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Publication numberUS3087577 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 30, 1963
Filing dateJan 18, 1960
Priority dateJan 18, 1960
Publication numberUS 3087577 A, US 3087577A, US-A-3087577, US3087577 A, US3087577A
InventorsPrestia Michael J
Original AssigneePrestia Michael J
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Ceiling tile with sound attenuating and visual effects
US 3087577 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

April 30, 1963 M, J, PEsTlA 687,577

April 30, 1963 M, J. PREsTlA CEILING TILE WITH SOUND ATTENUATING AND VISUAL EFFECTS Filed Jan. 18, 1960 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 IN VEN TOR. Maf/,4a JPQfJr/A United States Patent O 3,087,577 CEILING TILE WITH SOUND ATTENUATING AND VISUAL EFFECTS Michael I. Prestia, 44 Broadway, Jersey City 6, NJ. Filed Jan. 18, 1960, Ser. No. 3,078 6 Claims. (Cl. 181-33) rIlhis invention relates to a novel ceiling tile of a construction which so reilects light that the ceiling gives a viewer the striking visual impression of a moving or changing surface, much like that of :a tine silk fabric. This visu-al effect is :accompanied by a muting of audible sound by the ceiling tiles, which deadening of objectionable noise is also due in part at least, to the .tile construction.

Ceiling ltiles have been made of cellulosic materials, usually a rough paperboard, and have sometimes been perforated or otherwise surface modified to improve their sound `deadening action and to make them suitably decorative or ornamental. Ceilings, walls and lloors have been decorated or enhanced with designs which include pluralities of substantially parallel curved lines. However, never before have ceiling tiles been made of the structure described herein. The ceiling tiles of the prior art would not have the desired properties of th-ose of this invention nor would they be useful in replacement thereof.

In accordance with the present invention ther-e is provided a ceiling tile which simultaneously helps to deadcn undersirable noise and presents to a viewer ever-changing curved areas of light and shadow, giving the `visual impression of a silk-like surface, comprising a .substantially flat basey capable of being nailed, stapled or cemented to a ceiling, means on such base foi interconnecting said tile with other such tiles for assembly on -a ceiling and a surface porti-on containing alternating projecting and depressed curvilinearly dispose-d areas concentrically dispositioned in units comprising Ia plurality of projected `and depressed curves, ending where they contact other such units. In greater particularity, Isuch a ceiling tile co prises Ia substantially flat |base capable of being nailed, stapled -or cemented to a ceiling, means on said base `for interlocking said tile with other such tiles for assembly on a ceiling and a surface portion :of sound absorbent material containing alternating projecting land ydepressed curvilinearly disposed areas concentrically dispositioned in units of at least about ten pairs of projected and depressed curves, said units endingrwhere they contact other units, the curvatures of most of the units :being less than semicircular, the projecting areas `being at least one millimeter high and being repeated at least every centimeter, with the top of the projectingycurve being of lesser :area than the bottom, said tile surface projections and depressions being uninterrupted by other projections or depressions which wouldtend to destroy the silk-like appearance thereof.

The great advantages of the invention land the various objects of it will be apparent from the Ifollowing detailed description, taken together with the accompanying drawing inV which:

FIG. l is a plan view of fa ceiling tile with only line representations of the projecting curves `'being given;

FIG. 2 is a vertical section of .such tile along plane 2 2;

FIG. 3 is an enlarged plan of a corner section of :a ceiling ltile, showing the upper face vand sides of the projections, Ias well as the depressions;

FIG. 4 is an enlarged vertical section of a corner portion of a tile taken along plane 4 4 of FIG. 3;

FIG. 5 is a plan view of `another embodiment of the invention, again with only line representations of the 2 projecting curves fbeinggiven, but this ltime with projections spaced farther apart and m'th openings or perforations inthe depressions;

FIG. 6 is a vertical section of such tile along plane 6 6;

FIG. 7 is an enlarged plan of a corner section of such la ceiling tile, showing the upper face and sides of the projections, as well as the depressions; and

FIG. 8 is an enlarged vertical section of al 'corner por` tion of such tile along 'plane 8 8.

Numeral 11 represents a ceiling tile which helps deaden undesirable room noise and -at the same time is of distinctive and attractive 'appearance since it presents to a viewer ever-changing curved areas o-f light and shadow, giving the impression of a silk-like surface. Around the border of ceiling ltile 11 there extend tongues 13 and groove portions 15. Tiles 11 are nailed, stapled or cemented to `a ceiling or furring strips, not shown. If cemented, the adhesive is applied to the substantially flat base 17 which is the obverse off fthe curved surface to be described later. It may be considered .that tongues 13 and groove portions 15 are also parts of base 17; the ltiles may be cemented, nailed or stapled at those points. In assembly of the tiles of a ceiling in the conventional manner only the curved portion of the tile will be visible to a viewer and that will meet very closely wi-th the curved portion of adjacent tiles, giving the appearance of a ceiling made entirely of sections or units of curved concentric ridges. I-f it is desired, the edges of the tiles may be beveled not shown, which would interrupt the continui-ty of the ceiling pattern. The present tiles may also be employed as only part of a ceiling tile pattern, lalthough it is highly preferred, for maximum effect, to construct the entire ceiling thereof. However the tiles may be positioned or placed on a ceiling, the interconnecting or interlocking means on the tiles, which is preferably the tongue and groove sides thereof, will keep the ceiling ilat and regular in appearance and will not allow some tiles to sag or to lose contact with the ceiling.

The invented tiles contain alternating projecting and depressed curvilinearly ydisposed areas which are concentrically dispositioned in groups which are referred to herein =as units; such units end -where they contact other units land all contain fa plunalifty of projected and depressed curves. Curved projection 19 is trapezoidal in cross section, having a flat top 21 of lesser area than the base thereof 2.3. Slanted sides 25 are well suited for best light reflection. Sides 25 bound a depression 27 Which sepia# rates projections or ridges 19.

In the drawing one embodiment of the invention is illustrated well by FIG. Il. In this view only the center lines of the ridge tops are shown, to best illustrate the disposition of the tile face curvature, because of the closeness of the -ridges in the tile drawn and the confusing appearance that would result if all surfaces of projections and depressions were shown. The tile drawn is a reduction of -a tile measuring one foot by one foot but other sizes, larger and smaller, can also be used, providing that .the ridge .and groove measurements are correct for good sound absorption and Ithe startling visual effect typical of the invented tiles. As will be seen from the drawing the ridges are wavy curves parallel to other ridges and depressions. These curves, for a satisfactory .tile in accordance with the invention, must be in units of at least tenf pairs of ridges and depressions; these units should be less than semicircular and are usually more than thirty de'- grees. The projections `are at least a millimeter high and are repeated .at least every centimeter, the ratio of ridge height to spacing being preferably from 1:1 to 1:7. Usually neither height nor distance betweeny ridges should be less than l millimeter nor greater than 5- millimeters.

The units of curves may be circular arcs; the parallel curves may have a common focus which does not move. Alternatively, and lthe alternative is preferable, the focus may change in a unit but should still be so located that a line drawn from arc midpoint through the focus for each portion of the curve Will converge to a point which may be designated as a super focus. Thus, a scalloped shape may be obtained. Rather than have the arcs of different centers intersect, it is better to have them gently converge, making a wavy curved unit. Furthermore, curves of diffent units, that is curves whose bisectors do not pass through about the `same point, may also be blended to avoid the presence of an excess of straight line or angular intersections. A gradual convergence of arcs is illustrated at points 28, 29, and 31 while the more abrupt intersection of units is shown at 33, 3S and 37.

In the embodiment of the invention illustra-ted in FlGS. 5-8 the primed numerals have the same significance as the numbers of FIGS. 1-4. It will be noted that the units of curves contain fewer pairs of curves and also possess intermediate openings 39` which, -as shown, pass clear through the tile. The holes are so spaced that they seem `to further define the arcs where they pass through the tile at the depressed areas thereof. The holes also serve to confine and deaden undesirable noise.

The ridged tile, when in place on a ceiling, reflects visible radiation not absorbed in such a way as to cause a continuous shifting and give the viewer the impression of a silky surface of dancing highlights. Due to the curves and their disposition the reflections change gradually and also alter to'all viewers throughout the room. This effect may be increased or varied by having the ridge sides of a different and lighter color than the ridge top and/or depression. IIt is also assisted by upwardly directed ceiling ligh-ting and by moving lighting effects. This latter method of illumination gives rise to unique and beautiful lighting of the ceiling even when the viewer is completely stationary.

The channels in the 4tile surface also serve to confine audible radiation within them and reflect it to an absorbing surface. The inwardly directing slanted surfaces refleet sound impinging on them in such manner that it is deadened and the attenuated radiation diminishes substantially in amplitude. Where the tile depressions contain openings the ridge sides funnel the sound through and further assist in absorbing noise.

To obtain the desired visual and audio effects the tile surface should be free of other projections and depressions which would tend to destroy the silk-like `appearance of the tile. Such interruptions in the surface would 0bviously detract from the special appearance of the tile and also could be expected to interfere with the sound absorption because they replace the more effective channels of the present tiles.

For both visual and audio activity dimensions and proper-tions of the tile surface features are important. Some of these have already been given but all will be summarized here. The projection height and depression widths should be from 1 millimeter to 1 centimeter, preferably 1 mm. to 5 mm., with a ratio of 1:1 to 1:7. There should be at least such pairs per unit and less than 100, usually less than 50. The holes, preferably circular, in the depressions, should be of y1 to 5 mm. diameter. The ridges are preferably trapezoidal in cross section, smaller at the top. Curved units should be less than 180 degrees and more than 30 degrees, preferably above 45 degrees. If of such dimensions .the tile surfaces are always of satisfactory `appearance and sound absorbing action.

The invented tiles are made of any suitable construction material. Rough cellulosic fibers may be matted or othenwise deposited or pressed into a sheet. These may be coated with a smoother paper or plastic not shown or may be used in the rough state. Foamed plastics, such as polystyrene, polyurethane and others in either foamed or solid state may be used. Rubber, vinyl, even wood and 4 metal tiles have some use but the sound absorbent materials, such as the light Weight plastics and fibrous cellulosics are preferred.

The special tiles may be made by cutting or pressing a blank tile into shape 0r the tile may be molded initially. Alternatively, :the blank tile may have surface ridges applied thereto by a special brush or lining applicator. Such a ridge coating may even be a conventional paint specially thickened to prevent running together of the ridges. \It is preferred to compress paper tile blanks to the correct struc-ture between forming dies. By `this method the roots or depressions are of greater density after forming and the ridges are relatively porous. Thus, the thinner parts are of stronger substance and are better able to have holes molded or drilled or punched in them. The other sec- Itions of the tile remain porous for better sound absorption. In other embodiments of :the invention the base and surface portions are of different materials laminated together, not shown, but they lare preferably both of the same substance.

The tiles may be colored to increase the silk-like effect. Partial colora-tion, not shown, may be used to increase the contrast and make the curves even more distinct.

The present tiles are much more attractive than conventional ceiling covers. The silky appearance gives ceilings an expensive look at little or no` extra manufacturing cost and also for no substantial extra charge the tiles are more soundproof. These tiles are ideal for ceilings in `special rooms, social halls, restaurants and night clubs, as well as in the formal rooms of the home. Unlike conventional pla-ster or plasterboard ceilings, these tiles do not crack or sag; they `are stronger than other ceiling tiles, due in part to` the strength of these ribbed structures. Also due to the rib and channel configurations, these tiles :do not show dirt badly; in fact, darkening of portions of the tile due to deposition of dust, smoke and so forth, gives the tile a handsome aged appearance and even better defines the curves of the exposed surface.

The present tiles are vastly superior to` the plain and figured tiles now available to the public. The ceiling they make is decorative, interesting and functional. The structure is novel `and the concept of movement of the design is new.

The invention has been described in conjunction with a description of preferred embodiments. The scope of the patent is measured by the claims and is not restricted to the forms `shown in the drawings.

What is claimed is:

1. A ceiling tile which lsimultaneously helps to deaden undesirable noise and presents to a viewer ever-changing curved 'areas of light and shadow, giving the visual impression of a silk-like surface, comprising a substantially flat `base capable of being nailed, stapled or cemented to a ceiling, means on such base for interconnecting said tile with other such tiles for assembly on a ceiling and a. isurface portion of sound Iabsorbent material containing alternating projecting and depressed curvilinearly disposed areas concentrically dispositioned in units comprising a plurality of projected rand depressed curves, ending where they contact other such units.

2. A ceiling tile which simultaneously deadens undesirable noise and presents toy a viewer ever-changing curved areas of light and shadow, giving the visual impression of a silk-like surface, comprising a substantially flat base capable of being nailed, stapled or cemented to a ceiling, means on such base for interlocking said tile with other such tiles for assembly on a ceiling and a surface portion of sound absorbent material containing alternating projecting and depressed curvilinearly disposed iareas concentrically dispositioned in units of at least about ten pairs of projected and depressed curved surfaces, said units ending where they Contact other units, the curvatures of most of the units being less than semicircular, the projecting areas being at least one millimeter ausm?? high and being repeated at least every centimeter, with the top of the projected curve being `of lesser area than the bottom, said tile surface projections and depressions being uninterrupted by other projections or depressions, which would tend to destroy the silk-like appearance thereof.

3. An acoustical ceiling tile which simultaneously deadens undesirable noise and gives a viewer the visual Iimpression of a silk-like surface by presenting to his eyes ever-changing areas of light and shadow which cornprises a substantially ilat base capable of being nailed, stapled or cemented to a ceiling, means on such base for interlocking said tile with other such tiles for assembly on a ceiling and a surface portion of sound absorbent material containing :alternating projecting and depressed curvilinearly disposed areas concentrically dispositioned in units of ten to a hundred pairs of projections and depressions in segments of thirty to 180i degrees, which end where they contact lother units or the same type, the projections being approximately trapezoidal in cross-section, of height fro-m la millimeter to a centimeter, being distributed with the distance between projections being between a millimeter and a centimeter, the tile surface projections and depressions being uninterrupted by other projections and depressions which would destroy the visual impression `given of a silf-like surface.

4. An |acoustical ceiling tile which simultaneously deadens noise and lgives a viewer the visual impression of a silk-like surface by presenting to his eyes ever-changing areas of reflected light and shadow which comprises a substantially flat straight sided, light weight, fibrous base of Isound absorbent material capable of being nailed, stapled or cemented to a ceiling, means on said base for interlocking said tile with other such tiles for assembly on a. ceiling yand a surface portion of sound absorbent material which comprises alternating, curvilinearly and concentnically disposed compressed depressed and less dense projecting areas, in units of ten to a hundred pains of projections and `depressions in Isegments of thirty to 180 degrees, which end Where they contact other units of the same type, the projections being approximately trapezoidal in cross-section, of height from one millimeter to one centimeter, distributed parallel to other projections in the same unit as `distances therefrom from one millimeter to one centimeter, the ratio of projection height to said distance being 4from about 1:1 to 1:7, said tile surfface projections and depressions being uninterrupted by other projections and depressions which would destroy the visual impression given of a silk-like surface.

5. An acoustical ceiling tile which simultaneously deadens undesirable noise land gives a viewer the visual impression of 4a silk-like surface by presenting to his eyes ever-changing areas of reflected light and shadow which comprises a substantially flat, straight sided, light weight base of sound absorbent material capable of being nailed, stapled or cemented to a ceiling, means on said base for interlocking said tile with other such tiles for assembly on a ceiling and a surface portion of sound absorbent .material which is like that of the base and comprises repeated parallel alternating projecting and depressed curvilinearly disposed areas concentrieally dispositioned in units of ten toa hundred pairs of projections and depressions in segments of thirty to 180 degrees, which end where they contact other units of the lsame type, the projections being approximately .trapezoidal in cross-section, of height from a millimeter to one centimeter, distributed parallel to other projections in the same unit at distances therefrom from one millimeter to one centimeter, the ratio of projection height to said distance being from about 1:1 to 1:7, the projections being free from surface discontinuities while the depressions contain openings of width up to that of the depression, which openings serve to accentuate the lines of the projections and depressions, thereby increasing the pleasing silk-like appearance of the ceiling tile and at the same time cooperating with the sound channelling, confining and reflecting projections to deaden undesirable noise, the tile surface projections and depressions being uninterrupted by other projections and depressions than herein described which would destroy the visu-al impression given of a silk-like surface.

6. An acoustical ceiling tile which simultaneously deadens undesirable noise and ygives a viewer the visual impression of a silk-like surface by presenting to his eyes ever-changing areas of reflected light and shadow which comprises a substantially flat, straight sided, light weight base of cellul'osic, fibrous, sound absorbent material capable of being nailed, stapled or cemented to a ceiling structure, tongue Iand groove edges on the base for interlocking said tile with other such tiles for assembly on a ceiling and a surface portion of fibrous, cellulosic sound absorbent material which comprises repeated wavy parfallel alternating projecting and depressed curvilinearly and substantially concentrically disposed areas in units of ten to fifty pairs of projections and depressions in segments of thirty to 180 degrees and containing a variety of sizes of such segments ywithin the range given, the segments ending where they contact other units of the same general type, the projections being approximately trapezoidal in cross-section, of height from one to ve millimeters, at la distance Iof one .to ive millimeters from other projections in the same unit, the ratio of projection height to said distance `being from 1:1 to 1:7, the projections being free from surface discontinuities while the depressions contain circular holes which penetrate the surface portion and the base, said holes being of a diameter of one to five millimeters `and not exceeding the distance across the depressed area, the holes serving to accentuate the curves of the projections and depressions and thereby increase the pleasing visual silk-like appearance of the ceiling tile and lat the same time cooperating with the soundproong reflecting projections to deaden undesirable noise, the tile su-race projections and depressions being uninterrupted by other projections and depressions than herein described which would destroy the visual impression given of a silk-like surface.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 420,929 Church Feb. 11, 1890 800,931 Meeker Oct. 3, 19105 2,248,233 Heritage July 8, 19'41 2,954,838 Nuorivaara Oct. 4, 1960 2,967,583 Jack Jan. 10, 1961 3,035,657 Lemon May 22, 1962 FOREIGN PATENTS 460,404 Great Britain Ian. 27, 1937 1,123,134 France cn-.-- June 4, 1956

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US420929 *Jun 22, 1889Feb 11, 1890 Ornamentation of walls
US800931 *Feb 19, 1904Oct 3, 1905William Passmore MeekerStria-finished tile.
US2248233 *Sep 10, 1938Jul 8, 1941Wood Conversion CoSurfaced wallboard and the like
US2954838 *May 8, 1956Oct 4, 1960Svenska Tandsticks AktiebolageSound deadening or absorbing wallboard
US2967583 *Sep 23, 1957Jan 10, 1961Johns ManvilleVentilating through fissured acoustical unit
US3035657 *Dec 22, 1959May 22, 1962Sidney Roofing & Paper CompanyAcoustic panel
FR1123134A * Title not available
GB460404A * Title not available
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3243932 *Dec 9, 1963Apr 5, 1966Bussey Jr HarryTile with interfitting ledges and recesses
US3422920 *Jul 1, 1965Jan 21, 1969Owens Corning Fiberglass CorpAcoustical panels
US3593819 *Oct 30, 1968Jul 20, 1971Francais IsolantsAcoustic sound-attenuating panels
US3661613 *Nov 21, 1968May 9, 1972Ksh IncDecorator panels
US3998014 *Oct 14, 1975Dec 21, 1976United States Gypsum CompanyProtective edge configuration for structural sheeting
US4261433 *Feb 12, 1979Apr 14, 1981Herman Miller, Inc.Acoustical-reflective ceiling construction
US4266382 *May 18, 1979May 12, 1981Champion International CorporationHardboard panel siding
US7059089 *Mar 20, 2000Jun 13, 2006Newmat, SaThin films containing microprojections; acoustic absorption; fineness apertures
US7467498 *Apr 5, 2005Dec 23, 2008Newmat, SaFlexible sheet materials for tensioned structures, a method of making such materials, and tensioned false ceilings comprising such materials
US8365491 *Jul 28, 2004Feb 5, 2013Schrunk Thomas RGrooved panel covering for providing a varying pattern of shading
US8454871Jul 21, 2006Jun 4, 2013Thomas R. SchrunkApparatus and method for producing light-responsive surfaces on opaque materials
US20120021242 *Mar 29, 2010Jan 26, 2012Andrey Vilenovich LyubomirskiyWall facing panel
US20120028071 *Mar 29, 2010Feb 2, 2012Andrey Vilenovich LyubomirskiyWall facing panel
Classifications
U.S. Classification428/138, D26/122, 428/141, 428/47, 52/144, 52/316
International ClassificationE04B9/04
Cooperative ClassificationE04B9/0435, E04B9/0464
European ClassificationE04B9/04E, E04B9/04J