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Publication numberUS3087326 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 30, 1963
Filing dateApr 1, 1960
Priority dateApr 1, 1960
Publication numberUS 3087326 A, US 3087326A, US-A-3087326, US3087326 A, US3087326A
InventorsThomas F Macdonnell
Original AssigneeNopco Chem Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Material surface testing apparatus
US 3087326 A
Abstract  available in
Images(1)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

April 1963 T. F. M DONNELL 3,087,326

MATERIAL SURFACE TESTING APPARATUS Filed April 1. 1960 r/HE) INVENTOR E47A fit, 7 m

ATTORNEY mam 5 F. MM Dav/V524.

3,317,325 Patented Apr. 39, 1963 3,087,326 MATERHAL SURFAfJE TESTING APPARATUS Thomas F. MacDonneil, Newark, NJ assignor to Nopco Chemical Company, Newark, NJL, a corporation of New Jersey Filed Apr. 1, 1960, Ser. No. 19,227 Claims. ((31. 73--7) This invention relates to novel apparatus for determining scuff resistance and/or surface break-down of various materials. In one of its more specific aspects the invention is directed to novel apparatus for determining the scuff-resistance and/or surface break-down of paper especially as well as other flexible sheet materials, such as paperboard, natural and artificial leathers, textiles made of natural and/or synthetic fibers such as cotton, silk, Wool, Orlon, nylon, Dacron, etc. In one of its more specific aspects the invention is especially directed to apparatus for determining and ascertaining the scuff-resistance and/ or surface break-down of the outer surfaces of said materials, which surface may be a coated-finished surface, treated or sized surface.

For many years such materials having been treated with a great variety of substances to coat and in some cases also to impregnate same therewith for the purpose of imparting at least a certain characteristic thereto. And, such characteristic imparted thereto is dependent upon the particular treating material employed.

The main purpose of this invention is to provide novel apparatus for easily and readily determining and ascertaining the scuff resistance and/or surface break-down of such surface treated materials. By employing the present invention, it is possible to obtain a scuff-resistance curve, and surface break-down point based upon strokes to temperature variation relationship, whereby there is obtained a permanent record of the scuif resistance and also surface break-down of the particular surface treated material tested. Such permanent records are kept and are thereafter used for comparative purposes with other curves subsequently obtained in the testing of other surface treated materials, and also serve to indicate the scuff-resistance and break-down point of the material tested.

The foregoing as well as other objects and advantages of this present invention will become apparent from the following description taken in conjunction with the drawings, wherein:

FIG. 1 is a view in side elevation of apparatus embodying the present invention.

FIG. 2 is an enlarged fragmentary view of a portion of the view taken on line IIII of FIG. 1.

FIG. 3 is an enlarged fragmentary view taken on line IlI-III of FIG. 2.

FIG. 4 is a view in perspective illustrating an embodiment of a support and carrier together with a thermocouple and leads.

As shown in FIG. 1, the novel apparatus includes tester sold on the market as a CSI-Stoll Flex Tester Model 05494126 of Custom Scientific Instrument Company of Kearny, NJ. Said Flex-Tester 10 includes a housing 11 having a switch and control panel 12 in its front face and a horizontal top plate 14 on which is a fixed guide (not shown) supporting a platen or base 15 which is reciprocable or slidable back and forth on said fixed guide. Said platen or base 15 having a flat working face 16, is connected to a constant speed motor through mechanism not shown whereby upon making of an electric circuit with an A.C. source of supply by moving the actuator 17 of a switch, the motor is energized to drive the platen 15 at constant speed back and forth approximately one inch in each direction on its supporting guide whereby face 16 thereof is so reciprocated in a fixed predetermined path in a single horizontal plane. The reciprocations of the base are counted by a suitable counter 19 carried on the panel 12 and may be set at zero at the start of each test in the use of this tester 10. Rigidly secured to and extending upwardly from top plate =14 is a vertical support 21. A pair of parallel links 26 are pivotally connected at their rear ends to the support 21 and the front ends thereof are pivotally connected to a vertical supporting link 27 having an upper platen 30 with a flat working face 31, secured thereto at the lower end thereof. The front ends of a pair of parallel links 32 are pivotally connected to supporting link 27. Said links 32 are also pivotally connected to the support 21, and extend rearwardly therebeyond. A counter Weight 34 of suitable weight is secured to said links 32. The links 26 and C92 in cooperation with link 27 serve as a means whereby the platen 341 may be moved up or down as required in a vertical path at right angles to the face of the lower platen 15 and to maintain the face 31 of platen 3% parallel to the face 16 of platen 15. The upper end of the link 27 carries a plurality of weights 35. The number and Weight of the Weights 35 is variable depending upon the force to be exerted by the platen 30. Each of said platens 15 and 30 carries at the ends thereof rollclamps 37 for securing thereto the ends of the sheet to be tested.

According to this invention a mount 40 of material, having a low heat conductivity characteristic and preferably being in the form of a band which is preferably a cushion of resilient and of a rubbery nature, is adhesively secured to the face 16 of the reciprocable plate 15 at the center thereof. The band 41) may be one of a number of different compositions, eg. natural or synthetic rubber or of the various plasticized plastic materials known to the ant. The band 40 which is a cushion, is centrally located on the face 16, with its central longitudinal axis substantially coincident with the center line of said platen along the path of reciprocation thereof. The band 40 may be of various dimensions, but for the purposes of this invention, it is relatively thin and narrow, and in the embodiment shown is approximately three thirty seconds of an inch in thickness and approximately one half inch in width. The length of the band 40 is preferably considerably less than the length of the face 16, but is at least as long as, and preferably considerably longer than the length of the stroke of the platen 15. In the embodiment shown, the band ii) is approximately two inches in length.

A heat sensing means, such as a thermocouple 45, is carried by a mount St) of material also of low heat conductivity characteristic and being resilient and of a rubbery nature. The band or mount 5t may be a single cushion element, but for the sake of ease of production, I employ two separate elements 51 and 52 of substantially the same composition, characteristics and dimensions as being parallel.

the band 40. The thermocouple 45 consists of a pair of conductors 47 of dissimilar metals, and in the present instance are respectively iron and constantan. Said conductors are respectively covered with insulation, except for the outermost part of the forward ends thereof which are welded or in any other manner secured together at 46 and the other ends thereof are connected to a graph strip chart recorder 70. The thermocouple leads or wires 47 are further covered by a flat rubber insulator 48 which is located between the elements 51 and 52 and the forward ends thereof are bent and extend through an opening in the central part of element 51 and the insulated ends 49 are bent over on the outer face of element 51, with the tip 46 and ends 49 being partially embedded in the exposed face of element 51 so that the tip 46 and ends 49 are substantially flush with the outer face of element 51. The elements 51 and 52 are secured together with an adhesive to provide a unitary two ply structure carrying the thermocouple and leads. Said two ply structure is mounted as shown in FIG. 3, by means of a suitable adhesive to the face 31 of the stationary plate 30. As shown, the elements 51 and 52 as well as the band 40 may be composed of resilient rubber. The width of element 52 may be somewhat greater than that of element 51 and the width of element 51 is approximately one half inch in width and the length and thickness of each of the elements 51 and 52 may be the same as the corresponding dimensions of band 40.

As shown in FIG. 3, the two ply band 51) carrying the thermocouple or heat sensor 45 is mounted centrally on face 31, with its longitudinal center line being at approximately right angles to the longitudinal center line of band 40, and with the working faces of elements 51 and 411 Said thermocouple 45 may be Thermocouple B-60912 of Thermo Electric Company, Inc. of Saddle River Township, New Jersey.

The thermocouple leads 47 are electrically connected to a graph strip chart recorder 70 connected through as switch (not shown) to an AC. source of supply for recording on a movable graph strip changes in temperature of the thermocouple 45 versus the number of strokes. A type of such recorder found suitable, and given merely by way of example is Model #153X17 of Brown Instrument Division of Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Company. The recorder 70 is well known to those skilled in the art and includes a graph strip 71 which is fed at a constant rate and means for recording thereon temperature variations due to the variations in the thermocouple due to such temperature variations.

In operation, when it is desired to measure the scuffresistance and/or surface break-downs of a coated-finished, sized or otherwise treated surface of one of said materials, and for the purposes of illustration, say of a roll of coated paper, a sample of said coated paper is cut into two twin strips 60 and 61 of a width corresponding to that of the band 40 and element 51. With the load 35 removed, the plate 30 is raised a considerable distance above plate 15 so that samples to be tested may be coupled therewith. Then the strip 60 is laid lengthwise along the length of and positioned fiat-wise over the band 41 but with its coated face exposed and extends beyond either end thereof and is latched to the plate 15 by cam rolls 37 carried thereby. The strip 61 is laid lengthwise along the length of face 31, but transversely of and over and positioned flat-wise on the bottom face of band 50 and extends beyond the ends of plate 30 and latched thereto by camrolls 37 carried thereby. Thus the strips 61) and 61 are maintained in taut condition, with the coated faces thereof being exposed and in parallel planes and with the sensor 45 being in contact with the inner face of the strip '61. Then the weight 35 is placed on the spindle of the link 27 whereby the link 27 is lowered and that portion of strip 61 over element 51 exerts a force of desired magnitude and for example about 12 pounds per square inch on that portion of strip 61 therebelow and in contact therewith. The counter is set at Zero and the switch 17 is actuated to make the motor circuit whereupon the plate 15 reciprocates back and forth at constant speed with a stroke of about one inch for example in each direction and about 112 strokes per minute thereby to so reciprocate strip 64 with respect ot strip 61 and to subject the coated face of the strip 61 immediately below element 51 and that portion of the coated face of strip 61) contacted thereby to a rubbing action therebetween during said reciprocation while maintaining them under the constant load.

After said reciprocation is initiated and continues, heat is generated between the contacting surfaces of the strips 611 and 61 whereupon the temperature of that portion of the strip 61 continuously in contact with strip 60 increases and then decreases sharply thereby to produce corresponding temperature variations in the sensor 45 in contact therewith. Simultaneously, with said actuation of switch 17, a switch (not shown) of the recorder 70 is actuated whereupon a graph strip 71 is fed at a constant rate and a recording pen not shown is actuated in response to temperature variations in said sensor 45 thereby to record permanently on the strip 71 a curve showing temperature variations of the thermocouple versus time or number of strokes of the platen 15. The speed of travel of the strip 71 is such that in each one-half minute the strip 71 travels a distance equal to that between a pair of adjacent hori zontal lines shown thereon, and thus of course it travels such distance for each 56 strokes of the platen 15. The curve shown on the graph strip 71 shown in FIG. 1 shows a curve which was produced as a result of the aforesaid operation. The curve. as shown provides useful permanent information of scuff-resistance as shown by the portions 80, 81 and 82 thereof and shows the point of surface break-down. As shown in the particular curve, there is a very high positive temperature gradient at over the first 15 seconds (28 strokes) and a low temperature positive gradient at 8-1 over the next seconds (308 strokes) then a high positive temperature gradient at 82 over the next 20 seconds (37 strokes) and then a high negative temperature gradient at 83 which indicates the surface break-down point which in the present instance occurs at the end of 200 seconds (373 strokes). The curve is a permanent record which may be interpreted by those skilled in the art to ascertain various characteristics of the surface of materials tested and also may be employed for comparative purposes.

When the surface break-down point is ascertained by observation in the production of the curve, switch 17 is actuated to stop reciprocation and the recorder is also stopped and that portion of the graph strip having the curve thereon is removed therefrom for study and filing.

The stroke counter 19 which reads 373 is re-set at Zero, the load 35 is removed, the platen 311 is moved upwardly away lfI'OITl platen 15 and the cam rollers 37 are actuated to release strips 60 and '61 which are now removed. The apparatus is now ready to receive other strips of material for testing in the same manner as that heretofore described.

While the present invention has been described in detail it is not to be limited to the exact construction disclosed which is given merely by way of illustration, for the reason that various changes and modifications may be made Without departing from the spirit of this invention.

I claim:

1. Apparatus of the class described comprising a reciprocable first support, a second support movable towards and away from said first support, a face of said first support being opposite a face of said second support whereby said last mentioned face is moved towards and away from said first mentioned face upon movement of said second support towards and away from said first support, a mount for material to be tested, said mount being on said face of said first support, a second mount for material to be tested, said second mount being on said face of second support, with the working faces thereof being in approximately parallel planes, each of said mounts being a band of cushion material of low heat conductivity characteristics, the longitudinal center line of one of said bands being substantially parallel to the line of the stroke of said reciprocable first support and at approximately right angles to the longitudinal center line of said other band, means for securing to said first support a strip of material to be tested in a position flat-wise on and extending lengthwise along the length of said mount carried thereby, means for securing to second support a second strip of material to be tested in position flat-wise on and extending lengthwise at approximately right angles to the length of said mount carried by second support, with at least a portion of the exposed surface of one of said strips always being in contact with at least a portion of the exposed surface of the other of said strips when said second support is in operative position and said first mentioned support is reciprocating, one of said mounts having an opening therein, temperature variation sensing means, said sensing means extending through said opening and including a tip end disposed on the exposed face of said mount having said opening whereby said tip end is disposed adjacent the unexposed surface of that portion of the strip whose exposed surface is in contact with the exposed surface of the other strip when said second support is in operative position and said first support is reciprocating, and means responsive to temperature variations sensed by said sensing means for recording said variations.

2. Apparatus of the class described comprising a reciprocable first support, a second support movable towards and away from said first support, a face of said first support being opposite a face of said second support whereby said last menitoned face is moved towards and away from said first mentioned face upon movement of said second support towards and away from said first support, a cushion band on said face of said first support, the longitudinal center line of said band being substantially parallel to the line of stroke of said first support, a cushion band on said face of second support, the longitudinal center line of said band on said face of said second support being at substantially right angles to the longitudinal center line of said first mentioned band, with the working faces thereof being in approximately parallel planes, means for securing to said first support a strip of material to be tested in a position lengthwise along the length of and flat-wise on said cushion carried thereby, means for securing to second support a second strip of material to be tested in position at substantially right angles to the longitudinal center line of and flat-wise on said cushion carried by said second support, whereby at least a portion of the exposed surface of one of said strips will be in contact with at least a portion of the exposed surface of the other of said strips when said second support is in operative position and said first mentioned support is reciprocating, temperature variation sensing means carried by said first mentioned cushion b and and including a tip end on the exposed face of said first mentioned cushion band and disposed adjacent the unexposed surface of that portion of a strip whose exposed surface is in contact with the exposed surface of the other strip when said second support is in operative position and said first support is reciprocating, and means responsive to temperature variations sensed by said sensing means for recording said variations.

3. Apparatus of the class described comprising a reciprocable first support, a second support movable towards and away from said first support, a face of said first support being opposite a face of said second support whereby said last mentioned face is moved towards and away from said first mentioned face upon movement of said second support towards and away from said first support, a mount on said face of said first support, a mount on said face of second support and being transverse to said first mentioned mount, means for securing to said first support a 6 strip of material to be tested lengthwise along the length of said mount and in a position flat-wise on said mount carried thereby, each of said mounts being a cushion band of low heat conductivity material, one of said bands being multilayer, means for securing to said second support a second strip of material to be tested in position transversely of and flat-wise on said mount carried by said second support, whereby at least a portion of the exposed surface of said second mentioned strip will be in contact with at least a portion of the exposed surface of the said first mentioned strip when said second support is in operative position and said first mentioned support is reciprocating, temperature variation sensing means carried by said secondmentioned mount, with the leads thereof located between .a pair of said layers thereof and the tip end thereof located on the exposed face of said mount and disposed adjacent the unexposed surface of that portion of a strip whose exposed surface is in contact with the exposed surface of the other strip when said second support is in operative position and said first support is reciprocating, and means responsive to temperature variations sensed by said sensing means for recording said variations.

4. Apparatus of the class described comprising a reciprocable first support, a sec-ond support movable towards and away from said first support, a face of said first support being opposite a face of said second support whereby said last mentioned face is moved towards and away from said first mentioned face upon movement of said second support towards and away from said first support, a cushion band of low heat conductivity characteristic carried by said first support and disposed centrally on said face of said first support, the longitudinal center line of said band being parallel to the line of stroke of said first support, a cushion band of low heat conductivity characteristic carried by said second support and disposed centrally on said face thereof, with said second mentioned cushion being disposed transversely of said first mentioned cushion, means for securing to said first support a strip of material to be tested in a position along the length of and flat-wise on said cushion carried thereby, means for securing to said second support a second strip of material to be tested in position transversely of and flatwi-se on said second support, whereby at least a portion of the exposed surface of one of said strips will be in contact with at least a portion of the exposed surface of the other of said strips when said second support is in operative position and said first mentioned support is reciprocating, temperature variation sen-sing means disposed adjacent the unexposed surface of that portion of a strip whose exposed sunface is in contact with the exposed surface of the other strip when said second support is in operative position and said first support is reciprocating, and means responsive to temperature variations sensed by said sensing means for recording said variations.

5 Apparatus of the class described comprising a recipnocable firs-t support, a second support movable towards and away from said first support, a face of said first support being opposite a face of said second support whereby said last mentioned face is moved towards and away from said first face upon movement of said second support towards and away from said first support, a mount carried by one of said supports and disposed centrally on said face thereof, a mount carried by the other of said supports and disposed centrally on said face thereof, with second mentioned mount being disposed transversely of said first mentioned mount, each of said mounts being a band of low heat conductivity characteristic, means for securing to one of said supports a strip of material to be tested in a position along the length of and flatwis'e on said mount carried thereby, means for securing to said other support a strip of material to be tested in a position transversely of and fiatwise on said mount carried thereby, whereby .at least a portion of the exposed surface of one of said strips will be in contact with at least a portion of the exposed surface of the other of said strips when References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Jury June 22, Dennis Feb. 25, Benjamin Apr. 5, Perry Apr. 12, Asimow Mar. 23, Frevik July 1, Amen Feb. 5,

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US1344301 *Jun 18, 1919Jun 22, 1920Morgan & WrightFriction and flexing apparatus for testing materials
US2032202 *Dec 27, 1934Feb 25, 1936Dennis Calvin LTesting machine
US2113290 *Aug 3, 1935Apr 5, 1938Fred H BenjaminSurface tester
US2114029 *Sep 29, 1936Apr 12, 1938Socony Vacuum Oil Co IncTesting machine
US2314753 *Oct 20, 1941Mar 23, 1943Asimow MorrisApparatus for indicating temperature of cutting tools
US2601776 *Sep 3, 1949Jul 1, 1952Dearborn Motors CorpMethod of determining soil pressures produced on the soil working surfaces of ground engaging tools
US2780091 *Nov 20, 1953Feb 5, 1957Amen Nicholas CBearing and lubricant friction evaluating apparatus
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3643490 *Aug 11, 1967Feb 22, 1972Univ Tennessee Res CorpMethod and apparatus for investigating interfiber friction
US4462245 *Nov 8, 1982Jul 31, 1984Champion International CorporationApparatus for testing abrasion resistance of printed surfaces
US5804706 *Feb 3, 1997Sep 8, 1998O'sullivan Industries, Inc.System and method for measuring the mar resistance of materials
US6000284 *Apr 2, 1997Dec 14, 1999Board Of Trustees Operating Michigan State UniversityMethod and apparatus for determining and quantifying resistance to scuff damage of a film adhered on a panel
Classifications
U.S. Classification73/7
International ClassificationG01N3/02, G01N3/56, G01N33/36
Cooperative ClassificationG01N33/36, G01N2203/0278, G01N3/56, G01N33/367
European ClassificationG01N33/36C, G01N3/56