US 3083858 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April 2, 1963 v. G. BIEDENSTEIN 8,083,858
TEAR TYPE CONTAINER cLosURE 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed July 5. 1960 film it ta souri Filed duly 5, 196i), Ser. No. 49,618 8 Claims. (Cl. 2Mb-27) This invention relates to container closures, and more particularly to a container closure which is integrally connected to the container by a frangible connection. The material, construction and location of the frangible connection with respect to the closure and container is such that the closure may be separated from the container by a pull on the closure to tear the frangible connection and leave a major portion of the material of the frangible connection attached either to the closure or the container where it will be active as a temporary resealing means between the closure and the container. The end result is that after opening of the container, the contents can be resealed in the container and protected by application of the closure to the container. Preferably, both the separable type closure, the frangible connection and the portion of the container to which the frangible connection joins the closure are made of flexible rubber-like material, so that when the closure is re-engaged with the container after fracture of the frangible connection, the material of the frangible connection will be wedgingly engaged between the closure and container and act as a seal between the parts. Clt will be quite obvious from what has been said heretofore, that the closure may comprise one end of the container and be suitably secured to the container walls by the frangible connection. On the other hand, the closure itself may comprise more than one part which are interconnected by the frangible connection.
More specifically, the invention in its broadest form contemplates a closure connected to a container by a tear type of frangible connection so located with respect to the container and closure that the frangible connection is wedged between the parts when the closure is reapplied after initial separation so as to form a seal between the parts. Regardless of the particular structure of the parts to which the invention is applied, whether applied between the closure and its container or applied between separable parts of a closure, the structure can be broadly described as having a cap part, a cap receiver part and a frangible web uniting the parts. In all practical embodiments of the invention as now contemplated, the frangible web is molded integrally to connect circumferentially eX- tending ribs, or the like, on the respective parts arranged in opposed relationship. The ribs are thicker than the web and therefore of greater strength so that upon opening or removal of the closure part, this rubber-like web is fractured, disconnecting the cap part from the receiver part. After the fracture of the frangible web, the major portion thereof will remain on one of the circumferentially extending ribs in such a location that when the cap part is again applied to the receiver part, the portion of the fractured web will be wedged between the parts as one is forced into the other. In many instances, it has been found that the fractured web portion is actually rolled upon itself as the cap part re-engages the receiver part. The rolled edge of the fractured web will, therefore, provide a single seal between the parts as the circumferentially extending rib on one part is forced into or over the circumferentially extending rib or flange on the other part. The invention is, of course, capable of modification and may appear in many forms, for example, in the larger sizes, it is wholly practical to have a double sealing effect on reapplication of the cap part to the receiver part. The double sealing effect contemplated here is derived from "icc portions of the frangible web remaining on both the cap part and the receiver part.
In the constructions hereinafter described more specitlcally, the rib, flange, or neck on the receiver part are tubular, and the rib or flange on the cap part is also tubular and of a size to be received within or without the tubular rib, flange, or neck on the receiver part. The frangible web is molded integrally with, and interconnects the tubular ribs or llanges on receiver part and cap part and is preferably arranged between adjacent edges of the ribs, or the ilanges on the parts at or around the tubular extremities thereof. The rubber-like material used in the construction is preferably polyethylene which is regarded as a suitable material for the manufacture of all of the parts. Certain economies are obtained by molding the receiver part, the frangible web and the cap part of this material, but actually only the frangible web need be of a rubber-like material. Other parts might be constructed of still other plastic materials or of metal.
One of the objects of this invention is to provide a frangible closure for a container with a simple means for resealing the closure after initial opening.
Another object of this invention is to provide a closure sealed by a flexible web which is frangible when it is desired to open the closure, but is rugged and dependable and will stand rough handling without accidental opening.
Another object of the invention is a frangible closure for a container which may readily and easily be opened.
Another object of the invention is a frangible closure for a container, in which construction, the opening force applied to the closure may be localized to lessen the tension required for opening.
The following is a detailed description of the best mode or modes now contemplated by the inventor for carrying out his invention set forth in full, clear, concise and exact terms such as to enable any person skilled in the art to malte and use the same when taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings in which:
FIG. l is a vertical section taken through a plastic container or tube with a closure constructed according to this invention;
EFlG. 2 is a fragmentary illustration of the top portion of the bott e or tube shown in FIG. l illustrating the manner of separating the closure -by fracture of the frangible Web;
iFIG. 3 is a fragmentary sectional View of the top portion of a bottle or tube as illustrated in FIG. l showing the closure reapplied after fracture of the web;
FIG. 4 is a vertical section through a plastic bottle or tube and closure illustrating another embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 5 is a fragmentary sectional View of the top portion of the bottle or tube shown in FiG. 4 illustrating the manner of opening the closure;
FIG. 6 is a fragmentary sectional view ofthe top portion of the bottle or tube shown in FIG. 4 with the closure reapplied;
FIG. 7 is a top plan view of a `container and closure in which the closure is constructed with the frangible web portion between a receiver part of the closure and a `cap part of the closure;
FIG. 8 is a side elevation in section of a container upper portion and a closure constructed according to that shown in FIG. 7 mounted in the top wall of the container;
`FIG. 9 is a side view in section of the cap or top part of the closure after fracture of the web and separation from the lower or receiver part of the closure such as shown in FIG. 8;
FIG. l0 is a view in vertical section through the upper act-tasas 3 portion of the container land closure illustrating the action of the closure parts in FIG. 8 and FIG. 9 after reclosing;
FIGS. 11 and 12 are perspective views of the closure parts such as shown in FIG. 8 after separation one from the other;
fFIG. 13 is a top plan view of a container and closure illustrating a modified form of pull tab `for the container and closure illustrated in 'FIGS 7` and 8;
FIG. 14 is a side elevation in section of the top portion of a container ywith a closure constructed as shown in FIG. 13;
FIG. 15 is a side elevation in section of the cap part vshown in FIG. 14 after fracture of the frangible web;
FIG. 16 is a side elevation in section of the container and closure as shown in FIG. 14 after reclosing; and
FIG. 17 is a fragmentary view on an enlarged scale showing in side elevation and section a lmodified form of a Iclosure such as shown in FIG. 8 after reclosing.
`FIG. 1 of the drawings shows a plastic tube, bottle or can which is molded all in lone piece `for the purpose of economy in manufacture. For purposes of illustration, the invention is illustrated on a squeeze type 4bottle of this type with a liexible cylindrical body 1 and integral top and bottom ends 2 and 3. The bottle may be formed by l*known methods referred to generally as blown mold method. In this method, the plastic material is forced under pressure between male and female molds which determine the inside and outside contour of the bottle body 1 and its cap 10. The -rnale mold is then removed through a hole in the lower end ofthe bottle 3, which hole is subsequently sealed after the bottle is filled with fluid .or the like. The top end 2 integral with the body 1 has an opening 4 surrounded by a flange part 5 denlng a pouring spout for the bottle. At the outlet of the pouring spout 5, the internal edges are rounded as at 6 to `facilitate pouring 'from the 4bottle 1. Spout 5 forms the receiver part for the cap part 10, and the internal and external surfaces and 6 terminate in a convergent edge 7, Vwhich edge 7 extends around the periphery of the spout or receiver part 5 at, or adjacent, Iits outer extremity. A frangible web 8 connects the edge 7 with an edge 9 at the lower internal extremity of the cap 10, and the cap 1() is provided with a pull tab y111 for removing the cap part 10 from the receiver part `5.
FIG. 2 illustrates the cap part 10 after removal from the receiver part :of spout 5. This view illustrates that the major portion of the frangible web 8 still remains upon the cap part 10. Since the narrowest cross-section of web 8 determines the line yof fracture therein, 1t is possible to moldy the entire bottle with the integral web 8 uniting the cap part and receiver part with the narrowest section adjacent the receiver part or the narrowest sec- `tion adjacent the cap part. In one case `as illustrated 1n FIG. 2, the major portion of the frangible web after fracture -will adhere to the cap part. On the other hand, if the construction is reversed, then the major portion of lthe frangible web S after fracture would remain on the receiver part S. After the closure 10 has lbeen removed, the contents of the bottle 1 may be dispensed. Under the usual conditions, only a portion of the `contents is dispensed at a time, and, consequently, it is convenient to have the cap 10 arranged to reclose the bottle l1. 11i-IG. 3 illustrates the relation of the `cap part 10 and the receiver part 5 after reclosing of the bottle 1. The reclosing causes the web 8 to be rolled under and wedged between the outside tubular part of the receiver part 5 and the inside Itubular surface 12 of the cap itl, thus for-ming a resilient seal for the contents within the bottle 1. Preferably, the outside tubular surface of the receiver part 5 is tapered from the outlet to the bottle opening 4, so that the wedging action between the cap, the web 3 and the outside tubular surface of the receiver part 5 is augmented. The cap 10 in FIG. 3 may be removed at anytime and reapplied as many times as desired without destroying the sealing action of the frangible web part 8. i
FIGS. 4, 5 and 6 illustrate a slight modification of the construction above described, and to simplify this disclosure like parts have been given the same reference character, and this description will be limited to the additional feature Iin this modification which is different from that above described in detail.
The bottle 1, as shown in FIG. 4, is constructed with the closure y10 in the same manner as heretofore described, but, in addition, the receiver part or spout S has an external bead 15 extending circumferentially thereof. This bead is so located on the spout 5 that when the closure is reapplied, as shown in FIG. 6, pressure on the top of the cap part 10 forces the cap part over the receiver part 5 until the frangible web S is located below the bead L15, thus, forming an interlock between the portion of the frangible web 3 remaining on the cap part 1@ and the lower surface of the bead 15. The particular cross-sectional configuration of the bead 15 is of no material importance to the operation of the resealing of the closure or cap part 10. It will be obvious to those skilled in the art that the annular bead 15 might be a half round shape or a Wedge shape and perform the same identical function on reclosure of the cap part 10.
In the drawings, FIG. 7 illustrates a container made of paper, or metal, having cylindrical side walls t101 and end wall '1112. The opposite end wall is not shown. Both end walls are attached to the side wall 101 in the same manner, and, consequently, only the end wall 102 attachment will be described. End Wall 1412 has an upstanding cylindrical portion 105 which is spun over, as at ltto grip the cylindrical side wall of the container 161. End wall 132 has a central aperture surrounded by an inwardly extending fiange 1017. The closure, according to this invention, is suitably secured in this aperture, but, as aforementioned, the closure may form the entire end wall and besuitably secured to the end of the cylindrical container wall `161, if desired. VAccording to the present illustrated embodiment, however, the flange 107 engages a receiver part of the closure, generally indicated as `11), between the lower side'of the lip 111 and the upper side of the shoulder `112 on the outer periphery of the inturned edge 115 of the receiver part 110". This type of connection provides for insertion of the closure into the end of the container wall 102 by pressure which will cause the shoulder 112 to slip by the end of the flange l16'] and anchor the closure' in place. This type Vof slip fit is possible since there is sufficient resiliency Vin the inturned edge 115 to allow its contraction during passage through the aperture in the end Wall 102. The inturned edge has a groove 116 internally thereof, and suitably located for a purpose hereinafter explained. The groove 116 is formed by opposed peripheral surfaces extending circumferentially around the inturned edge. The internal periphery of the lip 111 of the receiver part 11G is formed with a generally sharp angular edge 117, as illustrated in FIG". 8, and this edge 117 is in turn connected with an edge 121 on a depending rib or flange i122 of the cap part 120 of the closure. Rib 122 extends circumferentially around the cap part 1201 adjacent its outer edge and depends therefrom. The outer diameter of the rib or flange 122 is such as to be slidably received within the inturned edge 115 of the receiver part of vthe closure. Between the edge 117 and the edge 121 is the frangible Web 119 integrally joining the receiver part 1110 to the cap part 12() of the closure.V This rib extends between the inner edge 117 of lip 1111 and the outer edge of rib or ange 122 indicated as 121.
The top view of the closure illustrates a pull tab 124 which extends beyond the rib `122, as shown in FIG. 7. A straight score 12S extending chordwise of the cap part 12by provides a hinge for the pull tab 124. The
.5 line of the hinge overlays the rib 122 so as to localize the force applied to the pull tab 124 with respect to a portion of the web `119. This localization of the force applied to the pull tab starts the fracturerof the web 119, which when once begun will progress readily until the cap part 120 is separated from the receiver part `110 of the closure.
When the two parts are separated, as shown in FIGS. 11 and 12, the cap part of the closure 12) will appear somewhat as illustrated in FIG. 9. `On the outer edge of the rib 122 will remain a portion of the fractured web, indicated in FIG. 9 as 119a, extending from the edge 121. Likewise, it may well be that some portion of the fractured web 119 will remain upon the inner edge of the lip of the receiver 11), as shown at 119b.
Now originally, of course, the web 119 extended between t'he edge 117 and the edge 121, and, consequently, extended angularly between the two edges. When fractured, the portion of the web 119:1, remaining on the cap part of the closure 120, will extend outwardly and downwardly from the edge of the rib 122. On the other hand, the portion of the web 119b remaining on the inner edge of the lip of the receiver 4110 will extend outwardly and inwardly. The fracture of the web 119 does not change its angular relationship to these parts, Therefore, the portion of the fractured web 119e extends beyond the outer edge of the rib 122 on the cap part of the closure 120 after fracture. Portion 11% of the fractured web will likewise extend inwardly from the lip of the receiver i116. Now when the depending rib 122 on the cap part 126 is telescoped within the inturned edge -115 of the receiver part of the closure, there is a tendency for the fractured web portion 119i; to be rolled backward upon itself to form a small bead which is wedged between the outer periphery of the rib 122 and the inner periphery of, or wall of, the inturned edge 11S. The material of the web being rubber-like will compress in the joint to form a gasket-like seal between the rib 1.22 at its outer wall and the inner wall of the inturned edge 11S. T here will also be the sa-me tendency with respect to the fractured portion of the frangible web 11915, which will be rolled downwardly by the telescoping movement of the rib '122 within the inturned edge 115 to form an upper gasket, which is compressed between the slidable parts of the closure. The frangible web 119 can be originally very small, and, yet, on reclosing of the closure perform a very satisfactory seal, or gasket, between the parts. This action is shown on an enlarged scale in FIG. 17, and in FIG. 10, the rolled web portion at the lower end of thecap closure is shown at 119e and at the upper end is shown at 11%. Thus, when the container closure is reclosed, lip 119a in FIG.
, 10 is received between the opposed surfaces of the peripheral groove 116 in the receiver 110, while lip 11% will project into the corner between the underside of the lip 123 and the outer side of the rib 122 of the cap part 120. As illustrated in FIG. Al0, the fractured portion of the rib 119 will therefore act both to hold the cap part 120 in the receiver part and to perform a sealing function. The closure, therefore, may be subject to many satisfactory opening and closing operations.
In .the modification shown in FIGS. and 16, parts corresponding with those shown in FIGS. 8, 9v and l0, previously described, will be indicated by the same reference character, and this description will be confined to the dierences. According to this modification, the outer wall of the rib 122, shown in FIG. l5, has a circumferential extending groove 128 located between the underside of the lip 123 and the lower outer edge of the rib 122, indicated as 121. The groove 12S is formed by opposed peripherally extending surfaces, and is capable of receiv- 1 ing the fractured web portion I119b on .the receiver part 111i, all as indicated in FIG. lr6. Thus, the distinguishing feature of this modification is a double fit of] sealing surfaces provided by the web portions 119a and 119k, respectively. Such a modification may be desirable so as to improve the seal affected by the closure :after reclosing.
The modification shown in FIG. 13 and FIG. 14 differs slightly from that shown in FIGS. 7 and 8 and more specifically in the location of the hinge line for the pull tab. This difference resides in locating the hinge line 135 for the pull tab 134 diametrically inwardly from `the position located in FIGS. 7 and 8, it has been discovered that with such a location of the hinge line 135, the stress on the web 119 is concentrated adjacent the ends of the hinge rather than directly over the web as shown in FIGS. 7 and 8. This arrangement of the hinge may be deemed preferable to some customers, because it provides for opening of the closure and fracture of the web 119 by a twist on the pull tab 134. It has been discovered that with this location of the hinge line, as at 135, the web 119 may be made quite strong and yet can be readily fractured by a twist on the pull tab 134. It is believed that the operation of the invention will be readily understood from the above detailed description, and that this specification need not be burdened by a repetition or description of the obvious.
Changes in and modifications of the construction described may be made without departing from the spirit of my invention, or sacrificing its advantages.
Having thus described the invention, what is claimed and desired to lbe secured by Letters Patent is:
1. A container comprising in combination a container body, an opening in said container body, a closure receiver part on said container body extending around said opening in said container body, means forming a surface extending around said closure receiver part, a closure part for said container, means forming a surface extending around said closure part which surface is shaped and dimensioned to provide a telescopic ht between said closure receiver part and said closure part by relative sliding between said surfaces, and a frangible web of flexible rubber-like material integrally connecting said parts which are of comparatively greater size and strength than said web and forming a tear type of frangible connection between a portion of each of said surfaces about their circumferences so as to hold said closure part -in operative position on said receiver part, means to move said closure part with respect to said receiver part in a direction away from said receiver part to forcibly break said frangible web in such a manner so that at least a portion of said frangible web will remain around one of said parts, said portion of said frangible web remaining on said part being wedgingly engaged between said surfaces when said closure part is reapplied to said container by forcing said parts together into telescopic relation while both parts face the same way as before separation.
2. A container comprising in combination a container body, an opening in said body, a closure receiver part extending around said opening having a wall with a surface coaxial with said opening, a cap part, a wall on said cap part with a surface coaxial with said cap part adapted to slidably engage with the wall surface of -said receiver p part to provide for a telescopic fit between said cap part and receiver part by relative axial movement between said parts in one direction, and a frangible web of flexible rubber-like material extending around said parts which are of comparatively greater size and strength than said web and securing said cap part in coaxial relation to said receiver part, said frangible web having a thin section located therein forming a tear type of frangible connecof said frangible web remains on at least one of said parts l located thereon to be wedgingly engaged between said surfaces when said cap part is reapplied to said container by forcing said parts together into telescopic relation 7 while said parts are faced in the same Way as before sep.- aration. i Y d 3. A container comprising in combination a container body, an opening in said` container body, a spout for said container body forming a continuation of saidV opening having a. wall. with a surface coaxial with respect to. said opening and adapted to act as a receiver part for. a closure, av cap partY forming a closure, a wall on said cap part with a surface coaxial with said cap part adapted to slidably engage with` the wall surface of said receiver part, said wall surfaces, providingfor a telescopic Ifit between said cap part and said receiver part by relative axial movement between said parts in one direction, and a frangible web of flexible rubber-like material extending around said parts which are of comparatively greater size and strength. than said. web and securing said cap part in coaxial relation to saidfspout, said frangible web having a thin section located therein forming a tear type of Yfrangible connection so .that on fracture, to remove said cap part by relative axial movement between said tubular spout and said cap part in the opposite direction, a substantially continuous, circumferential portion of said frangible web will remain on one of said parts located thereon to be wedgingly engaged between said walls when said cap part is reapplied to said spout by forcing said cap part and spout together in telescopic relation while said cap'partand spout face the same way as beflore separation. 4. A container comprising in combination a container body, an opening in said container body, aA tubular flange extending from said container body and forming a spout for said. opening and a receiver part -for a closure, angularrly related surfaces converging toward an edge extending around the end of the `spout on said receiver part adjacent its inner periphery, a cap part with a depending tubular flange on said cap part forming a closure, angularly relatedsurfaces at thelower end of the tubular flange ori said cap part converging toward an edge extending circumferentially around said cap part adjacent its outer periphery,.said angesbeingconstructed and dimensioned soi that one will telescope within the other by relative axial movement between said flanges in one direction,
anda frangible webof flexible material extendingbetween the angularly related surfaces wherethey convergev toward an edge on saidspout and the angularly related surfaces `where they converge toward an edgeV on said flange on said4 cap part and united circumferentially thereto, said frangible webv having a thin section located therein forming a tear type of frangible connection so that on fracture, to remove said cap part by relative axial movement bte- Y tweensaid anges in the` opposite direction, a substantially continuous, circumferential portion of'v said frangible web will remain on at least one of said. parts to be wedgingly engaged between the ange on said cap part andl said spoutwhen said cap part is reapplied to said container by forcing. said cap and `spout axially together. into telescopic relation while said cap part andv spout face in the same way as before separation.
5. A container comprising in combination a container body, an: opening in said container body,v a tubular ange axial movement between said anges in oneV direction,l
and a frangible web of flexible material extending between the angularly related surfaces where they converge toward an edge on said spout and the angularly related surfaces where they converge toward an edge on said cap part and united circumferentiallythereto, said frangible web having a thin s ection |located therein forming a tear ty-peof frangible connection soV that 1on fracture, to remove saidI cap part by-relative axial movement between said' anges inthe oppositeV direction, a substantially con.- tinuous, circumferential portionfof said frangible web Wilfremain on at leastone ofsaid parts which will be wedgingly engaged between said anges when said. cap part is reapplied to said container by forcing said flanges axially together into telescopic relation while said flanges face the vsame Way as before separation.
6. A container comprising in combination a plastic squeeze bottle anda unitary closure, an opening in said bottle, a s pout part for said opening in. said bottle having a wall with a surface coaxial with said opening, a, cap part, aV Wall on said` cap part with a surface coaxial with said` cap part adapted to slidably engage with t-he wall surface of said spout part, saidV walls providing for a telescopic tit `between said cap part and said spout part by relative axial movement between said spout part and cap part in one direction, and a` frangible web of liexible material formed integral with and extending around said parts which are of comparatively greater size and strength than said' web and securing said cap part in coaxial relation to said spout-part, said frangible web having a thin section defining a line of fracture so that on removal of saidcap part from saidv spout part by relative axial movement between said spout and said cap in the opposite direction, a substantial continuous, circumferential portion of said frangible web will remain on at least one of said parts to be wedgingly engaged between said spout and said cap when said cap part is reapplied to said spout lpart by axial movement forcing said walls together into telescopic relation while said' spout and cap face the same way as before separation. i
7. A container comprising in combination a container body and a closure connected to said container by a frangible web and adapted to be opened by separating said closure from said body and tearing said web on initial opening andadapted for reclosing after initial opening by movement of said closurev in the opposite direction while faced in thel same way as before opening, said container comprising, a contaiuerbody withv an openlng, a ring-shapedreceiver part around the opening in said container body, angularly related wall surfaces on said receivery part, converging toward. an edge extending around said receiver part, a closure part with an annular ange, angularly related wall surfaces extending around said closure, partv converging toward an edge coaxial with said closure part, one of the wall surfaces on said'closure part and one, 0f the wall surfaces on said receiver part being substantiallyV coaxially aligned and adapted to slidably engage by relative :axial movement between said parts. tov Ytelescope one part within the other, a web extendingV around said parts and interconnected integrally with the -angularly related wall surfaces onv said receiver part where they converge toward ian edge and with the angular-,ly related wall surfaces on said cap part where they converge toward an edge to form a tear typefrangible joint for initially sealing said closure partfto said container body, said web. being located on one of said parts so that when said parts are separated lby relative movement in said one direction fracturing said joint at leasta portion of said web will remain around the periphery of one of said parts in'a position to be wedgingly engaged by one of said slidably engaging wall surfaces on `said parts when said cap part is reapplied to close said opening by forcing said parts togetherA by'axial' relative movement in said` other direction with saidv parts facing the Ysame way as before separation and fracture of said joint. 8. A container and a closure connected' to said conv tainer by a frangible we b and adapted' to be opened by relative movement separating said closure from said container and adapted for reclosing after initial opening by Y movement of said closure in the opposite direction while 9 facing in the same way as before opening, said container comprising, a container body with an opening, a ringshaped receiver part around the opening in said container body, angularly related Wall surfaces adjacent the inner periphery converging toward an edge coaxial With the container Opening, a closure part with an annular ange, angularly related wall surfaces on said annular flange converging toward an edge extending circumferentially around the outside of said closure part coaxial with said opening, one of said wall surfaces on each of said parts coaxial With said opening and with each other being adapted to slidably engage by relative axial movement between said parts to telescope said closure part within said receiver part, a web extending around said parts and interconnected integrally with said angularly related walls Where they converge toward yan edge on said receiver part and said angnlarly related Walls where they converge toward an edge on said closure part to form a tear type frangible joint for initially sealing said closure, said web being located on one of said parts so that when said parts are separated by relative movement in said one direction fracturing said joint atleast a portion of said web will remain around the periphery of one of said parts in a position to be Wedgingly engaged by said wall surface of said cap part when. said cap part is reapplied to close the opening by forcing said parts together by axial relative movement in said other direction With said parts facing the same Way as before separation and fracture of said joint.
References Cited in the tile of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 906,157 Porter Dec. 8, 1908 1,080,747 Buckley Dec. 9, 1913 1,327,190 Bigoney Jan. 6, 1920 2,392,195 Shonnard Jan. 1, 1946 2,750,068 Platt Jan. 12, 1956 FOREIGN PATENTS 562,640 Italy May 16, 1957 70,174 France Oct. 20, 1958 (Second yaddition to No. 1,147,313) 1,057,012 Germany May 6, 1959