US 3090164 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 21, 1963 N. NELSSON 3,090,164
WALL CONSTRUCTION AND RESILIENT RUNNER THEREFOR Filed Sept. 25, 1961 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR. Nels Nelsson May 21, 1963' N. NELSSON 3,090,164
WALL CONSTRUCTION AND RESILIENT RUNNER THEREFOR Filed Sept. 25. 1961 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 FIG.4 FIG.5
INVENTR. W 2 Nels Nelsson United States Patent 90,164 WALL CONSTRUCTION AND RESILIENT RUNNER THEREFOR Nels Nelsson, Des Plaines, ll l assignor to United States I The present invention relates to wall and ceiling constructions of the wallboard type and more particularly to a resilient runner for use in such constructions.
Wall framing of 2 x 4 wooden support members is common in most wall and ceiling constructions. In the wallboard type of wall and ceiling construction the frame of wooden support members supports and is covered by gypsum wallboard which may, by way of example, be a single layer of gypsum wallboard or a two-ply construction of a gypsum backing board surfaced with a layer of gypsum wall board. Such wall and ceiling structure is widely used because it is sturdy, inexpensive and easy to construct. However, its use in commercial buildings such as apartments and multi-unit constructions has been somewhat restricted because it offers low resistance to sound transmission and thereby fails to secure the privacy generally preferred by the'occupants of such buildings.
Several attempts have been made to solve this problem. One method is the so-called staggered-stud system. In this system the support members are staggered in that they are spaced and arranged in such a manner that every other support member is coplanar, while adjacent support members are off-set relative to each other. This results in the two separate, opposed rows of support members, one row of support members supporting wallboard for one side of the wall and the other row of support members supporting wallboard for the other side of the wall. This tends to permit each side of the wall to vibrate independently and, therefore, be substantially acoustically independent. However, such a construction requires twice the number of support members normally used in wall construction and therefore results in a considerable increase in expense. Furthermore, such a system cannot be adapted for practical application in ceiling constructions.
Another method is the so-called slotted stud system. In this system, the wooden support member is slotted by a saw or other means along its length except at its end to divide the support member into two portions separated by an interposed air space. This permits the two portions of the support member to resonate substantially independently of each other and thus be substantially acoustically independent. The wallboard is applied to such support members as in the normal wooden support member partition system. A distinct disadvantage of the slotted stud system however is that care must be exercised when applying the wallboard or wall-defining surfaces, for the fasteners, such as nails, must not traverse the air space and enter the other portion of the support member disposed on the opposite side of the air space as this would destroy the ability of the two portions to resonate independently of each other. In addition, it is apparent that such a system may not advantageously be used in ceiling constructions.
Other methods have similarly been unsuccessful in solving this problem. I
It is therefore an object of this invention to provide an economical wallboard-type system which can be utilized in either wall or ceiling constructions, is easily and rapidly erected and which improves the sound transmission resistance properties of wallboard-type construction over that heretofore obtainable and commensurate with that obtainable in other types of wall construction.
It is a further object of this invention to provide wall or ceiling construction which has substantially increased sound transmission resistance.
It is a further object of this invention to provide a resilient runner for use in wall and ceiling construction which is highly resilient and has minimal contact between the support members and the wall-defining surfaces or wallboard in order to impart to the wall or ceiling construction increased sound transmission resistance.
Another object of this invention is to provide a resilient runner which is easily and rapidly installed in'wall or ceiling construction.
The system of the instant invention contemplates wall supporting surface which may be wall or ceiling framing made up of wooden support members as heretofore employed but, in addition, is provided with a plurality of novel resilient runners attached to the wooden support members in spaced relationship and adapted to receive the wall-defining surfaces or wallboard. Each resilient runner is an elongate member made of sheet metal or the like provided with a base flange or element adapted to be secured to the wooden support members by suitable fasteners, such as nails or screws, a support surface portion or element which is of a sufficient width to adequately provide a surface for attachment of the-meeting edges of adjacent abutting wallboard panels by fasteners or bonding means, and a resilient portion interconnecting the base flange and the support surface portion and spacing the wallboard from the support members. Disposed along a longitudinal free edge of the support surface portion is an end or stop flange portion or element adapted to support the support surface portion when the wall-defining surfaces or wallboard are being applied thereto.
The resilient runners of the instant invention may be used with ceiling or wall support members and are disposed on said support member either parallel or transverse thereto. In addition, they may be spaced apart independently of the distance between successive support members. This, of course, permits flexibility in construction. Furthermore, the instant resilient runners may be easily spliced for installation, easily nested for storage, will accommodate electrical wires, and render a leveling effect to the ceiling and wall construction. These and other advantageous features imparted to the wall or ceiling construction by the instant resilient runners will be discussed more fully hereinafter.
The invention, both as to its organization and method of operation, taken with further objects and advantages thereof, will best be understood by reference to the following description taken in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which:
FIGURE 1 is a perspective view of a portion-of a room constructed in accordance with the present invention and illustrating two embodiments of the novel resilient runner;
FIGURE 2 is a fragmentary top view of one of the resilient runners shown in FIGURE 1;
FIGURE 3 is a sectional view taken along line A--A of FIGURE 1;
FIGURE 4 is a side sectional view of the resilient runner shown in FIGURES 2 and 3 with the wall-defining surfaces or wallboard in position and secured thereto;
FIGURE 5 is a sectional view taken along line B-B of FIGURE 1 to illustrate a modified resilientrunner;
FIGURE 6 is a fragmentary top view of a further modification of the resilient runner; and
FIGURE 7 is a cross-sectional view taken along line C-C of the modified resilient runner shown in FIG- URE 6.
Referring now to FIGURE 1, a portion of a room is illustrated. The construction of walls 1 and 2 comprises opposed ceiling plates 3 and 4 and floor plates 5 and 6 to which vertically arranged wooden support members 7, usually 2 x 4s, are secured at their opposed ends. In the construction of wall 1 a plurality of resilient runners 8 are secured transversely in spaced, parallel relationship to the wooden support members 7 by nails or equivalent fasteners. Wall-defining surfaces 9, such as gypsum wallboard face layers, are applied either vertically or horizontally (as shown) to-the resilient runners 8. The walldefining surfaces may be" attached to the resilient runners by either fasteners, such as self-tapping, self-drilling screws, or by bonding means, such as adhesives.
As can be appreciated, the wall construction can also be built up by applying layers of gypsum backing board to the resilient runner with gypsum wallboard face layers superimposed over the backing boards in order to give a two-layer wall construction for increased rigidity, fire resistance, and further increased sound transmission resistance. It is further apparent that similar resilient runners and wall-defining surfaces can be applied in the same manner on the opposed side of the wall construction to provide an improved wall partition system or party wall.
An appropriate spacing between parallel rows of resilient runners when using gypsum wallboard has been found to be about two feet for a conventional height wall construction. This spacing allows the gypsum wallboard face layers, which are of a normal width of four feet, to be applied either horizontally or vertically, thus permitting flexibility in building the wall construction. Also, as is evident, the spacing between parallel resilient runners may be varied to a considerable extent to permit use of wall-defining surfaces of different widths.
For wall construction the rows of resilient runners may be started at or near the floor plate with successive rows spaced accordingly along the vertical wooden support members (as shown in FIGURE 1) or the bottom row started an appropriate distance from the floor plate 5. The latter method requires fewer resilient runners but necessitates the securing of strips, blocks or equivalent pieces of wood or scrap gypsum wallboard along the floor and ceiling plates 5 and 3, respectively, in order to provide a base against which the wall-defining surfaces may be attached. The thickness of the strips or blocks is approximately the distance the resilient runner holds the wall-board from the support members.
In the instant type of wallboard construction the resilient runners 8, by resiliently spacing the wall-defining surfaces from the support members, prevent any sound waves impinging against the wall-defining surfaces from being directly transmitted to the support members and to the opposed wall-defining surfaces. The vibrations induced in the wall-defining surface will be ultimately dispersed and absorbed so that very little, if any, vibration will be imparted to the support members.
Any vibrations that might be transmitted from one walldefining surface through the resilient runners to the support members will be further damped and difiused in its course of travel through the resilient runners associated with the other wall-defining surface. Accordingly, it is clear that in the system of the present invention each of the opposing wall-defining surfaces in any wall construction is acoustically resistive so as to be substantially acoustically independent of the support members and of one another.
The use of a modified resilient runner is shown on wall 2 of FIGURE 1. In this embodiment the resilient runner is adapted to be vertically secured to support members 7, whereby the resilient runner is disposed in parallel juxtaposition to the support member. Wall-defining surfaces or wallboards are applied vertically or horizontally to resilient runners 10 in the same manner already described with respect to the resilient runners 8 in wall 1. However, in this case the most appropriate manner of installing the wall-defining surfaces is to vertically attach them to runners 10. This can be accomplished most satisfactorily in the case of wall-defining surfaces of gypsum 4 wallboard without deviating from the normal method employed when they are applied directly to the wooden support members. In the conventional wall construction in which gypsum wallboard is attached directly to the wooden support members, the normal spacing between vertical support members is approximately the same as the standard width of the gypsum wall-board in order that the abutting edges of the coplanar wallboard face layers are disposed over a single vertical support member and each can be attached thereto. As can be appreciated therefore when the instant resilient runners are employed the abut ting edges meet thereon instead, but in the same manner.
The ceiling construction 11, as shown in FIGURE 1, comprises a plurality of wooden support members 12, usually 2 x 10 wooden joists, which are horizontally arranged and secured at their opposed end limits to the ceiling plates (only ceiling plate 4 being shown) on which they are disposed. A plurality of resilient nmners 8 are secured in spaced parallel'rows to the ceiling support members 12. The runners 8 used in the ceiling construction and the manner of installing the wall-defining surfaces thereto are the same as already described with re spect to wall 1.
FIGURE 2 is a top view of a portion of resilient runner 8. The runner 8 is an elongate sheet metal strip provided with a base flange 24 which has spaced along its mid-section at predetermined positions apertures 26 through which fasteners, such as nails, may pass to secure the runner to a support member. The support portion or support element 23 is interconnected with the base flange 24 by an inclined web portion 22, which imparts resiliency to the runner. The web 22 forms an obtuse angle with the base flange 24 and has along its longitudinal axis openings or struck-out portions 27 which impart further resiliency to the support element or portion 23. Additional resiliency is accomplished by positioning the openings 27 midway between the apertures 26 on the base flange 24, as shown in FIGURE 2. Because of the resiliency in the runner any movement of its support portion 23 is transmitted in an indirect, rather than direct, manner to the support member, i.e., via web 22, base flange 24 and the fastener to the support member. The support portion 23 is substantially planar and is substantially parallel to the base flange 24 when the wallboards are in position. The support portion is wide enough to receive the meeting edges of the wall-defining surfaces or wall-board attached thereto by fasteners, such as self-tapping, self-drilling screws, or by bonding means such as adhesives.
Projecting from and integrally connected with the support portion 23 is an end or stop flange 21. This end or stop flange projects at an angle toward the plane of the base flange 24 and in its normal position it is spaced a slight distance from the plane of the base flange 24.
FIGURE 3 is a cross-sectional side view of resilient runner 8 taken along lines A-A of FIGURE 1. In this illustration the runner 8 is shown attached to support member '7 by means of fastener or nail 25. This figure illustrates that end flange 21 in its normal position is spaced from support member 7. This permits the resiliency of runner 8 to operate since the only contact of the runner 8 to support member 7 is the minimal contact through the aperture 26 in the base flange 24 of the runner by the fastener 25.
FIGURE 4 illustrates the resilient runner 8 attached to support member 7 and additionally supporting on its support portion 23 the abutting edges of wallboards 50 and 51. In applying wall-defining surfaces or wallboard to support surface 23 of the runner'8, the support portion 23 is depressed, due to the resiliency of interconnecting web 22, until the free edge 52 of the end flange 21 contacts the support member 7. In this manner support portion 23 is steady and supported while the wallboard or wallboards are being attached thereto. The wallboards 50 and 51 are therefore placed on the support portion 23 and secured thereto by means of self-tapping, self-drilling screws 53 and 54. After the wallboards 50 and 51 have been applied, the resiliency of interconnecting web 22 permits the support portion 23 to assume its normal position wherein end flange 21 is spaced from support member 7, as shown in FIGURE 4. -It is apparent that when the wallboard is applied to support portion 23 by fasteners, such as self-tapping, self-drilling screws of proper length, the fasteners will not penetrate into support member 7.
One of the additional advantages of the instant resilient runner is that it has a leveling etfect upon the wall or ceiling. For example,.if support member 7 is twisted or warped out of position, the base flange 24 of the runner compensates or conforms to the out-of-line support member 7 and the support portion 23 is not alfected and retains its coplanar relationship with the other rows of runners. This is believed to be attributable to the highly resilient interconnecting web 22 being capable ofassuming a relatively distorted position between the base flange 24 and the support portion 23.
A further advantage of the resilient runner is that it overcomes a common complaint in the prior art systems known as nail popping. This is the condition that exists when the head of the nail moves outwardly from the surface of the wallboard thereby rendering the appearance of the wall construction objectionable. This is believed due to shrinkage or movement of the wooden support member in relation to the wallboard which tends to work the nail out of its embedded position. When utilizing the resilient runners of this invention, the wallboard would cover and therefore hide any such outward movement of fasteners 25.
Furthermore as can be appreciated, electrical wires or the like may be easily and conveniently routed through the openings 27 on the web 22, which therefore aflord ready-made conduits for the electrical wires.
A further advantageous feature of the resilient runner is its ability to be easily spliced while being attached to the support member. It is apparent that the end of one resilient runner could be placed adjacent the end of another runner in order to form a continuous row of successive end-to-end runner segments. Furthermore, run ner 8, in particular, is capable of being conveniently piled in stacks for shipping or storage on the job.
FIGURE 5 is a cross-sectional view of a modified resilient runner which is adapted to be vertically secured to wooden support member 7 by fasteners 25. In this instance, the resilient runner 10 is secured to one side of the wooden support member 7 rather than on its supporting surface 30. The runner 10 comprises a base flange 34 and a support portion 35 interconnected by a resilient web portion 36, similar to web portion 22 in runner 8. The base flange 34 is identical to the base flange 24 of runner 8 discussed hereinbefore. Similarly, support portion 35 has an end flange 32 which will, upon depression, contact the face 30 of support member 7 to prevent further depression of support portion 35 during attachment of the wallboard thereto. In its normal position, that is after the wallboard is in place, the end flange 32 will be spaced from the supporting member 7.
In the instant embodiment the plane of base flange 34 is substantially normal to the plane of the support portion 35. The material 37 from the openings or struckout portions of the interconnecting web 36 remains integral with web 36 or base flange 34 and is utilized to position the resilient runner 10 on the support member 7. Material 37 therefore acts as a locater tab in positioning the runner of the support member. The supporting portion 35 of runner 10 is approximately the width of the support member 7 and lies in a substantially flat plane which is parallel to the face 3 of support member 7. However, the support portion 35 should be of a width which allows the end flange 32 to contact support member 7 when the wall-defining surfaces are being applied in the manner previously described.
Type of construction:
FIGURES 6 and 7-show a slightly modified resilient runner 40. Runner 40 functions in substantially the same manner as those resilient runners described hereinbefore. Its end flange 43, support portion 42 and base flange 44 are identical to those of the other runners discussed. Runner 40 dilfers from the other runners in that its resilient member 41 is S-shaped (or inverted S-shapcd depending on which end of the runner is viewed). As will be readily understood, the shape of member 41 attributes to its ability to impart resiliency to runner 40 and, more specifically, to support portion "42.
Resilient member 41 may be perforated if further resiliency is desired. Likewise, runner 40 may be readily adapted for vertical attachment to the support members by making base flange 44 substantially perpendicular to the plane of support surface 42.
It will be understood that the wallboard is secured to support portion 42 in the same manner and with the same means employed with respect to the other runners discussed hereinbefore. When applying wall-defining surfaces or wallboard to the supporting portion 42 of runner 40 care, of course, should be taken to prevent the fastener from penetrating web 41 which would destroy its resiliency and the resiliency of the runner.
The wallboard construction of the" instant invention was compared to construction techniques of the prior art. In each instance, employing identical operating procedures, a wall having Az-inch gypsum on both sides was tested to determine the loss in sound transmission through the wall. The results of these tests, and a brief description of the particular wall construction tested, are shown in the following table:
Table A Sound transmission loss in decibels (1) Regular 2 x 4 wooden studs placed on 16- .inch centers, resilient runners of the instant invention attached transversely to the studs on both sides at 24-inch intervals with nails, /e-inch gypsum wallboard placed horizontally on the runners with self-tapping, self-drilling screws (as previously described) spaced 12 inches on center along the runners, joints taped I (2) Regular 2 x 4 wooden studs slotted in the middle to within 2 inches of each end and placed on 16-inch centers, 4-inch gypsum wallboard nailed horizontally on both sides, joints tape (3) Two rows of regular 2 x 4 wooden studs placed on l6-inch centers using 2 x 6 plates, adjacent studs staggered and spaced 8 inches apart, %-inch gypsum wallboard placed horizontally on both sides, joints taped 38 (4) Regular 2 x 4 wooden studs placed on 16- inch centers, /a-inch gypsum wallboard nailed horizontally on both sides, joints taped 32 It will be apparent from the above table that the wallboard construction and resilient runner of the instant invention effect the greatest sound transmission loss in what is equivalent to a party wall. The increased benefits in sound transmission loss by utilizing the instant runners are most dramatically illustrated by a comparison of the instant runner system (number 1) with the conventional system of applying the gypsum wallboard directly to the wooden framing (number 4). In this case the increase in sound transmission resistance by the instant runner-system is about 11 db. The spectacular improvement afforded by the instant system, even in comparison to earlier prior art systems, is apparent from these test results, particularly when it is borne in mind that the decibel scale is a logarithmic one. Thus, by way of illustration, a diflerence of 3 decibels connotes an approximate doubling in sound transmission resistance.
The benefits of the inventive concepts as outlined above have beenapplied to conventional wooden support member wall and ceiling constructions. However, it is not to be inferred that such is the only manner of utilizing the runners. For instance the runners can also be effectively used with concrete wall surfaces as furring elements to space the wall-defining surfaces from the concrete surfaces. In addition, the wall-defining surfaces are not intended to be limited to gypsum wallboard as any panel form surface would be appropriate.
While several embodimentsdescribed herein are at present considered to be preferred, it is understood that various modifications and improvements may be made therein, and it is intended to cover in the appended claims all such modifications and improvements as fall within the true spirit and scope of the invention.
What is desired to be claimed and secured by Letters Patent of the United States is: Y
1. An. elongate sheet metal resilient runner for attaching wallboard to a supporting surface comprising a base flange lying in a first plane, a resilient web integral at one edge thereof with said base flange and lying in a second plane inclined at an obtuse angle to said first plane, a support portion, the opposite edge of said resilient web being coextensive with one edge of said support portion, said support portion lying in a third plane inclined to said second plane and extending laterally in an ofiset position relative to said base flange, said third plane being substantially parallel to said first plane, and a stop flange coextensive with the opposite edge of said support portion, said stop flange being inclined outwardly and extending toward said first planebut being shorter than the distance between said third plane and said first plane.
2. An elongate sheet metal resilient runner for attaching wallboard to a supporting surface comprising a base flange lying in a first plane, a resilient web integral at one edge thereof with said base flange and lying in a second plane inclined at an obtuse angle to said first plane, said resilient web including elongated openings therein, a support portion, the opposite edge of said resilient web being coextensive with one edge of said support portion, said support portion lying in a third plane inclined to said second plane and extending laterally in an offset position relative to said base flange, said third plane being p a first plane, a resilient web integral at one edge thereof with said base flange and lying in a second plane inclined at an obtuse angle to said first plane, a support portion, the opposite edge of said resilient web being coextensive with one edge of said support portion, said support portion lying in a third plane inclined to said second plane and extending laterally in an offset position relative to said base flange, said third plane being substantially parallel to said first plane, and a stop flange coextensive with the opposite edge of said support portion, said stop flange being inclined outwardly and extending toward said first plane but being shorter than the distance between said third plane and said first plane; and a wallboard attached to said support portion, said support portion and wall-board in a normal position being resiliently spaced from said supporting surface by said resilient web, said wallboard, with pressure applied normal to the exposed surface of said wallboard, being rigidly spaced from said supporting surface by said resilient web and said stop flange.
References Cited in the file'of this patent 2 UNITED STATES PATENTS D. 192,849
McEvoy et a1 May 22, 1962 11,960,961 Thomas May 29, 1934 1,975,470 Mclnerney Oct. 2, 1934 2,039,382 Balduf May 5, 1936 2,041,773 Manske May 26, 1936 2,101,001 Balduf Nov. 30, 1937 2,823,427 Kuhlman Feb. 18, 1958 2,825,949 Olsen Mar. 11, 1958 2,901,788 Fitting Sept. 1, 1959 3,038,276 Butler June 12, 1962 3,058,551 Martin Oct. 16, 1962