US 3087257 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
A ril 30, 1963 D. 0. WHITE 3,087,257
ELECTRICALLY CONTROLLED TRAINING AND TOY AEROPLANE Filed May 51, 1960 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 A ril 30, 1963 D. 0. WHITE 3,037,257
ELECTRICALLY CONTROLLED TRAINING AND TOY AEROPLANE 'iled May 31,1960 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 %34 iii April 30, 1963 D. 0. WHITE 3,087,257
ELECTRICALLY CONTROLLED TRAINING AND TOY AEROPLANE Filed May 51, 1960 s sheets-sheet s Unite States atent Ofifice 3,087,257 ELECTRICALLY CQNTROLLED TRAINDJG AND TOY AERQPLANE David 0. White, American High School am Galgenberg, Wurzburg, Germany Filed May 31, 1960, Ser. No. 32,849 Claims priority, application Germany June 9, 1959 8 Claims. (Cl. 35-12) The present invention relates to an electrically controlled training and toy aeroplane.
Training and toy aeroplanes are known which are suspended at the free end of a supporting arm, whereby the supporting arm is movable horizontally as well as vertically upon a fixed rotary point. In this manner, the aeroplane can be moved in space in all the directions of the coordinates, upon swinging the supporting arm. It is also known already to equip the aeroplane with one or a plurality of airscrews driven by electric motors, whereby the electric current is fed to the electric motors over a current feeding cable. The supporting arm on which the aeroplane is suspended is, thereby, simultaneously the carrier for the current feeding cable. The aeroplane is also equipped with rudders and elevators. Furthermore, ailerons which are warped towards each other, can also be provided and finally also collapsible landing wheels and a dropping door disposed at the bottom of the aeroplane. These parts can be operated by means of levers and ropes.
It is one object of the present invention to provide an electrically controlled training and toy aeroplane which amounts to a further development of the known electrically controlled training and toy aeroplanes and in particular the control of the individual movable parts provided in the aeroplane and of the electric motors.
It is another object of the present invention to provide an electrically controlled training and toy aeroplane, wherein paired solenoids are arranged for the operation of the easily movable members, as the control rudder and dropping door, which paired solenoids comprise always two coils disposed in a tandem arrangement and fed with electric current and an armature movable therein. The armatures are connected with the easily movable members by means of levers and ropes. Furthermore, a reversible electric motor having a reduction gear is provided in the aeroplane for the operation of the heavily movable members, as, for instance, the collapsible alighting gear.
It is a further object of the present invention to provide an electrically controlled training and toy aeroplane, wherein the cable leading to the aeroplane for the feeding of electric current may be connected at one of its ends to a switch gear and leads to the suspending point of the supporting arm, wherefrorn a second cable leads to the free end of the supporting arm by intermediate arrangement of known sliding contacts, and still another cable leads from the free end of the carrying arm to the aeroplane again by intermediate arrangement of further known sliding contacts. By this arrangement, the feeding of electric current to the aeroplane is secured in all positions of the aeroplane in space.
It is yet another object of the present invention to provide an electrically controlled training and toy aeroplane, wherein the supporting arm for the aeroplane comprises two branches and the arm disposed opposite the aeroplane carries an additional drive consisting of an electric motor equipped with a propeller.
The reversible electric motor for the operation of the collapsible alighting gear drives a shaft, preferably over a reduction gear, which shaft winds and unwinds, respectively, pull ropes, which are secured at their ends at the alighting gear. In this manner, the lifting and lowering of the alighting gear is secured.
On the switch gear, from which the feed of current is transmitted to the aeroplane, may be provided a control stick with a control wheel. In this manner, the motors and magnets can be controlled remotely by the operator over switches and electrical lines.
In order to make the dropping door, provided at the bottom of the aeroplane, self-locking in its closed position, the dropping door carries in accordance with the present invention, a lever rigidly connected therewith within the aeroplane, which lever is connected over a first connecting rod with a second connecting rod, whereby the second connecting rod may be controlled by means of an armature of a double magnet in such a manner that the two connecting rods are disposed self-locking in stretched direction in the closed position of the door, this stretched position being changed by relative movement of the two connecting rods towards each other upon operation of the magnet for the purpose of opening the door. In the stretched position of the connecting rod, the automatic closure of the dropping door is secured. The dropping door may be equipped with two wings. Both wings may be connected with the mentioned second connecting rod, which has in this case a double-armed formation by means of the lever and the connecting rod.
With these and other objects in view, which will become apparent in the following detailed description, the present invention will be clearly understood in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which:
FIGURE 1 is a perspective top view of the aeroplane including the suspending means and the control apparatus;
FIG. 2 is a fragmentary top plan view of an additional drive for the supporting arm;
FIG. 3 is a section along the lines 33 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 4 is a schematic fragmentary side elevation of the electric motor with the drive for the alighting gear;
FIG. 5 is a fragmentary section of the mechanism for the movement of the aileron in a side view;
FIG. 6 is a top plan view of the mechanism shown in FIG. 5;
FIG. 7 is a side elevation, partly in section, of the mechanism for the operation of the rudder and the elevator;
FIG. 8 is a fragmentary view in elevation of a control stick with a wheel;
FIG. 9 is a side elevation of the control stick shown in FIG. 8;
FIG. 10 is a bottom perspective view of a model aeroplane having four motors equipped with a two-wing door in open position;
FIG. 11 is a fragmentary cross-section through the fuselage of the aeroplane taken behind the aeroplane wings with opened door; and
FIG. 12 is a fragmentary section through the fuselage of the aeroplane, similar to that shown in FIG. 11, however, with closed door.
Referring now to the drawings, and in particular to FIG. 1, it will be easily ascertained that the aeroplane 1 is suspended from the carrying arm 2, the operation of the aeroplane 1 being performed by the immovable electrical control apparatus 3. The latter comprises as a rule a transformer 4 for a low starting voltage, a rectiiier 5, push buttons or rotary switches 6 and a rheostat 7 for the air screw motors 8. The multiple cable 9 leads to a known rotary contact element It for instance with slide rings and brushes (not shown), which is suspended from the ceiling of a room, or mounted on a stand.
The carrying arm 2 may swing along a circular path and may be moved upwardly and downwardly by means of the hinge 11. The free arm 12 carries an adjustable counter-weight 1-3, which just balances out the aeroplane including the elements carrying the same in a standing position. The aeroplane 1 is suspended by a cable 17 on the hinge 14 of the supporting arm 2, which is connected with .the cable 9 by means of a multiple cable 15, a rotary contact element 16 being disposed below the hinge 14. The aeroplane 1 is connected closely above its center of gravity to the cable I17 or to a particular carrying rope. \The aeroplane 1 can thus rotate also upon its vertical axis through the center of gravity.
If the air screw motors 8 are in operation, the aeroplane -1 pulls the supporting arm 2 by means of the cable 17 to perform a rotary movement upon a vertical axis extending through the element 10. In order to simplify and to increase, respectively, this circular movement, the end of the free arm 12 may be equipped with an airscrew 18 driven by an electric motor.
The aeroplane 1 carries at its tail portion a rudder 19. The effect of the rudder '19 is still further supported, if the ailerons 22 and 23 hinged to the wings 20', 21 swing out in opposite directions, so that the flying aeroplane would not lean to the side, while the wing 21 is in an inclined position, the wing 20 would be raised, exactly as it is experienced with actual planes. The two elevators 24 are turned in the same direction, if the areoplane is supposed to fly upwardly or downwardly, whereby the supporting arm 2 swings upwardly or downwardly upon the hinge 1 1 of the element 10.
The landing wheels 25 are disposed under the wings and the wheel 26 under the tail end.
'Referring now to FIGS. 3 and 4 of the drawings, it will be readily seen how the landing wheels 25 may be collapsed and released, respectively. A reversible motor 26', disposed in the fuselage, turns the shaft 29 by means of the worm 27 and worm gear 28. Each of the wheels 25 sits on a supporting arm 31 which can swing out downwardly upon :a hinge '30. The wheels 25 disappear during the flight under the wings 20, 21. During the rotation of the shaft 29, the pulling cords 32 wind up thereon and the return pulling cords are released therefrom, whereby the latter releases the wheels 25 by the operation of their own weight and by means of the pulling cords 32. On reversed rotation of the shaft 29, the landing wheels 25 are pulled upwardly again. The remote control of these movements takes place from the control apparatus 3.
Referring now to Figs. and 6 of the drawings, the operation of the "ailerons 22 and 23 by means of the electro-magnet 34 is clearly disclosed, the electro-magnet 64 being disposed in the fuselage of the aeroplane 1. The electro-magnet 34 comprises two parts, each of which can be excited, whereby the soft iron core 35 is pulled into the coil, while upon simultaneous exciting of both magnet parts, the core is pulled into its center position and retained there. The core 35 has an extension 36 which engages the double lever 37 swingable upon the axis 38 and, thereby, moves the levers 39 upon the shafts 40 and, thereby, the ailerons 22, 23.
The operation of the rudder 19 and of the elevators 24 takes place, as shown in FIG. 7, by means of pairs of pulling ropes 41, 42, one end of which is secured to a pair of levers 43, 44 of the control members 19, 22 and 24 and which are operated by the double levers 47 and 48 swingable upon the pins 45 and 46, which double levers 47, 48 in turn are operated by means of the cores 51 and :52 of the two double magnets 49, 50 disposed adjacent each other. The excitement of the magnets is again initiated from the control apparatus 3. All pulling cords consist of a light artificial material, for instance of nylon or the like.
Referring now to FIGS. 8 and 9 of the drawings, the height and lateral controls may be performed for training purposes in a particularly true manner to the actual occurrences in flight of a large plane. The control stick 53 is mounted for swinging forwardly and rearwardly upon an axis 54 and controls the switches for the elevators 24, the control stick 53 being operatively connected with the control apparatus 3. With the hand wheel 56 rotatably mounted on a shaft of the control stick 5'3, the switching elements for the rudder 19 and, also as a possibility, simultaneously for the ailerons 22, 23 are operated, for instance by means of the roller 57 and the rope or chain 58.
It is to be undesrtood that a lateral change of direction of the flying multi-motor aeroplane can also easily be obtained by throttling or by switching off the propellers on one aeroplane side, without operation of the rudder and of the ailerons.
The model aeroplane 1 has, in accordance with the shown example, four airscrew drives "8, a rudder 19, two elevator planes 24, two ailerons 22 and 23 which are swingable in opposition directions on the wings, two releasable landing wheels 25 and a rear landing wheel 26. The air screws 8 are driven directly, in known manner, by means of a reversible electric motor, and the releasable running gear likewise by means of a reversible motor, while all control elements as the rudder and ailerons are movable by means of solenoids operating levers and rope pulls.
Referring now to FIG. 10 of the drawings, it is shown that a dropping opening 60 is provided at the bottom of the fuselage of the aeroplane and the longitudinal edges of the opening 60 have secured thereto downwardly turnable, single-wing or double-wing doors 61 by means of hinges 62. The door levers '63 and 64 are disposed at the rear end of each door and are directed substantially upwardly, as shown in FIGS. 11 and 12. The free ends of the levers 63 and 64 are hingedly secured to a double lever 67, 68 by means of connecting rods 65 and 66, respectively, the double lever 67, 68 being turnable upon an axis 69, which in turn is secured to a support 70 fixed to the bottom of the fuselage. A side arm 71 projects from the arm 67 of the double lever 67, 68, which side arm 71 is hingedly connected to a connecting rod 72 of armature 73 of the paired solenoids 74, 75 mounted on the bottom of the fuselage, the solenoids being operated by means of a conduit 76 for electric current and selective electric current lines 77 and 78.
An abutment 79 is provided on the support 70, which abutment 79 serves the purpose of securing the end position of the turnable double lever 67, 68. The arms of the latter have such length and direction, that upon pulling the armature 73 into the coil 75, the doors 61 are opened (FIG. 11). Upon exciting the other part 74 of the magnet, the armature 73 pushes the double lever 67, 68 into the closing position, shown in FIG. 12, and assumes such position by engagement with the abutment 79. By this operation, the doors 61 are closed.
In order to avoid a premature opening of the doors 61, by their own weight and the weight of a body to be dropped from the plane, after securing the body to the closed doors 61, if no electric current is fed to the solenoids, the arms of the double lever 67, 68 are retained in a self-locking position, namely the arm 67 being linearly aligned with the connecting rod 65 and the arm 68 being linearly aligned with the connecting rod 66. The weight of the doors 61 jointly with the weight of the body to be dropped cannot exert, thereby, a torque force upon the double lever 67, 68, rather the armature 73- only can cause the opening of the doors 61 upon exciting of the coil part 75 of the solenoids.
In case a one-wing door (not shown) is provided, the hinge 62 may be disposed crosswise relative to the fuselage and the door would open against the wind, and one lever arm only, for instance the arm 63 of the door, furthermore the connecting rod 65, the arms 67 and 71, the support 70 and the solenoid 74, 75 is applied in addition to the armature 73.
The operation of the doors is brought about from the position of the previously mentioned immovable control apparatus 3 and such operation can take place at any time alone, that means if the aeroplane is not in movement, as well as during operation of the propeller motors 8 and even in combination with the operations of the control rudders. The coil-s '74 and 75 of the solenoid require excitement only for short time periods for the opening and for the closing of the door 61, respectively, and no current feed is required to the coils 74, 75 of the solenoid at other times.
While I have disclosed one embodiment of the present invention, it is to be understood that this embodiment is given by example only and not in a limiting sense, the scope of the present invention being determined by the objects and the claims.
1. A control-suspension system for an electrically powered and electrically controlled trainingand toy-aeroplane unit comprising an aeroplane including a fuselage and two laterally disposed wings extending from said fuselage and supporting means for said aeroplane, a carrying arm rotatable upon a vertically disposed pivot means and movable in vertical direction, means for suspending said aeroplane substantially at its center of gravity from the free end of said carrying arm, said suspending means including cable means for feeding electric current to said aeroplane, at least one air screw mounted on said aeroplane for moving the latter along a circular path, a first electric motor disposed in said aeroplane for driving said air screw and connected with said cable means, a rudder disposed at the rear of said fuselage and hingedly mounted upon a vertical axis extending upwardly from said fuselage, elevators disposed at the rear of said fuselage below said rudder and hingedly mounted upon a horizontal axis, an aileron hingedly secured at the rear edge of each of said wings, a first lever, first rope means operatively connecting said first lever with said rudder, a second lever, second rope means operatively connecting said second lever with said elevators, solenoids operating each of said levers, each of said solenoids being connected with said cable means for individual operation, and an electrical control apparatus receiving the free end of said cable means and operating selectively said rudder and said elevators.
2. The aeroplane-unit, as set forth in claim 1, wherein said carrying arm has two branches and an additional electric motor driving a propeller and operating as an additional drive carried on the branch of said arm opposite said branch carrying said aeroplane.
3. The aeroplane-unit, as set forth in claim 1, wherein said cable means comprises a first cable, one end of said first cable being connected to said control apparatus and its other end leading to the suspension point of said carrying arm, a second cable leading from said suspension point to the free end of said carrying arm, said first cable being operatively connected with said second cable, a third cable leading from the free end of said carrying arm into said aeroplane and slide contacts disposed at the free end of said carrying arm and connecting said second cable with said third cable, and said third cable feeding a wire to each of said solenoids.
4. The aeroplane-unit, as set forth in claim 3, which includes a control stick having a control wheel mounted on said control apparatus, said control apparatus including switches operatively connected with said first cable and operating over said first, second and third cables, said electric motor and said solenoids.
5. A control-suspension system for an electrically powered and electrically controlled trainingand toy-aeroplane unit comprising an aeroplane including a fuselage and two laterally disposed wings extending from said fuselage and supporting means for said aeroplane, a carrying arm rotatable upon a vertically disposed pivot means and movable in vertical direction, means for suspending said aeroplane substantially at its center of gravity from the free end of said carrying arm, said suspending means including cable means for ieeding electric current to said aeroplane, at least one air screw mounted on said aeroplane for moving the latter along a circular path, a first electric motor disposed in said aeroplane for driving said air screw and connected with said cable means, a rudder disposed at the rear of said fuselage and hingedly mounted upon a vertical axis extending upwardly from said fuselage, elevators disposed at the rear of said fuselage below said rudder and hingedly mounted upon a horizontal axis, an aileron hingedly secured at the rear edge of each of said wings, a first lever, first rope means operatively connecting said first lever with said rudder, a second lever, second rope means operatively connecting said second lever with said elevators, solenoids operating each of said levers, a dropping door lopenable from the bottom of said fuselage, a double armed, third lever and a connecting rod coordinated to and pivotally secured to each of said double armed, third lever and pivotally secured to said dropping door, an additional solenoid operatively connected with one arm of said double armed lever to turn the latter and, thereby to move said dropping door from its closed position into its open position by means of said connecting rod, each of said solen-oids being connected with said cable means for individual operation, landing Wheels, a supporting arm coordinated to and rotatably carrying each of said landing wheels, a second, reversible electric motor disposed in said fuselage and a reduction gear operatively connected with said second, electric motor, said reduction gear being on eratively connected with said supporting arms iior turning the latter from their substantially vertical, supporting position to their substantially horizontal, collapsed position, and an electrical control apparatus receiving the free end of said cable means and operating selectively said rudder, said elevators, said ailerons, said dropping door, and said supporting arms for said landing wheels.
6. The aeroplane-unit, as set forth in claim 5, which includes a shafit operatively connected with said reversible electric motor over said reduction gear, and pulling ropes wound and unwound, respectively, on said shaft depending upon the direction of rotation of said shaft, the ends of said pulling ropes being operatively connected with said supporting arms for said landing wheels.
7. The aeroplane-unit, as set forth in claim 5, which includes an armature reciprocating in said additional solenoids, said double armed lever being connected with said armature and controlled by the latter, so that in the closed position of said door said connecting rods assume a selflocking, aligned position with the corresponding arms of said double armed lever, while upon operation of said additional solenoids for opening said door, said connecting rods assume an inclined position relative to each other.
8. The aeroplane-unit, as set iiorth in claim 7, wherein said dropping door has two wings, and each of said wings has coordinated thereto one of said connecting rods, the latter having two arms pivotally connected with each other, and one arm of said connecting levers assuming a self-locking aligned position with the corresponding arm of said double armed lever in the closed position of said double-wing door.
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