US 3088436 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
y 7, 1963 J. LYON 3,088,436
DISPLAY INCUBATOR AND BROODER Filed April 16, 1962 2 Sheets-Sheet l INVENTOR.
I A M as LYo N May 7, 1963 J. LYON DISPLAY INCUBATOR AND BROODER x Filed April 16, 1962 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 IN V EN TOR.
$0 O/ ATTORNEY Unit? 3,088,436 Patented May 7, 1963 3,088,436 DISPLAY IN CUBATOR AND BROODER James Lyon, R0. Box 6534, San Diego, Calif. Filed Apr. 16, 1962, Ser. No. 187,744 3 Claims. (Cl. 119-37) The present invention relates to an incubator and hatcher and more particularly to a device for incubating and hatching eggs.
An object of the present invention is to provide an incubator and hatcher which is especially suitable for use in classrooms, shows, science fairs and the like, wherein there is provided excellent visibility of eggs from all sides, and wherein humidity is readily obtained, and wherein easy control of air change is readily obtainable, the present invention being constructed so that temperature adjustment can be easily made, and wherein there is improved thermostat sensitivity, the incubator and hatcher of the present invention being constructed so that there is the closest possible approximation of natural incubating conditions.
Another object is to provide an apparatus of the character described wherein no base is needed and wherein the device is portable and can fit over any suitable rack of eggs or nests, the present invention being constructed so that the heater, thermostat, display lamp and all electrical parts are mounted on the movable top of the incubator, and wherein the present invention incorporates or includes an unusual temperature control system.
Still another object is to provide a device of the character described that can be utilized speedily and with precision by even inexperienced operators.
Further objects and advantages are to provide improved elements and arrangements thereof in a device of the character described that is economical to produce, durable in form, and conducive to the most economical use of material and uniformity of members formed therefrom.
Still further objects and advantages will become apparent in the subsequent description in the specification.
In the drawings:
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of the display incubator and brooder of the present invention.
FIG. 2 is an enlarged sectional view taken on the line 22 of FIG. 1.
FIG. 3 is an enlarged sectional view taken on the line 33 of FIG. 1.
FIG. 4 is an enlarged sectional view taken on the line 44 of FIG. 1.
FIG. 5 is an enlarged sectional View illustrating certain constructional details of the present invention.
FIG. 6 is a schematic view illustrating the wiring circuit of the present invention.
Referring in detail to the drawings, the numeral 10 indicates a display incubator or brooder of the present invention which is shown to comprise a horizontally disposed circular or cylindrical rim 11, FIG. 2, and the rim 11 is provided with a plurality of spaced apart apertures 12 therein for a purpose to be later described. Securing elements 13 are operatively connected to the rim 11, and the numeral 14 indicates a cylindrical transparent wall member which may be made of a suitable material such as a suitable transparent plastic, and the lower portion of the wall member 14 engages the securing elements 13. The numeral 15 indicates a horizontally disposed top piece or support member which is suitably afiixed to the upper portion of the wall member 14.
A handle 16 is connected to the member 15 as shown in the drawings. The numeral 17 indicates a centrally disposed opening which is arranged in the top member or support member 15, and a movable plate or disk 18 is mounted for movement into and out of open and closed relation with respect to the opening 17, and the disk 18 is pivotally connected to the member 15 as at '19.
The numeral 20 indicates a tray which is arranged below the member 15, and the tray 20 is adapted to be used for supporting a plurality of eggs 21 shown in broken lines in FIG. 2. As shown in the drawings the tray 20 includes a circular wall section 22 as well as a horizontally disposed bottom wall 23 which has a plurality of spaced apart openings or apertures 24 therein. Spaced apart legs 25 may be used for supporting the tray 20 in the proper location, and the numeral 26 indicates a pan which is arranged below the tray 20, and the pan 26 is adapted to hold a quantity of water therein.
The numeral 27 indicates a bracket which is arranged within the wall member 14 below the support member 15, and as shown in the drawings the bracket 27 includes a vertically disposed first portion 28, a horizontally disposed second portion 29, and a vertically disposed short third portion 30. The numeral 31 indicates a brace or retainer which is arranged below the portion 29, and the brace 31 is adapted to be secured to the member 15 to help steady or maintain the parts in their proper position. The numeral 32 indicates a body piece which includes a horizontally disposed section 33 which is arranged below the portion 29, and the body piece 32 includes an upstanding section 34 which is arranged contiguous to the portion 30, FIG. 2.
The present invention further includes a thermostat which is indicated generally by the numeral 35 and, as shown in the drawings, the thermostat 35 includes a pair of wafers 36 which are connected to the lower end of the portion 28 as at 37. The numeral 38 indicates a U-shaped support element which is suitably alfixed to the portion 28, and an arm 39 is pivotally connected to the support element 38 as at 40. As shown in the drawings the arm 39 includes upper and lower sections 41 and 42 which are integrally connected or joined by an olfset intermediate section 43. The numeral 44 indicates a clip or holder which is suitably aflixed to the lower section 42, and a thermometer 45 is supported by the clip or holder 44. The numeral 46 indicates an adjustable screw member which extends through the lower end of the arm 39 for selective engagement and coaction with the thermostat 35.
The numeral 47 indicates a manually operable control mechanism which includes a switch unit 48 that is movably mounted between the portions 29 and 33, and projecting from the switch unit 48 and afiixed thereto is an eX- ternally threaded fitting 49, there being an opening 50 in the portion 28 for the projection therethrough of the fitting 49, FIG. 5. Extending from the fitting 49- and connected thereto is a terminal or contact 51 which is adapted to be selectively engaged by the upper portion or section 41 of the arm 39. The numeral 52 indicates a manually operable or adjustable wheel which is arranged in threaded engagement with the fitting 49, and as shown in FIG. 5, the opening 17 provides clearance or space so that a finger, such as the finger 53, can be inserted down through the opening 17 in order to manually engage and rotate the wheel 52 in order to provide a convenient means for adjusting the mechanism 47 as desired or required.
The numeral 54 indicates input wires or lines which extend through a suitable opening such as the opening 55 in the member 15, and the wires 54 are adapted to be connected to a suitable source of electrical energy. FIG. 6 illustrates schematically a wiring diagram wherein the numerals 56 and 57 indicate heating elements which are electrically connected in the circuit, and the numerals 58 and 59 indicate lamps which are electrically connected in the circuit, and the lamps 58 and 59 may be a pilot light and display light respectively.
As shown in FIG. 2, a plurality of spaced apart insulatcd bushings 60 are suitably connected to the support member and depend therefrom for use in supporting the heating elements 56 and 57.
From the foregoing, it will be seen that there has been provided a display incubator and brooder, and in use with the parts arranged as shown in the drawings, eggs such as the eggs 21 are adapted to be incubated and hatched, and the incubator and hatcher of the present invention is especially suitable for use in classrooms, shows, science fairs and the like. With the present invention the miracle of birth is illustrated graphically from the first pip of the egg, the struggle of the chick to escape its prison shell, and finally the fiuffy dried chick so enchanting to children and the young at heart. The present invention can also be used for bacteria culture and seed sprouting experiments.
The present invention offers a close approximation of natural incubating conditions and simulates those conditions found in modern incubators. The present invention provides a constant, always available, body of heat with which to cover the eggs, and this body of heat is not lost and no time is required for its replacement, when eggs are turned or humidity adjusted. The device has concentrated capacity and is small in size and yet has a capacity to handle a considerable quantity of hen eggs. The incubator provides excellent visibility of eggs from all sides so that for example youngsters can surround it and all have a good view if it is placed at a suitable height. Humidity is easily obtained with the transparent device, and the size of the water pan 26 can be varied as desired or required. Easy control of air change is another advantage, and the vent cover 18 at the center top is very effective and is quickly adjusted. Temperature adjustment is easily made and less critical, and this adjustment is protected from the tampering and damage experienced with adjustment screws. The adjustment wheel 52 is located under the handle 16, and this adjustment provides a vernier adjustment which allows considerable movement so as to prevent a radical change in temperature occurring too quickly.
Some of the features or important advantages of the present invention are as follows. The element 18 functions as an adjustable vent, the light 58 serves as a pilot lamp or light, and the lamp 59 serves as a display light. The thermometer 45 is free of the tray. The wall 14 is made of clear plastic material, and the rim 11 is reversible. As shown in FIG. 5 the finger 53 can be inserted down through the opening 17 to rotate the wheel 52 and this provides convenient finger-tip temperature control. The heating element in the electrical circuit such as that shown in FIG. 6 provides long life non-glow heat. The thermostat 35 is of the extra sensitive type. The thermostat has associated therewith a high degree of sensitivity and wherein the thermostat includes the wafers 36 which are arranged near the level of eggs 21 with minimum obstruction to view of the eggs. Lighting of the egg tray uses a special circuit as shown in FIG. 6, and when the pilot light and heater element goes olf, the other lamp becomes brighter to maintain constant illumination and more constant temperature and it is always possible to read the thermometer 45. The present invention can also serve as a brooder and when being used as a brooder it is only necessary :to reverse or remove the bottom rim 11 and place the device on blocks.
When using the present invention, the egg tray with the moisture pan 26 therebeneath is adapted to be arranged on a suitable supporting structure such as a layer of cardboard, blotter paper or cloth placed on a table of a suitable height, and then the incubator including the wall 14 is lowered over the tray 20 and the parts are centered as shown in FIG. 2. The incubator cord 54 is adapted to be plugged into a suitable electrical outlet, and sutficient time is allowed for heat-up and then the thermostat 35 is adjusted to a temperature such as 102, and the temperature range is adapted to be 102 to 104'. To adjust the temperature, the user should make sure that both lamps 58 and 59 are on and then the user should wait until the thermometer 45 shows the temperature desired. Next, the vent 18 is opened, and the finger such as the finger 53 is inserted through the opening 17 so as to turn the notched wheel 52 and this wheel is adapted to be turned in such a direction until one light goes olf. The first heat-up may cause an overshoot of temperature and it is then necessary to again adjust the device and allow several hours for the temperature to stabilize before putting eggs in the tray. The vent cover 18 is adapted to be moved back to its original position after a temperature adjustment, and care should be exercised to avoid rough handling of the device. The upper portion of the wall 14 will have a tendency to become warm and this condition is normal and necessary to keep this portion of the plastic clear of fogging or water condensation for good visibility.
To adjust the ventilation, the element 18 can have its position changed and the element or cover 18 can be kept closed during the early stage of incubation, and very little opening of the top center hole 17 is requiredthereafter. An opening as small as 41 inch is sufliciently effective in increasing the size of the egg air cell in accordance with a chart which may be provided With the present invention.
During incubation, air cell development is adapted to be checked with a candler to determine whether air change is required to dry down (enlarge air cell). In cold rooms '(such as during the night) the vent should be closed if incubation is progressing normally.
To control the humidity, it is only necessary to increase or decrease the area of water under the egg tray, and for average requirements a seven-inch pan is usually ample. In very dry rooms the present invention can be placed for use with a twelve-inch or larger pan of water about one-half inch deep. All the area under the eggs will help provide moisture and the incoming air through the small holes 12 in the rim 11 will flow directly over the water. For high humidity, the vent 18 is kept almost closed. High humidity helps hatching, but too much moisture during incubation prevents proper enlargement of the egg air cell.
With regard to the handling of the eggs, for incubation eggs are adapted to be laid in the tray. If the eggs are packed tightly, the large end thereof is kept higher. Eggs are adapted to be turned morning and evening and at noon if desired. When turning, the position and location of each egg is adapted to be changed. On the eighteenth day the infertile eggs are adapted to be removed and the dead embryos are removed and this is brought about by checking all the eggs with alight.
For hatching, the pre-incubated eggs are laid flat in the tray, and eggs need not be turned after the eighteenth day, and chicks should break out of shells by themselves since if they are helped out they generally are cripples.
Since baby chicks should be kept warm, the present invention can be used within an enclosure such as an open top 2 ft. x 2 ft. carton, and the rim 11 can be used or removed and by removing the rim the heat can be brought closer to the floor. The device can be arranged so that the lower edge of the wall portion 14 engages blocks which may be an inch or two high and the temperature can be maintained at the desired level, and the chicks can be given feed and their bills dipped in water before they are three days old.
Maintenance is relatively simple when using the present invention, and the incubator tray can be cleaned readily after use. The plastic Wall 14 can be readily wiped clean with a cloth when necessary.
Some of the other important features or advantages of the present invention are as follows. The device has no base and it is portable and fits over any suitable rack of eggs or nest, and this feature makes it particularly valuable in dry climate because the entire area of the incubator can be water surface with the eggs supported a little above the Water.
In addition, the heater, thermostat, and display lamp and all the electrical parts are mounted on the movable top of the incubator, and primarily the present invention is a display device with a simple but unusual circuit.
Also, the present invention incorporates unusual temperature control mechanism, and the temperature adjustment is practically tamper-proof since it is below the surface and does not invite handling as does an adjustment screw. Also, the sensitive element of the thermostat is located near the egg level and its action is transmitted to the adjustment portion by a simple leverage used in conjunction with a switch whose position is adjusted by a simple but unique arrangement. The device is of generally cylindrical formation.
With further reference to the drawings, it will be noted that with the device connected to a suitable source of electrical energy, heat will cause the wafers 36 to expand or contract so as to selectively move the screw 46 which is mounted in the lower end of the arm 39, and the screw 46 can be adjusted as desired or required. This action will result in pivotal movement of the arm 39 about an axis extending through the pivot pin 40, so that the upper section 41 will move into and out of engagement with the contact 51 whereby opening and closing of the electrical circuit by means of the switch 48 will be accomplished as the arm 39 is caused to pivot. By rotating the wheel 52 as previously described, the switch 48 can be shifted back and forth so as to vary the particular location of the contact 51 and this provides an adjustment means since it provides a method whereby actuation of the switch 48 can be varied by rotating the wheel 52 since the distance that the section 41 must move to engage the contact 51 can be varied or regulated as desired.
Minor changes in shape, size and rearrangement of details coming within the field of invention claimed may be resorted to in actual practice, if desired.
What is claimed is:
1. A display incubator and brooder comprising a circular rim having a plurality of spaced apart apertures therein, securing elements connected to said rim, a transparent cylindrical wall member extending upwardly from said rim and said wall member having its lower portion engaging said securing elements, a horizontally disposed support member mounted in the upper portion of said wall member, a handle connected to said support member, there being a centrally disposed opening in said support member, a vent cover pivotally connected to said support member and said vent cover being mounted for movement into and out of open and closed position with respect to said opening in the. support member; a tray arranged below said support member for holding a plurality of eggs therein, a pan of water arranged below said tray, a bracket arranged below said support member and said bracket including a vertically disposed first portion, a horizontally disposed second portion, and a vertically disposed third portion; a thermostat connected to the lower end of the first portion of the bracket, a support element connected to the first portion of the bracket, an arm pivotally connected to said support element, an adjustable screw member extending through the lower end of the arm for coaction and engagement with the thermostat, a holder connected to the lower portion of said arm, a thermometer supported by said holder; a manually operable control mechanism comprising a switch unit which is movably mounted below the second portion of the bracket, said switch unit including an externally threaded fitting, there being an opening in the first portion of said bracket for the projection therethrough of said fitting, a contact extending from said fitting for selective engagement by the upper end of the arm, a manually operable adjustable wheel arranged in engagement with said fitting, and said wheel being adapted to be engaged by a finger inserted through the opening in the support member, and an electrical circuit including input wires and a pilot light and display light and heating element.
2. The structure as defined in claim 1 wherein said tray includes a bottom wall having a plurality of spaced apart apertures therein.
3. The structure as defined in claim 1 wherein said thermometer includes a sensitive element which is arranged adjacent the level of eggs in the tray.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 938,271 Perkins Oct. 26, 1909 1,063,555 Dittbrenner July 23, 1912 2,764,959 Church Oct. 2, 1956 2,939,423 Luce June 7, 1960