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Publication numberUS3085404 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 16, 1963
Filing dateDec 23, 1959
Priority dateDec 23, 1959
Publication numberUS 3085404 A, US 3085404A, US-A-3085404, US3085404 A, US3085404A
InventorsSmith Alonzo L
Original AssigneeSmith Alonzo L
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Breakwaters
US 3085404 A
Abstract  available in
Images(4)
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

April 16, 1963 Filed Dec. 23, 1959 A. L. SMITH 3,085,404

BREAKWATERS 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 A/anzo L Jm/ffi INVENTOR.

April 1963 A. L. SMITH 3,085,404

BREAKWATERS Filed Dec. 25, 1959 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 A/onzo A. Jm/zfi INVENTOR.

#m mfmzz A. L. SMITH BREAKWATERS A ril 16, 1963 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed Dec. 25, 1959 b D D ,4/0/7 0 l. J/77/ffi INVENTOR.

ATTORNEY) 3,085,464 BREAKWATERS Alonzo L. Smith, R0. Box 6252, Houston, Tex. Filed Dec. 23, 1959, Ser. No. 861,584 11 Claims. (Cl. 615) This invention relates to breakwater, and more particularly to a prefabricated, mobile, collapsible breakwater.

A considerable amount of underwater work is being done from platforms and vessels which are alfected by wave action of the open seas. Generally, the equipment used in this type of work involves a tremendous investment and a substantial crew in its operation. When the seas are heavy this work must be stopped and the equipment and crews placed on a standby basis until the seas calm sufficiently to permit the work to progress.

For instance, exposed dredging work along the east coast of the United States is usually possible only when the waves are no more than four feet in height. When the waves are higher, the vessel and crew must be placed on standby. This means that work in the open seas of this nature can be carried on only about one-half of each year.

Many types of anchored breakwaters are taught in issued patents, but so far as known none are satisfactory for use in protecting work areas as the breakwater must be sunk and raised periodically, and none are being used for this purpose today.

By this invention there is provided a movable breakwater which meets all of the requirements of offshore contractors to permit them to work in much higher seas. The breakwater is collapsible for use in transporting by ships. It is towable and buoyant to permit its being moved from place to place on the job. No fill of solid material, such as rocks, sand, etc., is required to hold it in place. This is a particular advantage on jobs where the work area shifts quickly, such as in dredging. The breakwater is self-anchoring, and the force exerted by the waves is in part utilized to anchor the breakwater in place. Therefore, the increased force exerted by large waves provides an increased force for anchoring the breakwater in place. The breakwater may be set up and moved on the surface without the need of divers.

'It is an object of this invention toprovide a breakwater which is easily collapsible for transporting and which is towable in collapsed condition for any distances.

Another object is to provide a breakwater which is launchable from another vessel.

Another object is to provide a breakwater which may be erected or collapsed in a body of water by men on the surface using a minimum of rigging and manpower and without the need for divers, or rock and sand fill to hold same on bottom.

Another object is to provide a collapsible breakwater which utilizes the weight of waves to be dissipated to oppose the impact force tendency of the waves to shift the breakwater.

Another object is to provide a breakwater which dissipates below surface water movement but perm-its back flow of current through the structure below the surface to relieve any opposing motion or undertow of water movement.

Another object is to provide a collapsible breakwater in which the breakwater may be set up and sunk and raised in a body of water utilizing primary buoyancy forces so that large cranes and the like are not required.

Another object of the invention is to utilize the weight of the seawater wave mass above sea level on a collapsible inclined wall to offset the lateral forces of the wave mass in preventing movement of the inclined wall structure on the ocean floor.

States atent Other objects, features and advantages of the invention will appear from the specification, the drawings and the claims.

In the drawings, wherein illustrative embodiments of this invention are shown, and wherein like reference numerals indicate like parts:

FIGURE 1 is an isometric view of a breakwater constructed in accordance with this invention in collapsed condition;

FIGURE 2 is a side View of the breakwater of FIG- URE l in collapsed condition;

FIGURE 3 is a side view of the breakwater of FIG- URE 1 partially erected;

FIGURE 4 is a view similar to FIGURE 3 showing the breakwater in its final erected position;

FIGURE 5 is a top view of the breakwater of FIG- URE 1 with parts cut away for purposes of illustration;

FIGURE 6 is a side view of the breakwater of FIG- URE 1,-

FIGURE 7 is a fragmentary view illustrating details of the pivotal connection between the supporting legs and base;

FIGURE 8 is a fragmentary view illustrating the manner in which the supporting legs are pinned to the base when the breakwater is in collapsed condition;

FIGURE 9 is a fragmentary view of the breakwater of FIGURE 1 illustrating the details of the anchor pins which assist in anchoring the breakwater in position; and

FIGURE 10 is a side view of a modified form of .this invention.

The breakwater is made up generally of a base which includes the buoyant section indicated generally at 10 and the ramp section indicated generally at 11 with one end of the base swingable to rest on the floor of the ocean while the other end of the base is supported on a plurality of legs 12 as shown in FIGURE 4. These legs are pivotally secured to the base and swingable from an upright position as shown in FIGURE 4 to the non-upright position shown in FIGURE 2 for transporting. The ramp section 11 extends upwardly from the buoyant section 10 and projects above the surface of the water when the breakwater is erected as shown in FIGURE 4. The angle of the ramp is preferably between approximately 30 and 45 with the horizontal, and more preferably 30 with the horizontal when the breakwater is erected. With this arrangement the static weight of the water above sea level as it climbs the ramp exerts a downward force tending to hold the ramp in place which is at least as great as the horizontal component of force exerted by the waves. Of course, the ramp could be at an angle slightly greater than 45 if the weight of the structure would permit, but the smaller angle is preferred.

Preferably the buoyant section 10 is made up of a plurality of pipes 13 joined together at their opposite ends by headers 14 and 15. By way of example, these pipes may be 36 inches in diameter and 140 feet in length. The headers 14 and 15 likewise may be provided by 36-inch pipe and may be on the order of feet in length for a breakwater employing pipes 13 having a length dimension of feet. The pipes 13 may be suitably braced at spaced points as by the members 16. The entire buoyant section is preferably closed to provide buoyant support for the breakwater, and the connection between the several pipes should be carefully made to provide watertight seals. While a rectangular form is preferred, it is of course apparent that other shapes of the breakwater might be employed.

For ease in controlling the raising and lowering of one end of the breakwater, it is preferred that each header be provided with a divider at approximately its mid-point, as shown at 17 in FIGURE 5 in header 14. Header 15 erecting drilling platformsinthe open seas.

3 is divided into two pieces in like manner with the dividing plate underlying the central leg 12.

Suitable valve openings are provided in the buoyant section of the base for the admission and release of liquid and gas, preferably air and water, to control the sinking and raising of one end of the breakwater. For instance, valved openings indicated at 18 and 19 may be provided on the outboard pipes 13 adjacent header 14 and valved openings and 21 may be provided in header 15. By admitting water into the breakwater through valves 18 and 19 and letting air escape through valves 20 and 21, the anchor end, that is, the end including header 14, of the breakwater may be lowered to the floor of the ocean. By introducing air through valves 20 and 21 and expelling water through valves 18 and 19, the breakwater may be floated.

The surface end of the buoyant section, that is, the end including header 15, should remain at the surface and for this purpose is supported on legs 12 which may be provided by 36-inch hollow pipe having a length of approximately 65 feet for a breakwater having the dimensions given above. For portability these legs are pivoted to the base. Preferably they are pivoted to buoyant section 10 as illustrated. The point of pivot between the base and the support columns should be adjacent the highest point of ramp 11 to avoid any tendency of the weight of water on the ramp to cause the base to seesaw about the pivot. For this reason the pivot point is preferably adjacent the surface end of the breakwater as shown.

In the preferred form a tubular member is pivoted to the base and the legs are carried in the tubular member and latchable in selected positions therein. Preferably the tubular member is a split sleeve 22supported on pivot pins 23 and 24 which are mounted in suitable support structure 25 carried by the base. The inner diameter of the split sleeve is less than the outer diameter of the legs 12 and the legs 12 may be selectively clamped in position in the sleeves by tightening up the sleeve bolts 26.

It is preferred to latch the legs against rotation about their pivots when the breakwater is erected, and for this purpose each sleeve is provided with an ear 27 which may be secured to an ear 28 carried by the base by a pin 29 passing through hole 30 in ear 27 and one of a plurality of holes 31 in ear 28. To avoid any possibility of rocking of the columns about their pivots which might fatigue the pin 29, a snubbing bolt 32 is provided in a threaded member 33 carried by the base. After pin 29 is in place, the bolt 32 may be projected to bind pin 29 between ears 27 and 28.

In order to swing the legs 12 between upright and nonupright position with buoyancy forces, each leg is provided with a hole 34 adjacent its free end and a valved opening 35 at the top of each leg. For purposes which will appear belowfa stop 36 is provided on each leg.

When in collapsed position the legs '12 desirably nestle in the base and may be secured thereto by pinning the ear 37 on the lower end of each leg to similarears 38 carried by the base.

It .will be apparent that suitable jacks might be associated with the base and column to jack the base upwardly on the column in the well known manner employed in However, it is preferred to avoidthe necessity of using jacks and to permit the surface .end of the buoyant section of. the base to remain at substantially normalwater level. Therefore, the ramp 11 is not constructed to extend parallel to the buoyant sectionof the base but extends upwardly from a point on the buoyant section of the base toward the surface end of the buoyant section 10. The ramp 11 may be supported on the buoyant section 10- by any suitable structural means such as shown generally at 39. As the weight of the waves climbing ramp 12 is utilized in holding the breakwater imposition, the ramp should be substantially impervious. As .noted above, it preferably forms an angle of 30 with the horizontal. The angle could of course be as high as about 45 and still utilize the weight of the water to substantially overcome the lateral force of the water. An angle less than 30 might be employed, but this would necessitate unduly long breakwaters which would increase their cost of fabrication. Economy of construction and stability of the breakwater indicate that an angle of about 30 is preferable.

If the wave action below water is not dissipated, secondary waves will be formed beyond the breakwater. For this reason, the entire base is preferably constructed to dissipate wave action below the surface. This may easily be accomplished by filling the spaces between adjacent pipes 13 as with the plates 40. While these plates could extend from the ramp to the anchor end of the base, they preferably only eXtendpart way and a check valve, best illustrated in FIGURE 4, is employed to cover the remainder of the base. This check valve dissipates wave action in a closed position, but opens to permit reverse currents, such as undertow, to pass through the base. The check valve may be a large plate member 41 suitably reinforced by members 42 and hinged to the base by a plurality of hinges 43.

Immediately adjacent header 14 at the anchor end of the breakwater, and preferably between each pair of pipes 13, there is provided anchor pins for assisting in anchoring the breakwater in place. An elongate square box 44 is secured to the base and extends therethrough. An anchor provided by an I beam 45 is pinned in the box by a pair of pins 46 which extend through the box and the I beam to hold the I beam anchor in raised position. Before the breakwater is positioned on the ocean floor the pins 46 are released and the pin dropped to de pend below the base. The pins are then re-inserted in the holes 47 near the upper end of the anchors to hold the anchors in depended position.

In FIGURE 10 a modified form is shown which is identical with the previously explained form of the invention except that a tank 48 is provided in the space between the buoyant portion of the base and the ramp portion of the base. The tank should be so positioned as to be above normal water level. If desired, suitable valve controlled openings 40 and 50 may be provided for filling and emptying the tank. Also, the ramp may be provided with one or more openings 51 above the tank to permit water climbing the ramp to fall into the tank.

in operation, the breakwater may, for instance, be positioned on dollies on board a ship or barge with the rails for the dollies inclined relative to the horizontal and terminating at the edge of the vessel. The breakwater in collapsed form as shown in FIGURE 2, for instance, is lashed to the deck on the dollies. When the breakwater arrives at the desired location, the straps may be removed and a tug employed to pull the breakwater off of the vessel. In the alternative, the breakwater may be launched at its assembly point and towed to the desired location.

In positioning the breakwater for protecting off-shore work, the columns are first released from their nestled position by removing pin 52 (FIGURE 8) to permit the columns to swing about their pivot. The valve 35 (FIGURE 7) on the top of each column is opened to permit the hollow column to fill with water through hole 34 and swing to the upright position shown in FIGURE 3. As the split sleeve 22 is tight about the columns, they will remain in this position.

The anchors 45 are then dropped by pulling pins 46 and re-inserting them in holes 47. This step is also shown in FIGURE 3. Then the valves 18 and 19 are opened and the workmen move to the supported end of the breakwater. During this time the breakwater willbe held in position, of course, by tugs. Now the valves 2%! and 21 are opened to permit water to enter the buoyant section of the base through valves 18 and 19. This permits the anchor end of the base to slowly settle to the position shown in FIGURE 4, and as soonas the anchor end of the base is on bottom the valves 20 and 21 are closed to maintain the supported end of the base buoyant. At this time the support legs 12 are not on bottom and therefore the screws 26 of the split sleeve are loosened to permit the legs 12 to drop and rest on bottom, as shown in FIGURE 10. At any time before the legs are dropped the pin 29 (FIGURE 7) is inserted through holes 30 and 31 to lock the split sleeve and legs against movement about the pivot, if desired. As above explained, the member 32 may be run up to bind the pin 29 in place and prevent fatigue of the pin due to any rocking of the column about its pivot.

As the column is resting on bottom, the split sleeve bolts 26 are again tightened to fix the position of the columns 12 therein so that the columns may support the surface end of the breakwater. At this time the valves 20 and 21 are again opened to permit substantially the entire buoyant section of the base to fill with water so that the entire weight of the breakwater will be effective in holding the breakwater in place.

If the breakwater is supported on soft bottom, the entire weight of the breakwater may tend to drive the columns down into the bottom. If this occurs, or if at a later date the action of waves on the ramp 11 tends to drive the column into the bottom, the buoyant section may be raised to the position shown in FIGURE 4 crnerely by introducing air through valves 20 and 21 to make the surface end of the breakwater buoyant and loosen the bolts 26 of the split sleeve. As the bolts 26 are loosened the surface end of the breakwater will ascend along the column and the bolts may again be run up tight and the water permitted to again fill the buoyant section of the base. FIGURE 4 depicts the condition of the structure at this time.

In the event of high waves as suggested in FIGURE 1.0, the breakwater will function to break up the waves l and provide a calm area for work. As the angle of the ramp is such that the weight of the water exerts a force which coupled with the weight of the breakwater is greater than the horizontal force of the waves, the breakwater will remain in position. 'Preferably the ramp extends above the surface of the water a suflicient distance to be higher than the waves. However, if a small amount of the wave does flow over the top, it will not result in the formation of secondary waves. If reverse currents or undertows are formed in the area, the check valve 41 will open to permit these currents to flow through the breakwater and they will not have a tendency to shift the position of the breakwater.

Where the FIGURE form of the invention is used, water may be introduced through valve 50 or may be permitted to flow into the tank through openings 51. Of course, before the structure is collapsed valve 49 will be opened to drain this tank.

After the need for the breakwater in the particular location has ceased, it may be'readily towed to a new location. For instance, in dredging a number of breakwaters might be positioned side by side and, as the dredge moves along, the trailing breakwater floated and shifted to the other end of the group of breakwaters, as will be understood by those skilled in the art.

In collapsing or floating the breakwater air is introduced into valves and 21 to drive the water from the buoyant section of the base and fioat it to the position shown in FIGURE 3. As the anchor end of the breakwater comes to the surface, valves 18 and 19 are closed and then valves 20 and 21 may be closed. Air pressure is then applied through the valved openings 35 in the top of the columns 1% to make the columns buoyant. Upon releasing bolts 26, the columns rise until the stop 36 strikes the split sleeve and the structure is in the position shown in FIGURE 3. At this time the bolts 26 are again tightened to latch the columns in raised position in the split sleeves. The pin 29 may then be removed and additional air applied through the opening 35 to render the entire column 12 buoyant. As the buoyancy of the columns increases,

their free ends will rise under the breakwater and they may again be secured in nestle-d position with the pins. Thereafter the breakwater may be towed to a new location and again supported on bottom.

From the above it will be seen that all of the object-s of this invent-ion have been obtained. The breakwater supplied is one which will remain in position no matter what the sea conditions, as the lateral force of angry seas will be fully compensated by the downward force of the waves climbing the ramp 11.

All that is needed to collapse or extend the structure is a source of air pressure and a few workmen to handle the valves and pins. The number of workmen will depend on how fast it is desired to collapse or extend .the structure. It is collapsible for ease in transporting and may easily be launched from a vessel. In erecting or collapsing there is no need for divers as all manipulations may be carried on at the surface.

The breakwater dissipates both the surface wave action and below surface wave action, but permits back flow of current below the surface.

It will be noted that only a portion of the buoyant section of the base is on bottom, thus reducing the amount of structure required as compared to a comparable structure with the entire base resting on bottom. This permits the buoyant section of the base to form part of the wave dissipating means.

While the support columns are pivoted to the buoyant section of the base, it is, of course, apparent that they may be pivoted to the ramp section of the base. The ramp section of the base is shown extending above the buoyant section of the base, but it is apparent that the ramp 11 might be parallel with the base by the provision of conven-tional jacking means for jacking the base up along the columns -12.

Separated columns may also be attached to the breakwater structure without pivots to support the surface side of the 'base structure on bottom, in keeping with the invention of utilizing the weight of sea water wave mass above sea level on a collapsible structure to offset the lateral forces of the wave in preventing movement of the structure on bottom.

The foregoing disclosure and description of the invention is illustrative and explanatory thereof and various changes in the size, shape and materials, as well as in the details of .the illustrated construction, may be made within the scope of the appended claim-s without departing from the spirit of the invention.

What is claimed is:

l. A breakwater adapted to be positioned in a body of water comprising, a base having a closed buoyant section, valve means associated with the buoyant section of the base for the admission and release of liquid and gas to sink and float a first end of the buoyant section, said base having a substantially impervious ramp section secured to the top of said buoyant section adjacent the opposite end of the buoyant section, and a plurality of support legs pivotally secured to the base adjacent said opposite end of the buoyant section and swingable from an upright position for supporting the base to a non-upright position for transporting, the angle of inclination of said ramp section relative to the horizontal with the breakwater supported on said legs and said first end in a body of water being small enough that the downward force of the weight of the breakwater and the weight of the waves on the ramp section is greater than the horizontal force exerted by the waves on the breakwater, said ramp section extending upwardly to a point above the surface of the water when the breakwater is supported on the bed of a body of water.

2. A breakwater adapted to be positioned in a body of water comprising, a base having a closed buoyant section, valve means associated with the buoyant section of the base for admission and release of liquid and gas to sink and float a first end of the buoyant section, said base having a substantially impervious ramp section secured to the top of said buoyant section and extending upwardly from a point on said buoyant section toward the opposite end of the buoyant section, and a plurality of support legs pivotally secured to the base adjacentsaid opposite end of the buoyant section and swingable from an upright position for supporting the base to a nonupright position for transporting.

3. A breakwater adapted to be position in a body of water comprising, a base having a closed buoyant section, valve means associated with the buoyant section of the base for admission and release of liquid and gas to sink and float a first end of the buoyant section, said base having a substantially impervious ramp section secured to the top of said buoyant section and extending upwardly from a point on said buoyant section toward the opposite end of the buoyant section, and a plurality of support legs pivotally secured to the base adjacent said opposite end of the buoyant section and swingable from an upright position for supporting the base to a non-upright position for transporting, the angle of inclination of said ramp section relative to the horizontal with the breakwater supported on said legs and said first end in a body of water being small enough that the downward force of the weight of the breakwater and the weight of the waves on the ramp section is greater than the horizontal force exerted by the waves on the breakwater.

4. A breakwater adapted to be positioned in a body of water comprising, a base having a closed buoyant section, valve means associated with the buoyant section of the base for admission and release of liquid and gas to sink and float a first end of the buoyant section, said base having a substantially impervious ramp section secured to the top of said buoyant section and extending upwardly from a point on said buoyant section toward the opposite end of the buoyant section, and a plurality of support legs pivotally secured to the base adjacent said opposite end of the buoyant section and swingable from an upright position for supporting the base to a non-upright position for transporting, the angle of inclination of said ramp section relative to the horizontal with the breakwater supported on said legs and said first end in a body of water being small enough that the downward force of the weight of the breakwater and the weight of the waves on the ramp section is greater than the horizontal force exerted by the waves on the breakwater, said ramp section extending upwardly to a point above the waves to be dissipated when the breakwater is positioned in a body of water.

5. A breakwater adapted to be positioned in a body of water comprising, a base having a closed buoyant section, valve means associated with the buoyant section of the base for admission and release of liquid and gas to sink and float a first end of the buoyant section, said base having a substantially impervious ramp section secured to the top of said buoyant section and extending upwardly from a point on said buoyant section toward the opposite end of the buoyant section, and a plurality of support legs pivotally secured to the base adjacent said opposite end of the buoyant section and swingable from an upright position for supporting the base to a non-upright position for transporting, the angle of inclination of said ramp section relative to the horizontal with the breakwater supported on said legs and said first end in a body of water being small enough that the downward force of the weight of the breakwater and the weight of the waves on the ramp section is greater than the horizontal force exerted by the waves on the breakwater, and a check valve on said buoyant section controlling flow through the buoyant section of the base below water and closing to dissipate wave action and opening to permit the passage of sub-surface currents flowing in a direction opposed to the direction of movement of the waves.

6. A breakwater adapted to be positioned in a body of water comprising, a base having a closed buoyant section, valve means associated with the buoyant section of the base for admission and release of liquid and gas to sink and float a first end of the buoyant section, said base having'a substantially-impervious ramp section secured to the top of said buoyant section and extending upwardly from a point on said buoyant section toward the opposite end of the buoyant section, and a plurality of support legs pivotally secured to the base adjacent said opposite end of the buoyant section and swingable from an upright position for supporting the base to a non-upright position for transporting, said ramp section being inclined at an angle of approximately 30 relative to the horizontal with the breakwater supported on said legs and said first end in a body of water.

7. A breakwater adapted to be positioned in a body of water comprising, a base having a closed buoyant section, valve means associated with the buoyant section of the base for admission and release of liquid and gas to sink and float a first end of the buoyant section, said base having a substantially impervious ramp section secured to the top of said buoyant section and extending upwardly from a point on said buoyant section toward the opposite end of the buoyant section, and a plurality of support legs pivotally secured to the base adjacent said opposite end of the buoyant section and swingable from an upright position for supporting the base to a non-upright position for transporting, each of said legs being hollow and having openings adjacent their bottoms and tops, the angle of inclination of said ramp section relative to the horizontal with the breakwater supported on said legs and said first end in a body of water being small enough that the downward force of the weight of the breakwater and the weight of the waves on the ramp section is greater than the horizontal force exerted by the waves.

8. A breakwater adapted to be positioned in a body of water comprising, a base having a closed buoyant section, valve means associated with the buoyant section of the base for admission and release of liquid and gas to sink and float a first end of the buoyant section, said base having a substantially impervious ramp section secured to the top of said buoyant section and extending upwardly from a point on said buoyant section toward the opposite end of the buoyant section, a plurality of support legs pivotally secured to the base adjacent said opposite end of the buoyant section and swingable from an upright position for supporting the base to a non-upright position for transporting, the angle of inclination of said ramp section relative to the horizontal with the breakwater supported on said legs and said first end in a body of water being small enough that the downward force of the weight of the breakwater and the weight of the waves on the ramp section is greater than the horizontal force exerted by the waves on the breakwater, and a tank provided between the buoyant and ramp sections of the base above the normal water line of the breakwater when in position in a body of water.

9. 'A breakwater adapted to be positioned in B. body of water comprising, a base having a closed buoyant section, valve means associated with the buoyant section of the base for the admission and release of liquid and gas to sink and float a first end of the buoyant section, said base having a substantially impervious ramp section secured to the top of said buoyant section and extending upwardly from a point on said buoyant section toward the opposite end of the buoyant section, a plurality of tubular supports pivotally secured to the base adjacent said opposite end of the buoyant section and swingable from an upright position to a non-upright position, a hollow leg in each tubular support for supporting said opposite end of the buoyant section, and means on the tubular support for releasably securing the legs in the supports at selected positions, the angle of inclination of said ramp section relative to the horizontal with the breakwater supported on said legs and said first end in a body of water being small enough that the downward force of the weight of the breakwater and the weight of the waves on the ramp seotion is greater than the horizontal force exerted by the waves on the breakwater.

10. The breakwater of claim 9 wherein means is provided on the base for locking. each leg in an upright posi-tion.

11. A breakwater adapted to be positioned in a body of water comprising, a base having a closed buoyant section, valve means associated with the buoyant section of the base for admission and release of liquid and gas to sink and float a first end of the buoyant section, said base having a substantially impervious ramp section secured to the top of said buoyant section and extending above normal sea level when the breakwater is positioned on the floor of the ocean, means covering the remainder of the top of the breakwater and preventing water move ment through the base in a direction from said first end toward the other end of the base, and a plurality of support legs secured to said other end of the buoyant section and supporting said other end with the ramp section project- References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 174,692 Mallory Mar. 14, 1876 799,708 Boyce Sept. 19, 1905 939,878 Urie Nov. 9, 1909 2,584,867 Guarin Feb. 5, 1952 2,658,353 Trexel Nov. 10, 1953 2,928,250 Smith Mar. 15, 1960 2,967,398 Smith Jan. 10, 1961

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US3908384 *Sep 14, 1973Sep 30, 1975Balekjian Sigrid FBreakwaters for long, short and/or complex water waves
US5171101 *Nov 15, 1991Dec 15, 1992Light Wave, Ltd.Surfing-wave generators
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US5271692 *Mar 4, 1992Dec 21, 1993Light Wave, Ltd.Method and apparatus for a sheet flow water ride in a single container
US5401117 *Apr 1, 1992Mar 28, 1995Lochtefeld; Thomas J.Method and apparatus for containerless sheet flow water rides
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US5628584 *Mar 3, 1995May 13, 1997Lochtefeld; Thomas J.Method and apparatus for containerless sheet flow water rides
US5664910 *Jun 7, 1995Sep 9, 1997Light Wave, Ltd.Boat activated wave generator
US5667445 *Jun 5, 1995Sep 16, 1997Light Wave Ltd.Jet river rapids water attraction
US5766082 *Jun 28, 1996Jun 16, 1998Lochtefeld; Thomas J.Wave river water attraction
US5860766 *Dec 18, 1996Jan 19, 1999Light Wave, Ltd.Boat activated wave generator
US5899633 *Apr 9, 1997May 4, 1999Lochtefeld; Thomas J.Method and apparatus for containerless sheet flow water rides
US6319137Jun 13, 2000Nov 20, 2001Light Wave, Ltd.Containerless sheet flow water ride
US6491589Aug 2, 2000Dec 10, 2002Light Wave, Ltd.Mobile water ride having sluice slide-over cover
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US7144197 *May 2, 2003Dec 5, 2006Surf Pools LimitedApparatus and method for controlling wave characteristics
US7666104Mar 8, 2004Feb 23, 2010Light Wave, Ltd.Water ride attraction
US9463390Oct 30, 2014Oct 11, 2016FlowriderSurf, Ltd.Inflatable surfing apparatus and method
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Classifications
U.S. Classification405/26, 405/31
International ClassificationE02B3/06
Cooperative ClassificationE02B3/06
European ClassificationE02B3/06