|Publication number||US3088361 A|
|Publication date||May 7, 1963|
|Filing date||Nov 28, 1958|
|Priority date||Nov 28, 1958|
|Publication number||US 3088361 A, US 3088361A, US-A-3088361, US3088361 A, US3088361A|
|Inventors||Hallock Robert Lay|
|Original Assignee||Hallock Robert Lay|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (11), Referenced by (52), Classifications (11)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
R. L. HALLOCK DRIVEN FASTENER May 7, 1963 Filed NOV. 28, 1958 FIGB ATTORNEY United States Patent- 3,088,361 DRIVEN FASTENER Robert Lay Hallock, `32 Vine Road, Larclimont, NX. Filed Nov'.`28, 1958, Sei'. No. 777,108 6 Claims.` (Cl.'8528)` ing -structure and layers'of felt or tar paper yare bonded together by hot asphaltY or tar and in which Vroof structure the insulation in slabor -other form-'is resilient be ing composedof relativelydense fiber which can be adhesively attached or secured in place by ordinary nails or fasteners or by special nails or fasteners such as disclosed in copending'application 516,684.
Insulation used in roof construction may be of anydesired character such as Fiberglas, or other fiber or the v like'pressed into slabsto whichis glueda layer `of heavy felt.' A slab of this type of roof insulation' is unlike that'inade solelyfrom woodfber in that `it is sponge like andrieasily compressible, its layers may be easilyl separated, and since it is `elastic it springs backY or returns to its originalv shape after a compressing force is removed. Because of its particular characteristics Fiberglas `:roof`slabs cannot be satisfactorily secured by adhesive to a roof because thev layers separate in a high wind permitting the'top layer or layers to blow away. If it is nailed dowriu'sing conventional nails with large or small heads, the Aheads pull through the layers of felt when the glass wool fibers' are 'compressed' whether by they feet,wheel -barrows, or weight from ice or snow.
It is an object of the invention to provide a mechanical fastener in the form of a special nail which can be used forpositively securinginsulation, of resilient or spriiigy character and capable of being compressed but which will return to its normal position when the pressure is removed, upon the surface-of a deck or support of metal,
wood or other substance and in which the head of the nail can move .downwardly on its shank when the material is compressed and which `cannot move upwardly'above or beyond a ixed predetermined surface level of the irisulation.
Another object of the invention is to provide guide means between a movable head and the shank of a nail so that the head will at all times remain perpendicular to the shank while movable axially of the shank.y
Another-object of the invention is to provide a nail head-having a completely closed and concealed well within the' same from-whichho-t asphalt or tar are excluded and therefore cannot restrict the connection between the shank and the movable head.
A further object of the invention is to provide a heade fastener which can be rigidly secured-Ito a -wood or metal deck andv by means of which flexible or resilient insulation caribe fastened tightly against the surface of the deck in a mannerto permit the surface of the insulation as well as the nail head to be depressed simultaneously relative to the shank of the -nailwith the opening through which the nail is applied sealed at all times, and iii which the -head of the fastener is provided with `a tubular extension and of stepped diameter in order that the nail 3,088,351 Patented May 7, 1963 ICC or tubular extension may gradually penetrate rather than abruptly Aenter the insulation and create an opening of excessive size.
A further object of the invention is to provide a fastener having a shank with a small integral headv and a lar-ger hollow head with a well receiving the smaller head andreciprocable theron and which fastener can be applied by using. a conventional. hammer and without special tools and in which the smallA integral head on the end of the shank will'ibe located in the bottom of the well in the large head so that whenthe intimately united'insulation and 4large nail head are depressed they mayymove downwardly on such shank.`
A further object of the'invention is to provide a fastener of the character indicated for attaching resilient insulation such as Fiberglas or the rlike to a metal or wood g roof deck so that the headof the nail willbe flush with' the upper surface of the insulation while the small integral head ori theiend of the shank will-be located inthe bottom Vof the well of :the movable head,- and due 'to the structure of the fastener its shank can be driven through the relatively thick 4resilient insulation but its large head cannot be driven therethrough.
A further object of theinvention is to provide a driven fastener having an enlarged auxiliary head with la tubular i section of Istepped diameters and an axially movable shank with a smaller integral head on one end and a penetrating v point on thefother with the smaller head within the enlarged head, whereby the heads are free to move relative to'each-'othe'r a predetermined amount, as well as a head structure in which the edges are rolled upward to pref veiitl sharp-edges cutting into the felt of the .roof insulation slab. This '.upward turned edge also simplifies automaticassembly of the nail parts in manufacturing; OtherV objects and advantages of the invention will be apparentifromvthe following description taken in conjunction withthe i accompanying kdrawing wherein:
FIG.- 1 is a'perspective illustrating one application of the invention for use'in 'a deck of metal.`
FIG'.Y 2, a section illustrating vthe manner of fastening insulation to asheet metal deck;
FIG. 3, a modified form of fastener;
FIG.v 4, ia vertical section on the line 14-4 of FIG. v3; FIG.`5, a perspective illustrating `a plurality of integral fasteners;
FIG. 6, -a perspective of -a slightly dierent form of fastener head; and
FIG. 7, a perspective illustrating a form of invention for use in a wood, or the like, deck.
Briefly stated the invention is a driven'fastener having la shank withan elongated driving point at one'end-and i an integral head at the other. For use with a metal deck the shank is tapered sligh-tly for ja portion of its length from its driving point and suchtapered portion is provided .with lgrooves the walls of whichare disposed reversely of the taperto provide'cutting edges which cause'a solid joint with `a metal deck-or the like support.
For use-with a wood-deck-the shank preferably is of unif form diameter with or without grooves therein adjacent the point end for increasing its holdingrpower in wood with vertical grooves adjacentits head end having a smooth Vclose lit tov permit movement between the shank andthe tubular section of the head.v The device is provided Ywith lan enlarged movable auxiliary head having a well or chamber in which the integral head is slidably sealed; When the auxiliary head is in contact with the integral head a blow on the auxiliary head will force the y shank into the insulation andwdeck material. The auxiliary head is provided with a tubular extension :of stepped diameters the section of larger. diameter retaining and e `controlling the relative movement-of the heads and the D section of smaller diameter guiding and holding the nail shank perpendicular to the head at all times and in a manner so that the head will move with the insulation material to compensate for the compression thereof.
With continued reference to the drawing the nail or driven fastener of the present invention is intended for use in securing a layer of relatively resilient or compressible -insulating material directly against a support which may be a deck of wood, metal or other material, such nail or fastener comprises a shank with an elongated tapered end providing a driving point 11 and a tapered portion 12 adjacent such driving point. The shank is provided with substantially horizontal or annular grooves forming cutting edges adjacent such driving point with annular or spiral grooves as illustrated in FIG. 1.
The remote end of the nail from the driving point is provided with an integral head 13 reciprocable within a well or chamber of an enlarged auxiliary head 14. The auxiliary head is movably associated with the shank in order that the surface of the material to be held down may be depressed slightly whereupon the nail head will move down with it and then upwardly with it when the pressure is removed, the nail being intended to be used in the securing of compressible material of suflicient resiliency to yield the amount required and thereafter to return to its initial position.
The auxiliary head may be composed of metal, plastic or other suitable material of suicient strength and toughness to withstand the force to which it `is subjected when utilized in the manner indicated. Also it may be of any desired configuration, a circular head having been found particularly appropriate and satisfactory.
In order to provide a substantial bearing between the auxiliary head and the shank regardless of the relative positions of the same the bottom of the cup is provided Iwith a reduced extension 15 providing an extended reinforced bearing surface for cooperation with the shank 10, to maintain the top of the -auxiliary head and shank 4in perpendicular relation to facilitate application of the fastener. The spaces between the steps are small and provide a gentle transition to olfer little resistance to the application of the nail through the insulation material.
The auxiliary head is provided about its upper portion with an outwardly extending ange 17 which may be of circular or other desired coniiguration, such flange being adapted to provide a large larea to bear against the upper surface of the material 18, held down `by the nail or fastener. The marginal portion of the flange 17 is provided with an upwardly and inwardly turned portion 19 overlying and retaining a cap forming disk 20 in place and in a manner to completely seal the well in the auxiliary head 14. The cap 20 has a raised central portion 21 against which the head 13 is adapted to engage when the nail or sheet penetrating fastener is driven into the material and also when the movement of the material permits the head to lower.
In the driving of the nail into a metal deck the head 13 will be against or in contact with the underside of the cap 21 and upon the top of the cap being struck with a hammer, force will be imparted endwise of the shank 10 to cause it to penetrate the material 18 `and the metal or wood deck 22.
In FIG. 2 a pair of the driven fasteners are disclosed, the one to the left disclosing the material compressed by the impact of a hammer 23 with the auxiliary head lower than the surface of the insulation material. In this gure the driven fastener at the right reveals the position of the auxiliary head after the hammer pressure has been removed, the shank and integral head remaining in the same position as in FIG. l.
Instead of the auxiliary head of the nail or driven fastener being of the character disclosed in FIGS. 1 `and 2 it may be of the character disclosed in FIGS. 3 and 4 in which an auxiliary head 24 has a flange 26 of polygonal configuration and with up-struck lugs or fingers 27 employed to retain a cap 28 in FIG. 3 or 30 in FIG. 6, which cap may be of metal, plastic or other material and transparent as in the other embodiments if desired.
Auxiliary head 24 may be made similar to that of FIGS. 3 and 4 except that instead of a relatively small cap 28 held by fingers 27, it may be glued or spot welded directly to the top of ange 26 or it may be a larger cap 30 secured in the same manner. The auxiliary heads such as those of FIGS. l, 3 and 6 may be produced in strip form and joined by a weakened line.
The nail `for a wooden deck is illustrated in FIG. 7, in which event the shank is of uniform diameter and provided with vertical ribs 10A which guide the auxiliary head relative to the shank and mounted to reduce the possibility ofthe parts being bound together due to rusting or the accumulation of foreign matter between the surfaces, the vertical ribs increase the size of the shank making it possible to manufacture the nail inexpensively from wire with an enlarged diameter `along the portion having the vertical ribs. This enlarged diameter is desirable to provide a tight tit regardless of any enlargement caused by the cutting of the shank in the formation of the nail in this or another manner.
In the practice of the invention insulation is fastened tightly against a deck or support over which layers of felt `are placed and these are given a coat of asphalt or tar and the driven fastener or nails of the present invention are applied being driven by an ordinary hammer with other types of nails, the layers of felt would be punctured by the head of conventional nails upon the application of pressure suicieut to compress the insulation near the head of the nail or by the application of a persons foot, a wheel barrow or other object.
When the nail is driven by a conventional hammer the last blow of the hammer drives both the large and smaller nail heads downwardly compressing the insulation and driving the large head below the normal level of the top surface of the insulation, the raising and lowering movement of which is about 1A: inch and corresponds substantially to the depth of the concealed well within which the auxiliary head is disposed.
With applicants movable head nail the felt is not punctured because it moves downwardly when force is applied thereto sutlicient to compress the felt and it returns to its initial position when the pressure is relieved. Applicants device therefore is suitable for attachment to a metal or wood deck to secure exible insulation thereto in a manner to permit such insulation to be compressed and the head of the fastener .to move with it.
In the construction of roofs it is customary to apply a tire-proof sheet next to the deck to provide a vapor bar- -rier and on this to place exble insulation slabs with tar paper on top of the same and to nail through the tar part of the ilexi'ble insulation slab and vapor barrier sheet directly into the deck, the nails, however, sometimes leave openings through which heated asphalt could flow into the building. In order to undertake to improve the qualities of the roof a double mopping of asphalt has been employed.
The use of applicants nail or driven fastener eliminates the necessity of a double asphalt mopping as an adhesive to bond the vapor barrier to the deck and the flexible insulation slab to the vapor barrier and minimizes the possibility of flammable asphalt owing due to heat through the nail openings into the interior of a building in case of a fire within the building. Applicants driven fastener or nail hermetically seals as it penetrates the deck and firmly fastens the insulation and a vapor barrier to the deck in one operation so that there is no vapor leakage at the penetration points.
It will be obvious to those skilled in the art that various changes may be made in the invention without departing from the spirit and scope thereof and therefore the invention is not limited by that which is illustrated in the drawing and described in .the specification, but only as indicated in the `accompanying claims.
What is claimed is:
1. A fastener for attaching relatively thick resilient insulation of fiberglass or other material, having the ability to spring back after being `subjected to pressure, yto a deck or other supporting structure, `said fastener comprising a shank having a driving point at one end and its other end of a slightly larger diameter to provide a head, an auxiliary head on said shank having a relatively large thin substantially flat anged portion with a tubular relatively thin walled portion of substantially uniform internal diameter and substantially normal thereto and of substantially greater axial length than said fas-tener head in which the head of the shank is received in a manner to move freely therein and be guided and supported thereby against lateral movement, and an additional thin walled tubular portion secured -to and extending from said portion of substantially uniform internal diameter a substantial distance along said shank and of a diameter snugly to t, guide and `support said shank and serving to maintain it and said shank in driving relation relative to said auxiliary head, there being a small transition between said portion of uniform internal diameter and said extension offering minimum resistance to the penetration of the auxiliary head into the material into which the fastener is driven, the flange on said auxiliary head providing an enlarged driving area on its ysurface remote from the shank, said relatively large lat anged portion including an opening larger than said fas-tener head and `aligned with said tubular portions to receive said sh-ank portion and another member covering said opening and secured yto said first flat portion, said fastener being adapted to be applied by the application of force against said heads in a manner to cause such force to be transmitted axially to said shank so that after the fastener is applied the head of the shank will be located in the portion of uniform diameter of the auxiliary head and the auxiliary head Will be axially movable relative -to the shank and with the surface of the material into Which the fastener is driven.
2. A fastener comprising a shank having a driving point at one end, a head at its opposite end slightly larger than said shank, an auxiliary head on said shank having a relatively large thin substantially -flat ilanged portion and a tubular relatively thin walled portion normal thereto of `substantially uniform internal diameter snugly receiving the head of said shank in a manner that the latter can move freely therein and be guided and supported thereby against lateral movement, and an additional thin walled tubular portion extending from said portion of substantially uniform internal diameter a substantial distance along -said shank and of a diameter snugly Ito t, guide and support said shank and serving to maintain it and said shank in driving relation relative to said auxiliary head, there being a small transition between said portion of uniform internal diameter and said extension offering minimum resistance to the penetration of Ithe auxiliary head into the material into which the fastener is driven, the extremity of said thin walled tubular portion offering minimum resistance -to penetration of the auxiliary head into the material into which the fastener is driven, the llange on the auxiliary head providing all enlarged driving area on i-ts surface remote from said shank, said auxiliary head having an opening through said flanged portion of larger diameter ythan said fastener head and aligned with said tubular portions through which the shank portion can be inserted and a closure for said opening secured to the part of the device in which said opening is located.
3. The structure of claim 2 in which said `auxiliary hea-d includes a marginal flange retaining the closure for the head.
4. The structure of claim 2 in which said auxiliary head includes portions overlying said closure at its margin.
5. The structure of claim 2 in which said auxiliary head includes portions overlying said closure completely around its margin.
6. The structure of claim 2 in which said auxiliary head includes portions overlying said closure at spaced intervals along its margin.
References Cited in the le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 215,007 Laughlin May 6, 1879 461,523 Phelps Oct. 20, 1891 750,070 Stevenson Jan. 19, 1904 1,273,427 Von Schrenk July 23, 1918 1,619,944 Leonard Mar. 8, 1927 1,928,335 Jeffs et. al. Sept. 26, 1933 2,335,565 Gibson Nov. 30, 1943 2,528,288 Rublee Oct. 31, 1950 2,967,448 Hallock Jan. 10, 1961 FOREIGN PATENTS 344,088 England Mar. 5, 1931 252,944 Switzerland Jan. 3l, 1948
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|U.S. Classification||411/372.5, 29/432, 52/346, 52/363, 52/376, 411/923, 52/512|
|Cooperative Classification||Y10S411/923, F16B15/02|