US 3083876 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April 2, 1963 w. s. SCHNEIDER ETAL 3,033,876
PRE-PEEEOEATED MATERIAL FOR PACKAGES AND METHOD oF MAKING sAME Filed March 20, 1959 WZL/HM 5'. 5cm/H052, Cannes/11 ppavrsfag United States Patent O 3,083,876 PREERFRATEB MtTidRIAl-L FR PACKAGES AND li'lEtHD MAKEN@- SAME William S. Schneider, Glendale, .and Charles M. Carpanter, Er., Woodland Hills, Calif., assignors to Parlo aging Frontiers lne., Boston, Mass., a corporation of Delaware Filed l/lar, 2i), i959, Ser. Nm 809,827 lil Slaims. (Ci. 222l7) The present invention relates generally to the ar-'t of packages or containers with flexible walls made from thin sheets or webs and more particularly to easily opened packages or containers of this class.
Containers are made in many different ways and different shapes from thin, flexible webs of paper, synthetic resins commonly referred to as plastics, or a com-bination of various different materials bonded together to form a single composite or laminated sheet. These webs are formed into the desired shapes by suitable machines, filled with liquid, semi-liquid, granular or other similarly fluent substances and .finally sealed.
Containers may be of a so-called dispensing type and are each formed with a pouring channel through which the contents of the container can be discharged in a controlled manner. Dispensing type containers are especially advantageous when the contents are not all discharged at one time so that it may be desired to use the container as a temporary storage for a portion of the contents. With a container of this character it may be desired to open the container by removing a portion of it along a predetermined line, normally a line located to intersect and open the pouring channel near its outer end. Opening the pouring channel at this position not only facilitates controlled discharge of the contents but makes more prac tical the use of the container as a temporary storage unit.
For this purpose, it has been common practice to incorporate in the process of forming the container a step of providing a line of weakness along which the container wall can be torn with relative ease to open the container at the pre-determined location. Typically and preferably the line of weakness is established by a row of perforations. Heretofore, such perforations have passed entirely through the walls of the container and therefore could not be placed in the container wall forming the pouring channel, or bounding the interior storage space. Perforations extending through the wall at these positions of the package break the barrier between the contents and the outside. They are openings admitting moisture to the contents or, in the case of a fine powder or a liquid, permitting leakage of the contents. For this reason such perforations are limited in their location to sealed portions at the side or ends of the container where the perforations pass through two or more thicknesses of the web but without penetrating to the interior storage space. In known packages the row of perforations extends to but not across the pouring channel. As a result, a row of perforations of this character does not assist in tearing the walls of the pouring channel itself. Our invention may be applied to thin material of sheetlike character which is either in separate sheets or a long web from which the containers are formed.
Thus it becomes a general object of our invention t provide filled and sealed packages or containers comprising a tube of flexible sheetlike material suitable for making containers, having transverse seals at its ends, the material being already provided, before the packaging operation, with a line of weakness of a character suitable, in general, to facilitate removal of a portion of the container wall, as by extending entirely across a pouring 3,083,876 Patented Apr. 2, 1963 ICC channel or the like which is to be opened by tearing off a corner of the container.
More specifically, it is an object of our invention to provide filled and sealed packages made from material having already established in it a row of perforations of such character that they can be located at the pouring channel or the like of the finished container to locate the line along which a portion of the container can be torn away.
According to our invention the above objects are attained by providing a thin flexible laminated material having a plurality of layers, the first layer having a series of spaced perforations extending completely through the layer and a second layer of fluid impervious material applied over and adhering to one side of the first layer, the last mentioned layer extending over .and sealing the perforations in the first layer to prevent the passage of fluid therethrough.
ln a preferred form of our invention the laminated material may include three or more layers, all of which except one have a series of perforations arranged in a row and extending entirely through them, said one layer being the layer of fluid impervious material which seals the perforations. One of the perforated layers may have printing or other indicia on one face with respect to which the row of perforations is located at a predetermined position. The printing or indicia may serve not only as means for positioning the web during the process of forming the container in order to properly locate the row of perforations on the completed container but also to place on the container printed indicia at a predetermined location, such as instructions with respect to opening the container along the row of perfor-ations.
How the above objects and advantages of our invention, as well as others not specifically mentioned, are attained, will be more easily understood by reference to the following description and to the annexed drawing in which;
FIG. l is a fragmentary plan view of a segment of a flat, laminated web constructed according to our invention.
FIG. Z is an enlarged fragmentary section through the web on line 2-2 of FIG. 1.
FG. 3 is a plan view of a flat package made from the web illustrated in FIG. l, but at a larger scale, showing the relation of the rows of perforatons to the pouring channel.
FIG. 4 is a section similar to PEG. 2 of a two-layer web.
FIG. 5 is a side elevation of a tetrahedrai package with a pouring channel showing the rela-tive position of the row of pcrforaticns.
FlG. 6 is a fragmentary plan view of a section of flat, laminated web constructed according to our invention, showing perforations located for the package of 5.
Referring now to HG. l, there is shown a plan View of a section of a web, generally indicated at la?, which is a preferred embodiment of our invention. Because 1 c ferial for packages is commonly in a long web, we pre to illustrate our invention in this manner but such ernbodirnent is not necessarily limitative upon the invention. This web is laminated and comprises three layers, as will be described, one of `which makes the web heat scalable on one side.
The web is shown greatly enlarged in cross section in FlG. 2 `where it will be seen that the preferred web consists of three layers. The center layer l2 is paper board made from cellulose fibers, or other similar material, which lends stiffness and strength to the composite web. Typically, but without any limitation thereto, the core layer is about .007 in. in thickness. lt may be thinner, especially when the board is dense and strong or rendered stiff by a suitable binder or additive. It may be thicker when desired' for increased strength or stiffness, as in the case of relatively large containers. However, when referring herein to board, a material having a thickness of about .O02 in. or more is meant.
In this preferred web, the core, layer 12 is covered on one side with a layer of metal; foil 14. This layer is relatively thin, normally being Ilessthan .OUI in. in thickness and oftenl about .0004 in. A web with metal foil on one side is favored because it adds to the strength and stiness of the web, has water-proof qualities, receives printing well, and presents ya pleasing appearance when on .the outside of the package.
The center layer of board is. covered on the other side with a `liner layer which is impervious or substantially so to liquids and vapors; and is preferably -a synthetic resin or plas-tic having suitable thermoplastic characteristics .that make the web heat-sealing on the side to which the layer 15 is applied. There are a number of wellknown synthetic resins or plastics which are suitable for this purpose, one such being polyethylene. This layer is commonly in the neighborhood of .001 to .002 in. in thickness. As described so far, a laminated web is known in the art and is described in detail only to facilitate a full understanding of our invention.
According to our invention, the first two layers (which may be referred to as a backing) are provided with a series of perforations 16 arranged in rows at regularly spaced positions along the web. Perforations 16 extend entirely through the layers 12 and 114 of boa-rd and foil but do not enter layer 15, as may be seen in FIG. 2. This layer 15 is preferably continuous over one surface of board 12 so that it provides an uninterrupted moisture barrier between the contents and core layer 12. The impervious layer extends over and seals perforations 16. Thus the layer 15 not only prevents liquid` or inely powdered contents of a completed package from leaking ou-t through perforations 16 but also denies liquid any contact with the cut edge of' the board inthe perforations to prevent what is known in the trade as wicking While layer 15 is preferably continuous over the web, our invention lals ocomprehends a localized application of a layer 15' at the location of a row of openings 16, especially if the completed web is not heat sealable. A continuous layer makes a container suitable for packaging liquids or powders, since the layer 15 serves to exclude outside moisture from the contents as well as keep in liquids.
Perforations 16 may be of any size and spacing desired. Typic-ally these perforations have a diameter of the order of .OZ-.03 in. The layer 15V has adequate tensile strength to extend across the inner end of perforations of this size without breaking, and even perforations of a larger size. The spacing between the perforations in a row determines the ease with which the web can be torn along a row or line of perforations and the spacing is selectedA accordingly but is ordinarily in excess of one diameter of the perforations.
Of course the perforations may be made other than circular, for example oval or even elongated knife cuts or slits.
In the manufacture of the web 1li` the layers of board 12 and foil 14 are first bonded together in any suitable manner, as by `an adhesive. They are then perforated in order that perforations 16 lmay extend through both layers. Finally, the third layer .15 is applied over the face of board 12 opposite to foil 14. This .third layer may be extruded directly onto the board or it may be made as a separate film which is bonded to the board in a suitable manner. Such details of forming the laminated web are well-known in the art and need not be discussed a-t length here. In either case layer 15 is continuous and closes all of the perforations in the web at one end of the perforations It may be desired for ovious reasons to have instructions, trademarks, ornamental designs or any other indicia printed upon `the surface of the foil. This printing is done at any suitable time prior to bonding to the board 12 of the third layer of thermoplastic material. As may be seen by reference to FIG. l, the printing indicated at 17 is repeated at regular in-tervals on the web and each row of perforations 16 is located ata predetermined position with respect to the printed material appearing on the surface of the web. Such printed material may include instructions for opening the package and therefore should be positioned close to the row of perforations 16 in the final package. The printed indicia may also include indicia for actuating electric eye means positioning the web in the package forming machine, as is Well known in the art, to insure that the row of perforationsl 16 is properly positioned on the completed package.
One typical type of completed package is illustrated in FIG. 3. This package -19 is formed by folding web` 10 lalong its longitudinal median axis 20 to bring together the side of the web covered by layer 15. The web is sealed by lthe application of heat and pressure in marginal areas 18 extending around three sides of the completed package. The filled package is severed from the web by cutting along the successive transverse lines 21, 22, 23 and 24, to produce a corresponding number of completed pack-ages. The packages illustrated in FIG. 3 may be assumed to be that cut`from ythe `web at the lines 21 and 22, the reference numerals in FIG. 3 designating the corresponding cut edges of the package.
The package is preferably provided with a pouring channel 27 `at one corner, the sides and end of the channel being defined by portions in sealed areas `18 where the web has been sealed together. On each iside. of the package there appears a row of perforations 16, such row extending entirely across pouringchannel' E27. Referring again to FIG. `1, the web is preferably provided with two such rows of penforations as shown between each of the transverse lines 21, 22, 23 and so on. The two rows of perforations extend inwardly from opposite edges of the web and are inclined equally and oppositely to axis 20. When theV package is completed the two rows of perforations overlie eachother and extend across pouring channel 27 to provide a line `in each wall along which the corner of the package can be torn away with relative ease to open the pouring channel. The line of perforations guides the tear `so that -it crosses the channel and does not accidentally enter into the main body of the package.
There is shown in. FIG. 5 another type of container to which our invention may be applied. This container 29 is disclosed in detail in the application of William S. Schneider Serial No. 606,349, led August 27, 1956 for Dispensing Container, now Patent No. 2,942,760, dated June 28, 1960. The container is of a tetrahedral shape and has at one end a sealed area 3i)l which defines at the top corner of the package a pouring channel 31. A web` from which the package 29 can be made is shown in plan in FIG. 6. This web preferably consists of three layers as. shown in FIG. 2, and it is provided at regular :intervals with two rows 32 of perforations formed in the web as described. above. The two rows are in a V-shaped arrangement with the apex positioned at the longitudinal line 35 at which a fold is made that becomes the upper edge of the sealed arca 30, as package 29 is seen in FIG. 5. The web is cut along successive transverse lines 36, 37, 38 to form successive packages 29 in each of which the row 32 of perforations extends inwardly Ifrom the outer edge of sealed area 30 toward and across pouring channel 31. Tofachieve this result each row 32 of perforations is inclined equally and oppositely to the line 35 at which `the web is folded in mak-ing the package. It Will be noted that the two rows ozf perforations 32 differ in their relative locations from the rows in FIG. 1 in that the rows 32 lintersect in a V-formation and are located inwardly of the lateral edges of the web. Each row terminates at or near a line transverse of the web at which a cut is made -to produce an individual package.
From the above description of a preferred form of the invention it will be understood that our invention is not necessarily limited to all of the features disclosed. For example, the laminated web may consist of only two layers as illustrated in FIG. 4. Ihese are the layer 12 of paper board or the like and the layer -15 which closes perforations 16 and renders the web heat-scalable on one side.
`In its broad sense the invention is not necessarily limited to a layer 15 having thermoplastic or sealing characteristics since the complete package may be closed by adhesives or other sealing means than the layer 15. With the omission of the foil layer 14, any printing on the package is located directly on the outer surface of the board layer 12.
Also, the perforations are not limited to being in a row that is a straight line. 'I'hey may be arranged in a curved row in some types of packages, especially when two sides of the package are not in direct contact so that a discharge opening is to be made -in one wall only.
From the foregoing description it will be evident that various other changes may be made in the web and packages made therefrom without departing from the spirit and scope of our invention. Accordingly the foregoing disclosure is considered to be illustrative ofrather than limitative upon the invention as defined by the appended claims.
1. A filled and sealed package comprising a tube of flexible packaging material having transverse seals at its ends, said material being a multilayer material comprising a backing and a liner of heat-scalable plastic bonded to one side of the backing and covering the entire area thereof, ysaid liner constituting the inside face of the material in the tube and being `impervious 'to escape of the contents of the package, said end seals being inside-faceto-inside-face heat seals, the ends of said seals defining corners of the package, at least one of two opposite walls of the package which are sealed together by Athe insideface-to-inside-face end seal at one end of the tube having a line of perforations in the backing thereof only, said line extending inward from an edge of said one wall adjacent a corner of the package and traversing an unsealed portion of the tube, said liner being imperforate throughout its `area between the end seals and thereby preventing escape of the contents of the package through the perforations where ythey traverse said unsealed portion of the tube, said package being adapted to be opened by grasping it at the corner adjacent said line of perforations and pulling on said corner to tear said opposite walls `through both the backing and liner along said lines of perforations in the backing.
2. A fil-led and sealed package as set forth in claim 1 wherein the other of said two opposite walls also has a line of perforations in the backing thereof only at least substantially in register with said first-mentioned line of perforations.
3. A filled and sealed package as set forth in claim 2 wherein said end seals are in different planes such that the package is of tetrahedron shape.
4. A filled and sealed package as set forth in claim 2 wherein .said end seals are in the same plane, the package thereby being a flat package.
5. yA filled and sealed tetrahedron-shaped package comprising a tube of flexible packaging material having transverse seals at its ends, said end seals being in planes at such an angle to one another that the package has the shape of a tetrahedron with four triangular sides, two opposite triangular sides having one end seal as their base, and the other two opposite triangular sides having the other end seal as their base, said material being a multilayer material comprising a backing and a liner of heatscalable plastic bonded to one side of the backing and covering the entire area thereof, said liner constituting the inside face of the material in the tube and being impervious to escape of the contents of the package, said end seals being inside-face-to-inside-face heat seals, the ends of said seals defining corners of the package, at least one of said triangular sides of the package having a line of perforations in the backing thereof oniy, said line extending from an edge of said one triangular side generally diagonally across a corner portion of said one triangular side and traversing an unsealed portion of the tube, said liner being imperforate throughout its area between the end seals and thereby preventing escape of the contents of the package through the perforations where they traverse said unsealed portion of the tube, said package being adapted to be opened by grasping it at the corner adjacent said line of perforations and pulling on said corner to tear said one triangular side and the opposite triangular side of the package through both the backing and liner along said lines of perforations in the backing.
6. A filled and sealed tetrahedron-shaped package as set forth in claim 5 wherein said opposite triangular side al-so has a line of perforations in the backing thereof only at least substantially in register with said first-mentioned line of perforations.
7. A filled and sealed tetrahedron-shaped package as set forth in claim 6 wherein the end seal at said corner portion is formed to provide a channel extending outward at said corner portion and wherein the lines of perforations traverse said channel.
8. A filled and .sealed package comprising a tube of flexible packaging material having transverse seals at its ends, said end seals being in the same plane so that the package is a at package having front and back walls, said material being a multi-layer material comprising a backing and a liner of heat-scalable plastic bonded to one side of the backing and covering the entire area thereof, said liner constituting the inside face of the material in the tube and being impervious to escape of the contents of the package, said end seals being inside-face-to-insideface heat seals, the ends of said seals defining corners of the package, at least one of said walls of the package having a line of perforations in the backing thereof only, said line extending from an edge of said one wall generally diagonally across a corner portion of said one wall and traversing an unsealed portion of the tube, said liner being imperforate throughout its area between the end seals and thereby preventing escape of the contents of the package through the perforations where they traverse said unsealed portion of the tube, said package being adapted to be opened by grasping it at the corner adjacent said line of perforations and pulling on said corner to tear said walls through both the backing and liner along said lines of perforations in the backing.
9. A filled and sealed package as set forth in claim 8 wherein the other wall also has a line of perforations in the backing thereof only at least substantially in register with said first-mentioned line of perfora'tions.
10. A filled and sealed package as set forth in claim 9 wherein the end seal at said corner portion is formed to provide a channel extending outward at said corner portion and wherein the lines of perforations traverse said channel.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 41,097 Sawyer lan. 5, 1864 506,982 Diamond Oct. 17, 1893 1,714,265 Gurwick May 21, 1929 2,056,005 Fleisch Sept. 29, 1936 2,099,412 Seidler Nov. 16, 1937 2,234,842 Jordan Mar. 1l, 1941 2,371,521 Heywood et al .Man 13, 1945 2,386,416 Wilhelm Oct. 9, 1945 2,389,747 Stone et al. Nov. 27, 1945 2,508,392 Issaly May 23,
(Other references on following page) UNITED STATES PATENT S Chandler Dec. 16, 1952 Land Sept. 29', 1953' Champion June 15, 1954 Mason Apr. 5, 1955 Gelebeke Ian. 3, 1956 Rausing Apr. 10, 1956 Duke Mar. 24, 11959