|Publication number||US3084824 A|
|Publication date||Apr 9, 1963|
|Filing date||Dec 8, 1959|
|Priority date||Dec 8, 1959|
|Also published as||DE1411530A1|
|Publication number||US 3084824 A, US 3084824A, US-A-3084824, US3084824 A, US3084824A|
|Inventors||Kuzma Stephen, Marshall R Singer|
|Original Assignee||Allied Chem|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (10), Referenced by (6), Classifications (17)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
April 9, 1963 s. KUzMA ETAL CARBOY PACKAGE 2 SheetswSheet 1 Filed Dec. 8, 1959 FIGLI.
2s zz 25 22 27 2G INVENTORS STEPHEN KUZMA MARSHALL R.SINGER ATTORNEY April 9, 1963 s. KUzMA ETAL 3,084,824
CARBOY PACKAGE Filed Dec- 8. 1959 2 sheets-sheet 2 FIG.6.
INVENTORS STEPHEN KUZMA MARSBl-YIALL R.S|NGER ZW/M ATTORNEY loverpacked in a heavy nailed wood box.
This invention relates to a carboy package and more particularly to a new and improved carboy package wherein the likelihood of the carboy breaking during handling and shipping is reduced to a minimum.
Present carboy construction consists of a glass bottle The bottle is supported and cushioned in the box by eight rubber or cork cushions, four of the cushions being placed in the -bottom corners of the box and the bottle placed thereon and the remaining four cushions being then placed on the shoulders of the bottle and held tightly in place by wooden blocks nailed to the corner posts of the box. The box is then closed with a wooden lid nailed to the side boards and having an opening to enable the bottle neck to protrude therefrom. This carboy construction is disadvantageous for the reason that any shock or impact to the outer surface of the carboy container is generally localized by being transmitted through the cushions to either one or four points on the glass bottle, resulting not infrequently in breakage of the bottle. Further, the heavy nailed wood box is disadvantageous due to the higher freight rates for transporting the same due to its considerable weight, and also because it is difcult to manually lift and carry the carboy container'. Moreover, the rubber of the cushions tends to age and be decomposed by prolonged exposure to 'the air and certain mineral acids such as strong grades of nitric, sulfuric or perchloric acids which inevitably contact the cushions, harden and decompose the rubber, Strong nitric acid may even set the rubber on fire. The cork is unsatisfactory because it has large permanent deformations under pressure, and does not provide a sufficient cushioning effect.
Other cushioning materials heretofore employed around breakable carboy bottles included mineral wool, straw, glass Wool and marsh grass. A heavy wood box or barrel generally enclosed the cushioning material and carboy. Such carboy containers were disadvantageous because the cushioning material does not allow repeated impacts or shocks without permanently compressing the material'to the point where shocks are no longer absorbed. Further the great weight of the carboy container due to the heavy box or barrel resulted in the increased Yfreight rates and difficulty in lifting and carrying the cushioning material which will absorb repeated shocks and impacts for a prolonged period without being permanently compressed to the point where shocks are no longer absorbed.
Another object is to provide a carboy package having protective vcushioning characterized by having a chemical resistance such that contact of mineral acids therewith has virtually no degrading effect on its cushioning or physical properties.
A further object is to provide a carboy package having a protective cushioning material of extremely low water absorption and of high age resisting qualities.
'diizi Patented Apr. 9, 1963 A further object is to provide a carboy package characterized by being of much lighter construction than the prior art carboy containers using the heavy wooden boxes and barrels, with attendant savings in freight costs as Well as material and labor costs.
Additional objects and advantages will be apparent as the invention is hereafter described in more detail,
In accordance with the invention the carboy package comprises a frangible bottle, a protective cushioning envelope of resilient foamed synthetic plastic material, preferably foamed polystyrene having a plurality of closed, discrete, non-communicating cells surrounding the bottle leaving only its neck and mouth unsurrounded, a lightweight wrap-around, wire-bound, flexible overpack surrounding the side wall of the foamed plastic material, the overpack comprising a plurality of narrowly spaced upright slats, and spaced binding wires continuously encircling the overpack exteriorly thereof and secured to the slats, such binding wires reinforcing and holding the slats in assembled relation relative to each other, a cover plate having an opening therein anchored over the top edge face of the foamed envelope, the bottle neck extending through the opening, and another cover plate anchored at the bottom face of the foamed envelope. The carboy package is characterized by offering the following advantages: (l) cushioning efficiency superior to that of any known carboy construction; (2) automatic distribution over a large area of the bottle of any shock or irnpact to the outer surface of the overpack or outer surface of the foamed envelope, thereby reducing to a minimum breakage of the carboy; (3) adherence of the foamed plastic to the bottle forming a unitary structure which gives strength :to the glass and prevents shattering or flying pieces of glass; (4) acid will not escape from the package even if the glass cracks by reason of the yclosed non-communicating cells of the plastic envelope;
(5) slats of the overpack are removable and can be readily replaced if broken, and the overpack can be stored in flat position before use requiring only a minimum of storage space; (6) the foamed plastic material allows repeated shocks and impacts without permanent compression of the material to the point where shocks are no longer absorbed; (7) the overpack itself absorbs considerable shock .and impact by reason of its tlexibility and combined with the teamed plastic envelope gives superior protection to the bottle; (8) chemical resistance of the preferred foarned plastic material, viz. polystyrene is such that mineral acids have no degrading effect on its cushioning or physical properties; (9) extremely low water absorption quality of the foamed plastic enables the carboy packages to be stored outdoors inasmuch as rain or melted snow will have no effect on its cushioning properties; (l0) extremely low weight of the foarned plastic enables a considerable reduction in tare weight, a reduction of approximately 40% when foarned polystyrene is used with resultant savings in freight charges; and, (ll) excellent shock absorption qualities of the foamed plastic enables use of an overpack of much lighter construction than heretofore used, with attendant savings in freight costs, relative ease of handling, etc.
In the drawings:
FlG. 1 is a perspective view of the carboy bottle of the present invention with its surrounding envelope of foamed plastic material.
FlG. 2 is a plan view of the lightweight Wrap-around, wire-bound flexible overpack.
FG. 3 is a sectional View taken on line 3 3 of FlG 2.
FIG. 4 is a plan view of the top surface of the top cover plate having the opening for the carboy bottle neck.
FIG. 5 is a plan view of the bottom surface of the bottom imperforate cover plate.
FIG. 6 is a perspective view showing the wrap-around aosasaa wire-bound tlexible overpack being placed around the side wall of the foamed envelope surrounding the carboy bottle, both the top and bottom cover plates being in place.
FIG. 7 is a perspective view of the complete carboy package.
FIG. 8 is a sectional view taken on line 8 8 of FIG. 7.
FG. 9 is an enlarged detail sectional view of the preferred cellular polystyrene of the foamed cushioning envelope of the carboy package, the polystyrene comprising a multiplicity of closed, discrete, non-communicating cells.
Referring to the drawings showing a specific embodiment of the carboy package, glass bottle 10 has surround-Y ing protective cushioning envelope 11 of resilient foamed synthetic plastic material, preferably polystyrene with only its neck 12 and mouth unsurrounded. Foamed polyurethane, polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene, polyvinyiidene chloride, polyacrylic esters and polymethacrylic esters could be used instead of the polystyrene, if desired. Wooden cover plate 13 having opening 14 therein engages top edge faces 15 of roamed sheath or envelope 11, bottle neck 12 protruding through the opening. Cover plate 13 is provided with two wooden spacer bars 16 secured to its upper surface by light nails. Imperforate wooden cover plate -17 engages bottom face 13, which is planar, of foamed envelope 11, plate k17 being provided with two Wooden spacer bars 19 on its lower surface. Both the lower surface and upper surface of cover plates 13 and 17 respectively are planar.
Lightweight, wire-bound, flexible overpack 20 surrounds the side wall 21 of the foarned envelope. The envelope side wall can be of shape other than cylindrical as shown and is advantageously octagonal or such other shape as corresponds to the shape of the overpack, to prevent movement of the envelope with respect to the overpack. As shown in more detail in FIGS. 2 and 6, overpack 2i) comprises a plurality of narrowly spaced upright wooden slats 22. of typical width of about 71/2, length of about 241A", and thickness of about 1t"-1/2", the slats being spaced apart typical distance of about V16. The lightweight wooden slats are made of pine as are cover plates 13 and 17 and the cleats hereafter described, although other Wood such as spruce or poplar could be used, if desired. Wooden cleats 23 are affixed by light nails to the upper marginal edge portions 24 of inner surfaces of the slats, the cleats each extending across the approximate width of the slat and projecting inwardly therefrom a distance of typically about %-1 to overlap the marginal edge portion of top cover plate 13 to anchor the cover plate in engagement with the top edge face of envelope 11. Wooden cleats 25 are also secured by light nails to lower marginal edge portions 26 of the inner surface of slats 22, cleats 25 each having length similar to and projecting inwardly a distance similar to the length and inward projection of cleats 23 to anchor bottom cover plate 17 in engagement with the bottom face of envelope 11. Binding wires 27 continuously encircle overpack 20 externally thereof, the wires being secured to slats 22 by staples 28. The binding wires reinforce and hold .the slates in assembled relation relative to each other. Binding wires 27 are slender, llexible wires of steel although they could be formed of aluminum or other suitable metal if desired, the wires being typically circular in cross section and having diameter of :typically about .065"-.l0l. As shown in FIG. 7, wires 27 each have a sharply curved terminal end portion 29 and a hook 3) at the opposite terminal end portion, the curved end portion 2,9 being bent and extending about the hooks 30 to secure overpack 20 in position about envelope side wall `21. Stopper 31 of glass or of any other material resistant to the bottle contents is inserted in the mouth of the bottle.
The carboy package is prepared by method comprising positioning the frangible bottle within the cavity tof a hollow mold with the bottle neck protruding through an opening in the mold wall, the bottle side wall and bottom being spaced from the mold inner surface, providing and expanding an expandable synthetic plastic material in the space between the bottle and enclosing mold to ill the space and forman envelope of foamed plastic material surrounding the bottle leaving only its neck and mouth unsurrounded, withdrawing the bottle -with its surrounding resilient foamed protective envelope as a unit from the mold, covering the top edge face of the foamed envelope with a cover plate having an opening therein in a manner Isuch that the bottle neck protrudes through the opening, covering the bottom face of the f-oarned envelope with another cover plate, Wrapping about the side wall of the foamed envelope the lightweight, wire-bound, ilexible noverp-ack, the overpack comprising a plurality of narrowly spaced, upright slats, and spaced binding wires continuously encircling the overpack secured -to the slats, the binding wires reinforcing and holding the slats in assembled relation to each other, securing the overpack in position about the envelope side wall, and anchoring the top and bottom cover plates at the top edge face and bottom face respectively of the foamed envelope.
More speciiically, in accordance with the method the glass bottle 10 is positioned in inverted yposition in the cavity of the mold with the bottle neck protruding through an opening in the mold bottom, the bottle side wall and bottom wall being spaced from the mold inner surface. The narrow space between the bottle neck and edge of the opening is gasketed to form a tight seal between the mold and bottle at the point of contact.
Small particles of porous, pre-expanded synthetic thermoplastic material, preferably polystyrene are then introduced into the mold space between the bottle and mold inner surface in predetermined quantity which iills -a portion typically about 95% of the mold volume or space, and sutlicient 4to completely lill the mold after final expansion. The mold is then closed. If desired, porous pre-expanded particles of polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene, polyvinylidene chloride, polyacrylic or polymethyacrylic esters can be used instead of the polystyrene. The preexpanded particles still contain as expanding agent a liquid in which the thermoplastic is insoluble and having a lower boiling point than the softening point of the thermoplastic, for instance petroleum ether having a boiling range of labout 68 F.-140 F. The liquid expanding agent is present in the pre-expanded particles in typical amounts of about 4-l2% by weight (based on total weight of the mixture).v Other liquid expanding agents that can be used include heptane, pentane, cyclopentane, hexane, cyclohexane and cyclopentadiene.
In preparing the porous, pre-expanded, incompletely expanded particles, the thermoplastic particles containing the liquid expanding agent are heated above the softening point for a period sufficient to evaporate off only a portion of the expanding agent. The pre-expansion heating can be carried out by means of stream, infrared radiation or hot water. vFor Iinstance, with polystyrene beads containing the petroleum ether as expanding agent, incomplete foaming-up of the beads can be effected by heating the beads. yat temperature of about 2.20-250 F. for about l-2 minutes. The porous pre-expanded polystyrene particles have typical diameter of about .08-.l2 and bulk density of about 1.1-4.3 lbs. per cu. ft.
The pre-expanded particles are heated in the enclosin-g mold by direct contact with lsteam introduced into the mold space to a temperature above the boiling point of the liquid expanding Iagent and above the Isoftening point of the thermoplastic, preferably, in the case of polystyrene, to a temperature of about 10-Z5 F. higher than the yiirst heating for the partial expansion. The second heating causes the thermoplastic t-o finally expand or foam-up to completely rlll the mold -space and forrnl the sheath or envelope 11 of foamed cellular thermoplastic surrounding the bottle with only the bottle neck unsurrounded. The time required for the final expansion is typically about lminutes. Vapors and gases escape from the mold during a substantial portion of the heating through small openings in the gasketed space between the bottle neck and mold opening.
The bottle and surrounding foamed material is then cooled to handling temperature, typically about 70- 80 F. while in the mold by cessation of heating and permitting the bott-le and foamed thermoplastic to cool. if desired, water may be sprayed on the mold to hasten the cooling. The mold is then opened and the bottle with its surrounding -resilient foamed envelope withl drawn as a unit.
The preferred foamed polystyrene comprises a multiplicity of closed, discrete, non-communicating cells 32 shown in FIG. 9, and is superior to use of material having open, communicating cells -such as rubber for the reason that the closed non-communicating cells provide an extremely high resistance to the passage of water enabling the package to be stored exposed to the atmosphere for prolonged periods with its cushioning qualities unaifected by rain -or snow. On the contrary, rubber absorbs water which affects its cushioning properties. Further, the point where cushioning effect per unit Volume is lost is considerably cl-oser to the surface of the cellular material in the open cell rubber than in the closed cell polystyrene.
When foamed polyurethane is used for the protective envelope, the glass bottle is positioned in an inverted position within the cavity of the hollow mold in fthe manner described, .and then a liquid mixture comprising an organic polyisocyanate, a material of the group consisting of polyesters and polyethers, and water is poured into the space between the bottle and the mold inner surface. The polyisocyanate and water react within the enclosed mold space .at room temperature with liberation of carbon dioxide, and the polysocyanate simultaneously polymerizes with the polyester or polyether whereby the reaction product foams up within the mold space to lill the same and form a foamed envelope or sheath of cellular polyurethane adhering to and surrounding the bottle leaving only the bottle neck and mouth unsurrounded. The bottle with its surrounding foamed envelope is maintained within the mold for a period suilicient to cure the foamed cellular polyurethane.
A typical Iformulation for preparing the foamed polyurethane of the present invention follows:
Parts by weight Polyester PFR-6 -is a polyester made from adipic acid and trimethylol propane and obtainable from the Plastics and Coal Chemicals Division of Allied Chemical Corporation. 'Iihe tolylene diisocyanate i-someric mixture is a mixture of about 80% of 2,4-tolylene diisocyanate and 20% of 2,6-tolylene diisocyanate. Celluflex CEF is a lire retardant obtainable from Celanese Corporation of America and Emulp'hor EL-71'9` (General Aniline & Film Corp.) and Witco 77-86 (Witco Chemical Co.) are emulsifying agents. N-methylmorpholine and tetrahydroxyethylethylenediamine are catalysts.
Examples of organic diisocyanates that can be used instead of the tolylene diisocyanate isomeric mixture are 3,3bitolylene 4,4diisocyanate, diphenyl methane 4,4'- diisocyanate, m-phenylenediisocyanate, 1,4-cyclohexylenediisocyanate and 1,5-naphthylenediisocyanate. Examples of the polyethers that can be employed are the polyalkyleneether glycols having molecular weights of at least 750 and which may be as high as about 10,000, e.g.
polytetramethyleneether glycol, polytrimethyleneether glycol and polyethylenemethyleneether glycol. Examples of other emulsifying agents that can be used are those marketed under the trademark name Tween 40 (polyoxyethylene sorbitan monopalmitate), Triton N-l00 (Rohm & Haas Co.), and Witco 77--86` (Witco Chemical Co.).
Prior to pouring the mixture of polyisocyanate, polyester or polyether, and lwater into the mo'ld space, a preis prepared of the polyester or polyether, water, emulsiier .and catalyst by stirring these materials at a slow or moderate speed until a homogeneous mixture is obtained which may require from about 1/2 to l hour. Care should be taken to introduce into the mixture as little air .as possible inasmuch as air bubbles in the prem-ix tend to yield non-uniform foams. The polyisocyanate is then incorporated into the premix in either batchwise or continuous operation and the mixture stirred rapidly and thoroughly for typically about 20-30 seconds (in batch operation) or until a homogeneous mixture is o'bta-ined. The liquid mixture is then quickly poured into the mold space. Since foaming usually begins within 30 to 60 seconds from the time the polyisocyanate is added to the premix, only a few minutes are allowed for bot-h mixing and pouring. The foam reaches its maximum height in typically about 2-3 minutes after the ingredients are mixed and then sets to a non-tacky condition. The foamed polyurethane is cured by holding the same in the mold for typically up to 7 days time, the time of cure depending upon the shape and volume of the mold. The rate of cure can be 'accelerated by heating the foam to temperature of about 115042.30 F. for from 1-4 hours. After curing, the bottle with its surrounding adhering cellular envelope is withdrawn as a unit from the mold. The cellular polyurethane of the envelope is also characterized by having a multiplicity of closed, discrete, non-communicating cells rendering 'the same highly resistant to the passage of water and other liuids.
The topl portion of the foamed envelope is then covered with wooden cover plate 13 having opening 14 in a manner such that the bott-le neck protrudes through the opening, and the bottom portion of the envelope is covered with imperforate wooden cover plate 17. The lightweight Wire-bound flexible overpack 20 is then wrapped about the side wall of the foamed envelope. Overpack `20 is secured in position about the foamed envelope side wall by bending the terminal end portion 29 of each binding Wire 27 about the hook S0 formed at its opposite terminal `end portion.
Although certain preferred embodiments of the invention have beenv disclosed `for purpose of illustration, it will be evident that various changes .and modifications may be made therein without departing from the scope and spirit of the invention.
What is claimed is:
A carboy package comprising, in combination, a single large glass bottle, a protective cushioning envelope of resilient foamed polystyrene adhered to and surrounding the bottle leaving only its neck and mouth unsurrounded, the foamed polystyrene lcomprising a multiplicity of closed, discrete, non-communicating cells, said foamed polystyrene envelope having a top planar surface and a bottom planar surface, a lightweight Wraparound, wirebound, llexible overpack surrounding and contacting the side wall of the polystyrene envelope and coacting with said envelope to absorb and distribute localized external shock over a large area of the bottle, said overpack comprising a plurality of narrowly spaced, upright wooden slats, and spaced binding wires continuously encircling the overpack exteriorly thereof and secured to the slats, said binding wires reinforcing and holding said slats in assembled relation relative to each other, a Wooden cover plate having an opening therein and engaging the top planar surface of the polystyrene envelope to absorb and distrib- 7 ute localized external shock to said cover plate over a large area of the bottle, the bottle neck protruding through said opening, an imperforate Wooden cover plate engaging the bottom planar surface of the foamed polystyrene envelope to absorb and distribute localized external shock to said cover plate over a large area of the bottle and cleats affixed to the upper` and lower marginal edge portions of t-he inner surfaces of the slats, the cleats each extending transversely across the approximate width of the slat and projecting inwardly therefrom and overlapping marginal edge portions ofthe top and bottom cover plates to anchor said top and bottom cover plates in engagement with the top edge face and bottom face respectively of the envelope.
References Cited in the le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,876,166 Randall Sept. 6, 1932 S 2,048,667 Babcock July 2S, 1936 2,399,499 Miller Apr. 30, 1946 2,515,127 Lahey July 11, 1950 2,552,641 Morrison May 15, 1951 2,780,350 Simon et al. Feb. 5, 1957 2,877,503 Puderbaugh et al. Mar. 17, 1959 2,971,640 Snelling Feb. 14, 1961 2,994,425 Honeycutt Aug. 1, 1961 FOREIGN PATENTS 469,238 France May 14, 1914 OTHER REFERENCES Safe, easy-to-handle carboy of Du Pont Alathon; article in Modern Packaging, August 1953, pages 1S, 39, and 97.
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|US3257948 *||Aug 23, 1963||Jun 28, 1966||Axelrod Sydney||Consumable artillery components|
|US3630344 *||Aug 22, 1969||Dec 28, 1971||Bergh Bros Co||Box construction|
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|US4238041 *||Dec 7, 1973||Dec 9, 1980||Bodelind Bo T||Glass container with a fixed plastic protective layer|
|U.S. Classification||217/52, 215/13.1, 206/446, 215/DIG.600, 215/12.1|
|International Classification||B65D85/30, B65D81/09, B65D23/08, B65D85/84, B65D6/08|
|Cooperative Classification||Y10S215/06, B65D85/302, B65D9/20, B65D81/09|
|European Classification||B65D81/09, B65D9/20, B65D85/30B|