US 3089248 A
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May 14, 1963 A. S. HAGGAR MATRIX FOR DETERMINING CUTS ON PATTERN CAMS Filed NOV. 10, 1960 W32 4 /6 2 0 30 I i if 227; o n l// .2
l 52 1g :Y 14 I 6 I N VEN TOR. AL/WEO 5. #4664? A 7511 474 MW United States 3,089,248 MATRIX FOR DETERMINING CUTS ON PATTERN CAMS Alfred S. Haggai", Paterson, NJ. (57 Mandate Drive, Wayne, NJ.) Filed Nov. 10, 1960, Ser. No. 68,465 13 (llaims. (til. 33-1'74-) This invention relates to improved pattern cams for Warp knitting machines, such as Raschel machines, and, more particularly to a matrix for preparing improved pattern cams for actuating the warp guide bars.
The present invention is concerned primarily with warp knitting machines of the type which generally comprise a pair of end frames supporting one or more needle bars and one or more horizontal warp guide bars. As well known, the needle bars are arranged for upward and downward movement which is effected by suitable cams and linkage. The guide bars are arranged for forward and backward rocking motion whereby the guides are moved to and fro between the needles, this motion being effected by a cam and linkage which while forming no part of this invention serve to impart motion to the guide bar. It is also well known that the guide bars are arranged for endwise patterning motion thereby enabling the guides to move longitudinally with respect to the needles, the latter motion being effected by a pattern cam chain formed of individual chain links.
The motion of the needle bar and the motions of the guide bar are timed so that, when the needles move upwardly towards the guides, the guides swing rearwardly through the needles. Because of the shape of the cam required for effecting rocking movement of the guides, the guides move most rapidly just before and after they have reached their rearmost position and remain at their rearmost position only momentarily. While in this position the guides are moved transversely with respect to the needles, either towards the left or the right. In order to effect such longitudinal movement while the rocking motion of the guides momentarily has ceased, the guide bar must be moved very rapidly. Since the cam contour of the pattern cam is utilized to effect such longitudinal movement, the rapidity of the movement is limited by the permissible change of such cam contour. Each guide bar is moved longitudinally individually by its own pattern cam.
The present invention is primarily concerned with a matrix for producing improved pattern cams of the chainlink type for efiecting the longitudinal movement of the guide hat.
During the knitting operation or cycle, each guide bar receives two kinds of actions or motions. One kind of action or motion is necessary to carry the threads back and forth between the needles, and this motion is known as laying-in motion; and, the other kind of action or motion is an endwise patterning motion occurring when the thread guides are in front and to the rear of the needles, and this motion which is effective to lap the threads around is known as knitting. motion.
The chains which are composed of the pattern cams are not concerned with a knitting operation but are solely concerned with a laying-in operation or locking-in work. During knitting, the patterning cams are driven continuously by suitable means geared to the driving mechanism of the warp knitting machine. The patterning cams are composed of a large number of individual links which are coupled together by suitable pins or pintles. The patterning cams control the motion of the guide bar so as to permit yarn to be laid across the needles for laying-in and to provide a pattern in the fabric after which a knit- 3 ,689,248? Patented May 14, 1963 ice ting action takes place and holds the laid-in threads in place to produce patterned knitted cloth.
The chain links which act as cam surfaces effect the desired endwise movement of the guide Ibars during the knitting cycle, and the cam surfaces of the chain links vary in height to place the guide bars in several positions. In the normal operation of the Raschel machines, the chain links are provided with one surface having an increasing height and when the guide bars are moved on the inclined surface, the operation of laying-in yarn occurs. The chain links then have a surface of substantially fixed or constant height curved to the contour of a drum on which the links are positioned for maintaining the guide bars in a pre-set position in accordance with the substantially fixed or constant height; the dwell or pre-set portion which has a substantially fixed or constant height may also be considered to be a top substantially flat curved surface which is the highest part of each chain link and while the guide bar cooperates with this surface, the knitting motion or action takes place. The other end of the link may be provided with a decreasing or sloping cam surface so as to provide an abrupt end face which permits a return spring to move the guide bars rapidly in an opposite direction to commence the next cycle and engage the increasing surface of the next chain link. In some cases, the other end of the link may be straight and not provided with a sloping cam surface depending upon the height of the next cam which is determined by the number of needle jumps. The next following cam may be the same height, lower or higher. The important point is that there must 'be a smooth transition from one cam to the next following cam to effect the desired laying-in of yarn in accordance with the pat tern to be made.
As is well known in warp knitting machines, a considerable quantity of the chain links must be used which are hand out or hand fabricated in a cut-and-dry fashion or manner in order to obtain various designs or patterns in the knitted goods. Each chain link now used generally includes a tongue portion and a groove portion together with an intermediate portion joining the tongue portion to the groove portion. When a complete chain is made composed of the individual chain links, it is evident that the tongue of one link is in mating or tongue and groove relationship both with the prior and the next link so that the tongue portion of each link and groove portion of each link must always extend in the same direction. As mentioned heretofore, each alternate link may have one surface of increasing height, one surface of decreasing height and an intermediate portion which is known as the dwell portion. The other alternate links also have the dwell portions and two other portions which cooperate with the surfaces of increasing and decreasing height of the first-mentioned links. The portions of increasing and decreasing height are hand cut in accordance with the particular design or pattern to be knitted. The increasing portion determines the extent of lateral movement of the guide bar in a first or forward direction to control the position at which the guide enters between two needles to perform the laying-in operation. It will be evident that the slope of increasing portion varies in accordance with the position of the point at which the guide is to effect the knitting operation. Also, in any particular design or pattern the first portion of the links will vary. The slope of the decreasing portion will also vary in accordance with a second lateral movement required of the guide bar in a second or return direction and the slope of the increasing portion which depends upon the dwell portion of the next link. As mentioned heretofore, a further variable is the height of the intermediate dwell portion of each link. Consequently, it will be noted that each link has three variables and it is usually difiicult to reuse all of the links of the chain once it has been dis mantled. I
When using the Raschel warp knitting machines, there are many instances when it becomes necessary to change the pattern or design of the knitted material to be manufactured. One of the fixed costs in connection with the manufacture of knitted material is the time element in preparing and the cost of purchasing new links having the desired cam surfaces to provide the new pattern or design.
It will be evident that one of the problems in connection with the preparation of the cam chain is in connection with the cutting of the various links. Heretofore, this was a problem of considerable difiiculty and in many instances involved trial and error. Previously, because of the various haphazard cuts which were made on the links, as will be described infra, it was usually difficult to reuse links from a previous pattern cam chain. Furthermore, when attempting to resue a link from a previous chain, further cuts were made whether necessary or not to lower the height of the tongue and groove.
In order to overcome the foregoing difiiculties and problems in the prior art, the present invention proposes to provide a matrix plate, by means of which the cuts for adjacent links can be readily ascertained and thereby eliminate any guess work.
' Another important factor is the point at which the cam follower commences to climb on the tongue portion of the link for the laying-in of the yarn. The cam follower or ball must hit the low link and be clear of the part which is ground on the high link. In this respect, the ball or cam follower might hit the high link before the low link and then start to climb, and such climb would take place too early. If the climb takes place too early the step of laying-in yarn is commenced too early. With the present invention, the exact point of the climb is determined from the matrix plate. It will therefore be evident that it is unimportant whether the groove portion or the tongue portion of two adjacent links are not matched; the important point is that the commencement of the climb take place at the proper time interval. Another feature of the invention is that the ball or cam follower must always hit the last point at which a knitting action is to take place. Accordingly, it is therefore possible to ascertain with accuracy the exact length of the fiat curved portion or dwell portion of the link. Heretofore, this was only determinable by means of trial and error. The machine surface of the link is the flat curved portion or dwell portion during which the knitting action takes place.
It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide a pattern cam for warp knitting machines and the like which is not subject to the foregoing difficulties and disadvantages.
Another object is to provide a chain link having a cam surf-ace thereon with a greater degree of interchangeability.
A further object is to provide an improved chain link which can be used with either new warp knitting machines or existing warp knitting machines of various types.
Another object is to reduce the idle time required to prepare a new cam chain for warp knitting machines.
Yet a further object of the present invention is to provided an improved method of simply and cutting each link of the cam chain.
Yet another object of the present invention is the provision of an improved cam chain link which is of simple design and construction, economical to manufacture and highly eflicient in the accomplishment of its intended purpose.
In accordance with the present invention, the foregoing objects are accomplished by providing a matrix to deter mine with extreme accuracy the portion of the link to be cut so that the first cut made on the cam link is satis- 4 factory. Furthermore, it is not necessary to efiect any further cuts on any of the links after the cam chain is placed onto the drum of the warp-knitting machines. A further feature of the present invention is the method of simply and accurately cutting links in accordance with the needle jumps to be made by the guide bar.
The objects, advantages and nature of the invention Will be more fully understood from the following description of the preferred embodiments of the invention, shown, by way of example in the accompanying drawing, in which:
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of the matrix plate.
FIG. 2 is a plan view of the matrix plate with the links shown in position prior to cutting thereof to ascertain the exact point of rise or laying-in of yarn, and
FIG. 3 is a plan view of the matrix plate with the links shown in position subsequent to cutting thereof indicating the manner in which each cam links forms a continuous cam surface with an immediately adjacent cam link.
Referring now more particularly to the drawings which illustrate the best modes now contemplated for carrying out the invention, FIG. 1 indicates a matrix plate 1!), preferably having two angularly disposed grooves 12 and 1d, the matter of ascertaining the exact geometric relationship of these grooves will be explained hereinafter. A center line 16 is first drawn or inscribed on the plate, and the plate will include this center line as a reference line. In this respect, it is important to note that the drum carrying the links to position them for engaging the guide bar has a diameter such that 16 links form a complete chain thereby indicating that each link occupies 22 /2 on the arc of the circle of the drum. On plate MB on a flat face surface 34 thereof two lines are scribed which are spaced six angular degrees from line 16 and these are designated 18 and 26*. Lines 18 and 20 also are projections of the radii of the circle of the drum carrying the cam chain and are spaced 6 from the line 16 which is a projection also of a radius of the cam link carrying drum (not shown). Between lines 18 and 2% there is a twelve degree arc, and this arc indicates the machine surface or dwell portion of a link which is placed on studs or pins 22 and 24. Pins 22 and 24 fit within apertures in the links which are provided for coupling adjacent links together by pins or pintles.
Plate it? is shown as provided with grooves 12 and 14 for a purpose to be described ftu'ther hereinafter. Inscribed within grooves 12 and 14 are lines 3% and 32, respectively; when grooves 12 and 14 are not provided and plate It) having a continuous flat face surface 34- is provided, then lines 3t) and 32 are also inscribed on the fiat face surface in a manner similar to lines 18 and 20. Line 30 is spaced 22 /2 from line 18 and line 32 is spaced 22% from line 2 .9 and form projections of radii of the circle of the drum carrying the links. Plate 10 is lso provided with two additional pins 26 and 28. Pins 22, 2. 26 and 28 form an arc of a circle when connected; the last-mentioned circle is concentric with the circle of the outer surface of the drum.
Referring now more particularly to FIGS. 2 and 3 f the drawing, plate Sill may carry three links A, B and C which are positioned to simulate their position on the drum of the knitting machine (not shown) on pins 22 and 24 for the center link B, pins 24 and 2-8 for the right link A and pins 26 and 22. for the left link C. Link A is the link immediately following link B and link C is the link immediately preceding link B which are placed onto the plate it) in the exact manner and order in which they rest on the outer periphery of the cam carrying drum. It will be evident that the order could be reversed so long as the order of the links is maintained in the same order as on the drum.
It is therefore possible with plate 14? of FIG. 1 to determine with accuracy the point at which a cut is to take plate in order to ascertain without any guess Work or conjecture the exact point to cut the high link 13 so as to meet the cam surfaces of links A and C to provide a continuous cam surface.
Referring now more particularly to FIG. 2 of the draw ing which illustrates plate lit with links A, B and C positioned on pins 22, 24, 26 and 28 so as to locate links A, B and C in their exact relationship. -In addition, a ball 49 is provided when plate ltl is provided with grooves 12 and 14 which is capable of sliding within grooves 12 and 14 in order to locate center lines 30 and 32 with extreme accuracy. It will be evident that when ball 40 makes a point contact with the top portion of link B, such point which is point of tangency for the top surface of link B with ball 40, the exact point of intersection of the center lines 30 and 32 are located. It will be noted that links A and C each has a height which is less than the height of link B. When ball 40 contacts the top surface of link B as shown in its position in groove 12, the point of contact when projected vertically will locate one point 42 in order to commence the cutting operation on the tongue portion of link B. The other point 4-4 on link B to commence the cutting operation on the tongue portion is located by means of line 26 on plate 1%. The tongue portion of link B is cut from the top surface 54 thereof from the point 44 to point 42 so as to remove a substantially triangularly-shaped or pie-shaped portion. In a similar manner, ball 40 may be placed into groove 14 in order to ascertain the part of the groove portion of link B which is to be cut so as to provide the proper transition from link C to B to form a continuous cam surface. Accordingly, the groove portion is cut from point 46 to point 48 with point 46 being located by means of ball 40 and point 48 being located by mean sof inscribed line 18.
When plate N is not provided with grooves 12 and 14, ball 49 may be omitted and inscribed lines 30 and 32 may be used to locate points 42 and 46. Points 44 and 48 are located in the same manner as described here tofore when grooves 12 and 14 are provided. It will also be evident that even when grooves 12 and 14 are provided, lines 30 and 32 may be projected onto link B to locate points of cut 42 and 46. Link B may be cut in such a manner so that the tail end of its tongue and groove portions are beneath the top surface 52 and 54 of links A and C, respectively, and the cut takes place between line 28 and the projection of the normal defined by line 3% to the line of tangency with link A and between line 18 and the projection of the normal defined by line 32 to the line of tangency with link C. So long as the tongue portion of link B is out below the groove portion end of link A and the groove portion of link B is out below the tongue portion of link C, the mating portions will be satisfied. While link B may be out below the top surface 52 and 54 of links A and C, it may also be cut to the top surfaces 52 and 54 surface with links A and C. In many instances, ball 40 will contact the edge of the tongue or groove portion of link B so that there will be no point of tangency as such. In this particular instance, ball or cylinder 40 may be used to locate the center line on links A and C directly by means of the point of tangency therewith, and link B is cut from lines 18 and to lines 32 and 30, respectively, so that ball 40 will be normal to the side of the cut portion.
Referring now more particularly to FIG. 3 which illustrates links A, B and C with link B cut to provide a continuous cam surface, it will be noted that ball 40* is shown in groove 14 with the groove end of link B cut to point 46 which coincides with the top surface 54 of link C. In this position ball 4! is tangent to the top portion 54 of link C and to the descending surface 56 of link B so that there is no abrupt change in the height of the cam surface from link C to link B. For link A, it will be noted that the top surface 52 thereof is higher than point 42, and the tongue portion of link B with descending surface 58 may be considered to have been undercut. When the tongue portion of link B is undercut in this manner as shown by means of edge or point of cut 42 to leave surface 58, the cam follower on the guide bar of the Raschel machines will not jump or have any lost-motion imparted thereto after it has made contact with the top portion or surface 52 of link A and just prior to the point of commencement of its contact with surface 58 on the tongue portion of link B. In a similar manner, if surface 56 were undercut so that point 46 were below top portion 54 of link C, there would be no jumping or lost-motion imparted to the guide bar.
Heretofore, both sides of the links were not cut in the same manner. It is now possible to cut the links in the same manner since the exact point of rise and the exact point of fall are accurately determinable without guesswork. Once the dwell portion between lines 18 and 20 during which knitting action takes place, i.e. the portion during which the needles carry the yarn is accurately determined for each link, the knitting action is also accurately determined. With plate 10 the knitting action takes place as mentioned heretofore between lines 18 to 20*,
that is along the top curved machine surface of the link.
If for example, the groove portion of link A were lower than the tongue portion of link B, the cylinder 40 which represents the cam follower of the guide bar might hit the high portion on the tongue of link B thereby causing a lost motion to be imparted to the guide bar so that the guide bar will be delayed and prevailed from proceeding in its normal manner. If this happens, then the cylinder cam follower would start to climb, i.e. the cam follower for the guide bar would start to climb too soon. After completion of a knitting action for link A which should occur when cylinder 40 defines and locates the center line 30 to define the end of the dwell portion for link A.
For the sake of further explanation, let it be assumed that cylinder 40 engages the top portion 52 of link A but does not engage the top portion 58 of the tongue portion of link B, then there is no necessity to cut link B. A further requirement is that the cylinder 40, while being slid along the groove 12 so as to be placed into contact with top portion 52, does not at any point hit the side of the tongue portion of link B prior to contacting top portion 52. If the cylinder 49 at any time contacts the side portion 58 of the tongue portion of link B it must be a smooth contact without any raising or removing of the cylinder 40 from the top surface portion 52 of link A. Consequently, if link A has a height to the top surface 52 for a six needle jump and link B has a height for an 18 cam or 9 needle jump with the tongue portion thereof cut down to an 8, 6 or 4 cam or 4, 3 or 2 needle jump, such link may be used with link A. The plate 10 is also effective to indicate when the cut on the tongue portion of link B can be used with a particular link A.
Referring again to FIG. 2, and particularly link B which is shown uncut, for the purpose of explanation, it will be noted that there is a portion of the link which was cut previously. The top surface 50 of link B may be arcuate and uniformly curved in a manner similar to links A and C or partially cut as shown. When link B is partially cut as shown on the tongue portion thereof, it is believed to be evident that this link was cut previously to match with another link. If desired, link B can again have its tongue portion cut to be matched with another link having a smaller number of needle jumps. The groove portion of link B is shown without any previous cut, and it will be evident that if no previous out were made on the tongue portion then the tongue portion would be arcuately continuous with the groove portion. Accordingly, the matrix plate 10 is usuable to effect further cuts on links which were previously cut for a different pattern.
While link B is cut between points 44 and 4-2, and 48 and 46 with point 42 showing an under cut point and point 46 showing a point of tangency between sloping surface 56 and top surface 54, both the tongue and groove portions of link B may be under cut or out to the topsurfaces 52. and 54 of links A and C, respectively. Taking the groove portion of link B, lines 18 and 32 may be used to determine the two points on groove portion of link B which are to be used to ascertain the line of cut. In this. manner, surfaces 54- and 56 will form a continuous cam; surface with the surface 56 merging smoothly into surface 54 as will be seen from FIG. 3.
Link B is related to link C, the next following link, in the same manner as described heretofore in connection With the relationship of link B to link A.
It is important to appreciate that if the ball or cylinder 40 hits the lower link and does not contact the tongue or groove portion of the higher link, there is no need to cut the link. If the ball in some instance should hit the tongue or groove portion of link B, then it is necessary to cut the tongue or groove portion so that there will be a continuous cam follower movement of the guide bar to link C from link B or from link A to link B.
The present invention finds its greatest applicability in forming the tongue and groove cuts of high links where the needle must make more than 14 canr unit jumps or 7 needle jumps. Previously, it was necessary to cut from one link to the next link. Now, with the present invention, it is possible to out without going to the next link and out deeper than the top of the next link. The only criteria is that the surface from one link to the next link must be continuously smooth surface since the pattern cam chain acts as a cam which is its primary purpose.
It will also be evident, as mentioned heretofore, that a line which is a projection of a radius of the cylinder carrying the cam links and located in the grooves 12 and 14 may be used or the cylinder 4%) may be used to locate the exact spot of the beginning of the travel of the guide bar to the next laying-in point between 2 needles. The guide bar travels on the tongue and/ or groove portion of the link and the knitting action occurs between the tongue and groove portion or dwell portion on the top portion of link B and of similar dwell portions on links A and C.
While there has been described what is at present considered to be the preferred embodiment of this invention, it will be obvious to those skilled in the art that various changes and modifications may be made therein without departing from the scope of the invention.
It will be evident that other means may be used to locate the projection of lines 3d and 32 on the tongue and groove portions of link B. For example a template may be used on top of plate lit to extend the projection of lines and 32 on link B.
What is claimed is:
l. A matrix plate for preparing cam links of a pattern cam chain comprising, a plate, said plate including at least three studs, said links being provided with openings for receiving said studs, one of said studs projecting through an opening in each of said links and means associated with said plate to indicate a beginning and a termination of a dwell .portion on one of said links, said means including inscribed lines on said plate forming projections of a radii of a circle spaced 12 degrees from each other.
2. A matrix plate as claimed in claim 1, including an additional line forming a projection of another radius of the circle to indicate the termination of the dwell portion of said other link, said additional line being spaced 22 /2 degrees from the line indicating the termination of the dwell portion of said first link.
3. A matrix for use in preparing cam links of a pattern cam chain for knitting machines having a pattern cam chain drum of an outer circumference forming a drum circle and adapted to support sixteen links thereabout, each link having a dwell portion of twelve degrees, and each alternate link has a first portion and a second portion which forms a continuous cam surface with the dwell portion of each adjacent link, said matrix comp-rising a plate, at least three pins normally disposed on said plate and spaced on an arc of a circle which is concentric with the drum circle, at least two links having apertures therein for engagement with said pins, first and second lines inscribed on said plate and forming projections of the radii of the drum circle, said first and second lines being spaced 12 degrees from each other and defining the dwell portion of one of said links, said first line locating the beginning of the dwell portion and said second line defining the termination of the dwell portion of one of said links, and means on said plate spaced 22 /2 degrees from said first line locating the beginning of the dwell portion of said other link.
4. A method of preparing cam chain links of a pattern knitting cam chain, comprising the steps of positioning at least two adjacent links on a matrix plate having means thereon to position the links in accordance with their operative position, the matrix plate having means thereon to indicate the beginning of the dwell portion of one link and the termination of the dwell portion of the other link, and cutting one of said links from the beginning of the dwell portion to a point on the top surface of the other link.
5. A method of preparing cam chain links each having a dwell portion for a pattern knitting cam chain, comprising positioning two adjacent links on a matrix plate for holding the links in operative relationship relative to each other, marking the beginning of the dwell portion on one of said links, marking the termination of the dwell portion on the other of said links and cutting one of said links between the marking on said two links to provide a continuous cm surface between the dwell portions of each of said links.
6'. A method as claimed in claim 5, including the step of providing inscribed lines on said matrix plate to indicate the beginning and termination of the dwell portions of the links.
7. A method as claimed in claim 5, including the step of providing a cam roller slidable relative to said matrix plate to indicate the beginning and termination of the dwell portions of said links.
8. A matrix plate for use in preparing cam links of a pattern cam chain for warp knitting machines having a pattern drum, each of said links having a tongue portion, a groove portion and an intermediate portion having a dwell surface, said matrix plate comprising a base element having positioning pins projecting therefrom, said pins being located on an arc of a circle concentric with the arc of the circle of the pattern drum, first means associated with said base indicating the termination and beginning of the dwell surface of one of said links, second means associated with said base element indicating the termination of the dwell surface of a second of said links and third means associated with said base element indicating the beginning of the dwell surface of a third of said links.
9. A matrix plate as claimed in claim 8, wherein said first, second and third means includes means inscribed on said base and forming extensions of radii of the drum circle.
10. A matrix plate as claimed in claim 8, in which said first means includes means inscribed on said base and forming extensions of radii of the drum circle, and said second and third means each includes a channel, a cam roller slidable within said channel and providing point contact with the dwell surfaces of said second and third links at the termination and beginning of the dwell surfaces of said second and third links, respectively.
11. A matrix plate as claimed in claim 10, in which said cam roller has a central point movable within said channel along an extension of the radii of the drum circle.
12. A matrix plate as claimed in claim 8 in which said first means includes inscribed lines positioned 12 degrees from each other and form radial projections of the radii of the drum circle.
13. A matrix plate as claimed in claim 8, in which 9 10 the first means indicating the termination of the dwell References Cited in the file of this patent surface of said one link is spaced 22 /2 degrees from said UNHED STATES PATENTS second means and indicating the beginning of the dwell s rface of said one link is spaced 22 /2 degq'ces from 1,697,081 Page 1929 said third means, respectively, on projections of the radii 5 1,831,608 Reynold-s 1931 of the drum circle. 2,990,703 Bialostok July 4, 1961