wherein there is a reduction in thickness in the headlap area of the most underlying shingle.
6. A roof covering according to claim 5, wherein each shingle has a nesting groove on its undersurface in alignment with said adhesive stripe.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,881,438 Fischer Oct. 11, 1932 1,989,554 Kirschbraum Jan. 29, 1935 2,030,135 Carpenter Feb. 11, 1936 2,048,663 Miller July 21, 1936 2,210,209 Kirschbraum Aug. 6, 1940 2,387,593 Lesser Oct. 23, 1945 2,462,028 OReilly Feb. 15, 1949 2,565,509 Marcin Aug. 28, 1951 2,863,405 Leibrook et al. ...I Dec. 9, 1958 3,003,288 Leibrook et a1, Oct, 10, 1960'