US 3091052 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
y 8, 1963 J. w. RYAN 3,091,052
MULTIPLE-STAGE PROJECTILE Filed April 10, 1959 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 F/al'a Prenare 13f in: e
(amp. flirfi, k,
Pressure JOHN W RYAN, 95 INVENTOR.
HERZ/G & JESSUP, BY ATTORNEYS- May 28, 1963 J. W. RYAN MULTIPLE-STAGE PROJECTILE 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed April 10, 1959 JOHN m RYAN,
INVENTOR wm m 8 MA 2 m H Y B w, I}? i m u H 4 1 M m 0 a w j q, m
y 8, 1963 J. w. RYAN MULTIPLE-STAGE PROJECTILE 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed April 10, 1959 ig? JOHN W RYAN,
HERZ/G 8 JESSUPq A 7'TORNEVS.
3,091,052 MULTIPLE-STAGE PROJECTILE John W. Ryan, 11027 Cashmere St., Bel Air, Calif. Filed Apr. 10, 1959, Ser. No. 805,635 12 Claims. (Cl. 46-74) This invention relates to projectiles and more particularly to a multiple-stage projectile having two or more jet propelled stages capable of discrete and progressive operation. It pertains specifically to a toy projectile which is capable of being driven by a safe and harmless propellant such as air and/ or water.
This invention provides a toy projectile which includes at least a pair of stages, one of the stages being releasably secured to another of the stages during pressurization of the projectile by a releasable holding means responsive to movement of the projectile while the first or primary stage is engageable with a launcher and releasably held thereto by a manually operable releasable holding means during such pressurization, the interiors of the stages being interconnected and constructed in such manner that fluid pressure introduced into the launcher is distributed within the interiors of each of the stages to pressurize projectile.
Manually initiated release of the first stage from the launched permits the first stage to detach itself from the launcher as a reaction to the jet propulsion force of the fluid pressure therein, whereby the releasable holding means inter-connecting the stages is disengaged, in response to the movement of the projectile, permitting the second stage to disengage itself, as a reaction to the jet propulsion force of the fluid pressure within the second stage, causing the second stage to continue in its flight while the first stage drops away from the second stage and falls to the ground.
A unique advantage of the invention is presented in the pressurization of the inter-connected stages in such manner as to eliminate the necessity of complicated methods used for charging toy projectiles of prior art using the same principle of Newtons Third Law of Motion: To every action there is an equal and opposite reaction, a scientific principle employed in all rocket flights.
More specifically, this invention includes improved means by which the charging of the inter-connected stages is quickly and automatically effected by mere introduction of fluid pressure into the launcher whereby the unique structure of the projectile eifects automatic pressurization of all stages.
It is therefore an object of this invention to provide a new and improved toy projectile which is capable of progressive flight by automatically timed jet propulsion of discrete stages comprising the projectile and which uses safe and harmless non-combustible propellants as fuel.
It is a further object of this invention to provide a new and improved toy projectile comprising a plurality of stages in which pressurization of the interiors of the stages is automatically effected by introduction of fluid pressure into the projectile and without the necessity of individual loading of individual stages of the projectile, prior to pressurization.
Another object of this invention is to provide a new and improved releasable holding means for releasably holding discrete stages of the projectile in inter-connected relationship during the pressurization of the projectile, whereby such holding means is responsive to movement of the projectile to release the stages during acceleration thereby permitting a subsequent operation of the forward stage, independently of the previous stage, to sustain the flight of the forward stage.
Yet another object of this invention is to provide a new and improved toy projectile of the character described which includes a safety pressure relief valve predeter- 3,991,52 Patented May 28, 1963 minedly set for a given pressure to prevent injury to the projectile, from over pressurization, or to the operator, by automatically relieving the pressure within the projectile when a desired pressurization has been achieved.
A still further object of this invention is to provide indicator means incorporated within the structure supporting the projectile whereby complete and desired pressurization of the projectile is visibly and physically indicated.
An object of this invention is to provide a new and improved multiple-stage projectile which is economical to manufacture and capable of mass production.
These and other objects of this invention will be more apparent from the following drawings, detailed description and appended claims.
FIGURE 1 is a perspective view, in elevation, of a multiple-stage projectile designed and constructed in accordance with this invention;
FIGURE 2 is a diagrammatic vertical cross-sectional view as taken along the longitudinal axis of the projectile to more clearly illustrate the operation thereof;
FIGURE 3 is a view similar to FIGURE 2, illustrating the projectile in one stage of its flight;
FIGURE 4 is an enlarged, fragmentary, perspective view illustrating a releasable holding means for releasably holding together discrete stages of the projectile;
FIGURE 5 is a vertical cross-sectional view as taken along the longitudinal axis of the projectile and its associated launcher illustrating the lower portion of the projectile;
FIGURE 6 is a vertical cross-sectional View as taken along the longitudinal axis of the projectile illustrating the upper portion of the projectile, FIGURE 6 being a continuation of FIGURE 5;
FIGURE 7 is a side view, in elevation, of an interconnected portion of the projectile and the releasable holding means therefor, in greater detail, with parts thereof broken away for greater clarity;
FIGURE 8 is a perspective View of a latch employed in the manually operable releasable holding means associated with the launcher and primary stage of the projectile;
FIGURE 9 is a perspective view illustrating a clamp means employed in said manually operable releasable holding means;
FIGURE 10 is an enlarged fragmentary vertical crosssectional view illustrating the inter-connection between the launcher means and the primary stage of the projectile in greater detail;
FIGURE 11 is a fragmentary vertical cross-sectional view, similar to the lower portion of FIGURE 5, illustrating a modification of the first embodiment of this invention;
FIGURE 12 is a diagrammatic cross-sectional view, similar to FIGURE 2, illustrating the principle involved in the embodiment of FIGURE 11 more clearly; and
FIGURE 13 is a fragmentary cross-sectional view, similar to a portion of FIGURE 6, illustrating means for adjusting a sealing member thereof.
Referring more particularly to the drawings, there is shown, by way of illustration but not of limitation, a multiple-stage projectile, generally referred to by the number 10, designed and constructed in accordance with this invention. The projectile 10 comprises a plurality of reaction propelled stages, two such stages being shown herein. The primary stage, the first to be propelled, is referred to by the numeral 11 while a subsequent stage, the second to be propelled, is indicated generally by the numeral 12, the stages 11 and 12 being held in end to end engagement by a releasable holding means, responsive to movement, generally referred to by the numeral 13. The projectile 10 is 'best seen in FIGURES 1, 5 and 7, includes a tubular body' 18, preferably circular in cross section, having a closed upper end 19, in the form of an end wall, and an open lower end 21. An outwardly extending shoulder 22 is formed on the body 18 adjacent the end 21, the shoulder being preferably of a frusto-conical configuration, see
FIGURE 5, to provide a cam surface 23 cooperable with the releasable holding means 14 as will be hereinafter described. The closed upper end 19 is provided with an opening 24 extending therethrough and communicating with the interior 26' of the body 18.
A tubular member 27 is secured in the body 18 or is optionally formed integrally therewith. One end 28 of the member 27 communicates with the opening 24 of the closed end 19 while the other end 29 thereof terminates at an intermediate portion of the body 18 and is spaced inwardly from the closed end 19. The tubular member, 27, as illustrated herein, is preferably, for more economical manufacture, formed separately from the body 18 and secured thereto adjacent the opening 24 as by cementing or the like. For this purpose, the upper end 28 is provided with an annular skirt or enlarged portion 31, fitted into a depending annular wall 32 of the closed end of 19 and is cemented thereto. The tubular member 27 is annularly spaced from the wall of the body 18 to form an annular chamber 33, at the upper or leading end of the first stage 11, for a purpose which will be hereinafter described.
A cup-shaped sealing member 34 of pliant resilient material, such as rubber, neoprene or the like, is removably or permanently secured to the upper or leading end 19 of the body 18, to provide a more effective seal between the primary and subsequent stages 11 and 12 respectively, during pressurization of the projectile and to form a shock absorber for the primary stage 11, when it returns to the ground after completion of its flight. The seal 34 includes an annular skirt 36 having a beaded lower edge secured in an annular groove 38 formed in the closed end 19 of the body 18. The beaded edge 37, may be resiliently and removably held within the "groove 38 or optionally cemented therein. A frusto-con'ical female seat 39 formed in the seal 34 is preferably provided with a beaded lower edge 41 extending into the opening 24 of the closed end 19.
The subsequent stage 12, herein the second stage, comprises a hollow body 42, capable of holding fluid under pressure, formed of any suitable material such as metal, plastics, or the like. The body includes -a jet opening 43 at one end thereof, the trailing end 44, and a closed upper or leading end 46. The body 42 is herein illustrated as being formed of upper and lower sections 47 and 48, secured together, as by'cementing or the like, at telescoping ends 50 and 51, respectively. It is to be understood however, that the body42 may be formed in any suitable manner and if molded may be formed of a pair of halves symmetrical about the longitudinal axis thereof and joined at a parting line formed along the axis if desired.
. The cross-sectional configuration of the lower end 44, is preferably complementary to the seat 39 of the seal 34, whereby the end 44 may be engaged Within the seat 39 for an efiective sealing engagement with the primary stage 11. The jet opening 43 is preferably formed by a body 42 and extensible Within the end 28 of the tubular member 27, when the first and second stages of the'projectile are in engagement for pressurization, as best illustrated tubular extension 52 depending from the end 44 of the 4 in FIGURE 6, whereby the interior 53 of the body 42 is in communication with the interior 26 of the body 18 of the first stage as through a passage formed by the interior of the tubular member 27.
A cap firing mechanism 56 is provided on the leading closed end 46 of the second stage body 42, for detonating an explosive charge, in the form of a percussive cap indicated by the numeral 57, when the second stage 12 returns to the ground after completion of its flight.
The cap firing mechanism 56 includes a cap 58, of
pliant resilient material such as rubber, neoprene or the like, removably or otherwise secured to the end 46 of the body 42. An anvil 59 of the cap firing mechanism 56 having an enlarged relatively-flat head 60 residing within the cap 58, has a shank 61 extending through an aperture 62 formed in the closed end 46. The anvil 59 is secured to the closed end as by riveting, peening or the like, indicated at 63. The cap firing mechanism further includes a hammer 64 secured in the cap 58 and having an enlarged head 60' of the anvil 59 and in face-to-face relationship therewith. A pair of transverse openings 67 are provided in the cap 58 for inserting a percussive cap like 57 between the anvil 59 and the hammer 64 to strike the anvil 59, detonating the percussive cap therebetween. A percussive cap, designed and constructed in accordance with the invention of my co-pending application entitled A Percussive Cap Structure, Serial No. 791,983, filed February 9, 1959, now Patent No. 2,998,777, may be effectively held to the hammer or to the anvil of the capfiring mechanism by means of adhesive material provided on a face of the cap as described 'in said co-pending application.
To add a more realistic return of the subsequent stage 12 and to insure striking of the ground with the leading end and cap 58 of the stage 12, a plurality of fins 68 are preferably provided on the body 42 adjacent the trailing end 44.
The releasable holding means 113, provided by this invention to releasably hold adjacent stages of the projectile 10 during pressurization thereof comprises, as best seen in FIGURES 1, 4 and 7, a transverse, relatively flat, member 71 surrounding an upper portion of the primary stage body 18. Extended portions of the member 71, in the form of tabs 72, are engageable with portions 73 of the body 18, in the form of shoulders, while upwardly extendinghook members 74 of the member 71 are engageable with portions of the subsequent stage body 42,
as through openings 76 provided in the fins 68 thereof to projectile 10, during the initiation of flight, causes the member 71 to pivot around the tab 72-shoulder 73 engagement to disengage the :hook member 74 from the opening 7 6 of the fin 68 and thereafter to fall away from the first stage 11, unlatching the stages and rendering the stages capable of being separated.
To adjust the releasing eflect of the inertia of the member 71, an adjustment means 130, in the form of a counter-balance, may be secured to the member 71, as
illustrated in FIGS. 4 and 7. The adjustment means 139 includes a counter-balance 131 reciprocally mounted as on a threaded shaft 132 secured atone end thereof to the member 71 and extending oppositely of the member 71. In this manner, the inertia of the member 71 may be selectively adjusted by relative positioning of the counterbalance 13-1 on the shaft'130, whereby disengage rnent may be delayed or hastened by respectively dfi" creasing or increasing the eifective inertia of the member 71.
The releasable holding means 13 may also be actuated by air resistance of the member 71 to the atmosphere. The member 71 is relatively fiat and offers a resistance to the atmospheric air proportionate to the area of the member during movement of the projectile. The greater the area of the member 71, the more rapid the disengagement of the member 71 by pivotal movement in response to air resistance. To adjust the resistance of the member 71 to the atmosphere, one or more fins 140, indicated in broken lines in FIG. 4, may be secured to the member 131 and the member rotated as desired to position the fins 140 to efiect an air resistance countering the resistance of the member 71. In the vertical position illustrated, the member 71 affords its greatest air resistance, whereas rotation of the member 131 to position the fins 140 in a horizontal position appreciably minimizes the effective air resistance of member 131.
A more positive actuation of the releasable holding means 13 may be accomplished by mechanical means; i.e., by a tie member in the formof a wire or drawstring 77 secured at one end as to an opening 78 of the member 71 and at an opposite end 79 as to the base 16, or optionally to the ground. The length of the drawstring 77 may be varied so as to either positively apply a pulling force to pivot the member 71 at a predetermined time interval after launching, if desired, or to merely anchor the member 71 to prevent loss thereof after disengagement by either response to acceleration or to air resistance.
Actuation of the releasing means 13 may be further elfected to provide a varied time interval between launching and release by varying the length of the hooks 74 whereby lengthening of the books '74 requires a greater force or time to disengage them from the openings '76, thus delaying release of the means 13. Conversely, shortening of the hook members 74 permits more rapid release.
The sealing member 34 bears a direct relationship to the time of release of the holding means. The inherent resiliency of the member 34 biases the hook members 74 into engagement with the fins 68 through the openings 76 by virtue of the fact that the seat 39 of the member 34 is positioned between the two stages 11 and 12 and is compressed when the stages are held together to effect a seal between the stages. The material of the member 34 is also pliant and therefore may be expanded to insert one or more shim washers, indicated at 135 in FIG. 13, between the seat 39 and the closed end 19 of the body 18 to increase the bias of the member 34 between the hooks 74 and the tabs 72. Increase of the bias delays the time of release.
Referring particularly to FIGURES l and 5, which more clearly illustrate the launcher means 14, the launcher means 14 comprises a cup-shaped hollow body 81, having an open circular end 82, dimensioned to freely detachably and telescopingly fit within the lower end 21 of the primary stage 11 for communication of the interior 26 of the body 18 with the interior 83 of the launcher body 81. An O-ring gasket 84 is preferably provided on the exterior of the body 81, adjacent the open end 82, and having a sealing engagement between the body 81 and the internal surface of the body 18 to adapt the interiors 26 and 53 of the stages for holding fluid under pressure. The O-ring gasket 84 is seated in an annular groove 86, formed in the outer surface of the body 81. The groove 86 may be annularly formed on the surface by machining, molding or the like, in the event that the cup-shaped body is formed with an integral open end 82. In practice, however, it has been found more practical to form a stepped sleeve member 87, having a telescoping fit with the interior of the body 81, wherein a step 88 thereof is spaced from an upper edge 89 of the cup-shaped body 81 and cemented in telescoping relationship to form the groove 86. Other methods for forming the groove 86 will be obvious to those skilled in the art and may be regarded as alternative.
The body 81 is secured to the base 16 which comprises a plurality of outwardly extending legs 91 adapted to straddle the ground or may be optionally formed integral therewith. The body 81 further includes an inlet opening 92 having secured therein an adapter 93 in the form of a tubular member having an internally threaded fitting 94 rotatively secured thereon, whereby an ordinary hose 96 (FIG. 1) having an externally threaded fitting 97 may be threaded into the fitting 94 and against a sealing gasket to introduce fluid under pressure through the inlet opening 92 and into the interior 83 of the launcher means 14 to pressurize the projectile 10, as will be hereinafter described.
An annular flange 98 is formed on the exterior of the body 81 and is provided with a plurality of spacing lugs 99 (see FIG. 10) upon which the enlarged end 22 of the first stage body 18 rests when the lower end 21 of the body 18 is telescoped on the open end 82 of the launcher body 81. The undersurface 100 of the flange 98 forms a shoulder cooperating with the releasable holding means 17 to form an opposing shoulder relative to the cam surface 23 of the shoulder 22.
As best seen in FIGURES 1, 5, 8, 9 and 10, the manually operable releasable holding means 17 includes an annular band 101 of resilient material such as spring steel or the like, and a latch 102 straddling ends 103 thereof. The band 101 is parted and is outwardly bent at its ends 103 to form tabs which are normally biased apart by the resiliency of the band 101. To clamp the primary stage 11 to the launcher means 14, the band 101 is wrapped around the juncture of the lower end shoulder 22 with the body 81 in such manner that the band encircles the lower open end 21 of the body 18 and the spacers 99 of the body 81. The band 101 is provided with lower flange sections 104, see FIGURES 9 and 10, adapted to engage the undersurface 100 of the flange '98 and upper angular flange section 106, substantially complementary in angular relationship to the cam surface 23 of the shoulder 22 of the body 18 adapted to engage the cam surface 23, whereby upward force of the cam surface 23 against the upper flanges 106, as a result of pressurization of the interior of the projectile 10, biases the flanges 106 outwardly to expand the band 101 when the band 101 is in an expandable state.
To retain the band 101 in encircling relationship to the first stage 11 and launcher 14 in clamping relationship, the latch 102 is provided with a slot 107 dimensioned to fit over the tab ends 103 when the tabs are pressed together, the latch 102 being provided with a pair of elongated legs 108 having apertures 109 located adjacent the ends thereof and substantially spaced from a bottom 111 of the slot 107 engaging the tab ends 103, whereby a drawstring 112 secured as in one of the apertures 109 may be pulled from a position remote from the launcher 14 to disengage the tab ends 103 and thereby permitting the band 101 to expand. The band 101 may be formed of a unitary strap of resilient material, if desired, but is preferably formed as by forming a pair of halves 113 and 114 riveted or otherwise secured together as indicated to form the unitary band 101.
To avoid damage to the component parts of the projectile 10 or premature firing thereof due to over-pressurization of the interior of the projectile, a pressure relief valve is provided in the launcher body 81 for communicating between the interior 83 of the launcher and the exterior thereof whereby excess pressurization within the projectile 10 may be relieved therethrough. The relief valve means 116 includes a valve element 117 having an enlarged head 118 urged into seated relationship against an opening 119, formed in the body 81, by a compression spring 121 bearing against the head 118 to close the opening 119. The spring 121 may be predeterminedly set to permit relief of pressure within the interior of the projectile at a predetermined pressure, that being the pressure for Operation of the projectile.
Operation The multiple-stage projectile, herein illustrated in its preferred embodiment, operates on the well known scientific principle employed in all rocket flight, that is, Sir Isaac Newtons Third Law of Motion: To every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. This invention provides a toy projectile into which a safe and harmless propelling fuel, such as water or air, is introduced under pressure for effective progressive flight.
Referring to FIGURES 1 and 2, and particularly to FIGURE 2, which is a diagrammatic cross-sectional view as taken along the longitudinalaxis of the projectile 10, the projectile is primarily assembled by engagement of the upper end 19 of the first stage body 18 with the lower end 44 of the second stage body 42 in such manner that the tubular extension 52, having the jet opening 43, is in communication with the interior of the tubular member 27 of.
the body 18, the stages being held together by the releasable holding means 13. The projectile 10 is then mounted on the launcher means 14 by fitting the open end 21 thereof over the end 82 of the launcher 14, the first stage 11 being held to the launcher 14 by the manually operable releasable holding means 17 wherein the flanges 106 and 104 of the band 101 engage the cam surfaces 23 and the flange surface 99, respectively, the band 101being retained.
in such clamping relationship by installation of the latch 102 over the tab ends 103. Fluid under pressure, preferably ordinary water, is introduced through the inlet opening 92 of the launcher means 14 as by a conduit 96, preferably a conventional garden hose coupled as at 94 to the launcher 14.
Initially, the water rises in the first stage 11 to a level indicated at A in FIGURES 2 and 5, the level being determined by the lower end 29 of the tubular member 27, after which water seals the chamber 33 and enters the tubular member 27. The water rises through the passage and the chamber 33 to a level approximate that indicated atA' in FIGURES 2 and 6. The annular chamber 33 surrounding the tubular member 27 and the interior 53 of the second stage 12 form a first and second stage compressed air chamber, respectively, wherein, as the fluid level rises within each stage to a level indicated at approximately B in the first stage "11 and B in the second stage 12 the atmospheric air therein is compressed within the chambers.
The length of the tubular member 27 determines the height ofthe fluid level A in the second stage 12. The proportion of the tubular member to the first stage body heren illustrated, wherein the length of the tubular member is less than half the length of the first stage body, is best suited for average water pressure systems. Such a given length is likewise suitable as a compromise for pressures ranging from minimal to maximal; however, the volume of water entering the second stage is affected by the magnitude of the water pressure operating against the air chamber compression force. A greater volume of water will enter the second stage. if a lower. water pressure is used. If desired, the tubular member 27 may include a telescoping sleeve 30, indicated in broken lines in FIG. 5, whereby the length of the tubular member may be adjusted to vary the volume of chamber 33, and graduationstnot shown) applied thereto, or to the member 27, to facilitate adjustment.
The pressure relief valve 116 is predeterminedly preset to relieve the pressure when a desired pressure has been built up within the chambers 33 and whereupon additional fluid under pressure entering the launcher through the inlet opening 92 is discharged through the opening 119 to avoid over-pressurizing of the rocket and additionally forming an indicator means to indicate that the launching pressurehas been reached.
To launch the projectile 10, the operator, at a remote 8 station, jerks or pulls on the drawstring 1 12 thereby causing the latch 102 to disengage the. tab ends 103. of
the band 161 whereuponthe band 101 is inherently biased. into an expanded position, illustrated in FIG. 9. The
movement of the projectile to disengage the holding means 13 and release the second stage 12 from the first stage 11, by pivoting the member 71 around the tab 72, shoulder 73 engagement to disengage the hook members 74 from the fin openings 76. After such disengagement the member 71 falls away from the projectile 10 to the ground. At this point, although the second stage 12 is separable from the first stage 11, the acceleration of the projectile tends to keep the stages 11 and 12 in end-toe end engagement.
When the pressure in the first stage 11 drops, the pressure within the second stage12, being relieved at the jet opening 43, causes the second stage 12to be propelled away from the first stage 11 While the first stage 11 drops harrnlessly to the ground.
If desired, a plurality of fins indicated in broken lines 115 (FIG. 5) may be provided adjacent the open end 21 of the first stage body 18 to guide the first stage 11 downwardly in its fall on a substantially straight course. It is, however, preferred to omit such fins whereby the first stage 1-1 flutters harmlessly to the ground, rather than plunging rapidly down to the area of the operator, thus making the opertaion a safer one.
When the pressure within the second stage 12 is completely relieved, the stage 12 drops downwardly toward the ground, guided by the fins 68 to cause a rapid descent thereof with'the leading end, defined by the cap 58, extending downwardly during the descent whereby impact of the cap 58 with the ground causes the hammer 64 to strike the anvil 65 firing the percussion cap charge 57 placed therebetween.
The initial thrust force of the finst stage 11 may be eifectively controlled-by varying the length of the portion of the body 81 which extends into the first stage body '18. By increasing the length of the sleeve member 87, as to the length indicated in broken lines 87 in FIG. 5, a column, or piston, of greater length is achieved, effecting a longer period of time before the projectile 10 is separated from the launcher '14, thus giving the projectile a greater thrust force.
The length of the sleeve 87 as illustrated in solid lines is effective for use with a minimal pressure system, where-. as the length may be increased for use with higher pressure systems.
If desired, a hook extension may be provided on the second stage 12 and having a rearwardly facing shoulder 1-10 whereby the second stage body 42 by itself may be propelled as by a sling, rubber band or the like.
While the particular use of water asa pressurization source has been heretofore described, it is to be understodd that other suitable fluid may be utilized; Likewise, air pressure alone may be effectively intrdouced through the inlet opening 92 of the launcher 14 as by provision of an adapter illustrated in FIG. 11. The adapter 115 includes a cup-shaped member having external threads threadably engageable with the internal threads of the coupling 94 with an inner edge 136 of the adapter 115 bearing against the sealing gasket 90Wfor sealing relationship of the cup-shaped member 125 with the adapter 93. A reduced tubular extension 137 adapted to receive an end of a flexible or other conduit 138 by which air pressure from a suitable source '(not' shown) introduces air under pressure into the interior of the projectile 10. In the operation of the instant modified embodiment, the interior of the projectile is pressurized similarly to the pressurization described in the first embodiment, whereby each stage 11, 12, is pressurized until a desired compression is achieved, as determined by the relief valve means 116, after which the projectile may be launched in a manner identical to that described for the first embodiment, i.e., removal of the latch 1&2 from the releasable holding means 17.
The pressurization and resultant performance of the projectile 10 may be further controlled by controlling the proportion of water to air in the projectile. As previously mentioned, the atmospheric air in the projectile is trapped therein by introduction of water as by a garden hose fitted to the fitting 94. The proportion of air to water can be varied by partially or completely emptying the garden hose of water before attaching the hose to the fitting 94.
In the event that a hose section is emptied of water before attachment to the fitting 94 a greater proportion of air is forced into the projectile before the water enters to compress the air, resulting in a greater thrust upon launching in the manner heretofore described.
While I have herein shown and described my invention in what I have conceived to be the most practical and preferred embodiments, it is recognized that departures may be made therefrom within the scope of my invention, which is not to be limited to the details disclosed herein but is to be accorded the full scope of the claims so as to embrace any and all equivalent devices and methods.
1. A multiple-stage projectile comprising: a first stage including a tubular body having a forward end having an opening therethrough and an open trailing end; a tubular member extending from said opening axially inwardly of said body to define an annular chamber within said tubular body and adjacent said forward end; said annular chamber being closed except for said tubular member, a second stage including a hollow body having a jet nozzle at one end thereof, said nozzle engaging said first stage in said opening whereby said jet opening registers with said first st-age forward end opening; annular resilient sealing means around said opening and nozzle and engaging both at their juncture, releasable holding means releasably responsive to acceleration operatively associated with said first and second stage bodies for holding said bodies in engagement during pressurization of the projectile, holding said sealing means in compression to prevent loss of pressure, hollow launcher means having an open end dimensioned to freely detachably fit said open trailing end of said first stage for closure thereof, said launcher means having an inlet passage communicating with said launcher open end and being adapted to re- .ceive fiuid under pressure; and manually operable releasable holding means operatively associated with said launcher means and said first stage for releasably holding said launcher and said first stage during pressurization of said projectile.
2. A toy projectile as defined in claim 1 wherein said first releasable holding means includes a transverse member surrounding a portion of said body of said first stage and engageable with said portion and having hook means engageable with portions of said second stage, said trans verse member being inertially responsive to acceleration of said projectile to disengage said hook means from said portion of said second stage body during acceleration of said projectile.
3. A toy projectile as defined in claim 1 wherein said second releasable holding means includes; an external annular fiange on said launcher means and adjacent said open end thereof; external shoulder means on said first stage body and adjacent said open end thereof; and releasable clamp means engaging both said fiange and said shoulder means.
4. A toy projectile as defined in claim 3 wherein said clamp means is resiliently biased out of clamping engagement with said flange and said shoulder means and including latch means for releasably latching said clamp means in engagement with said fiange and said shoulder means.
5. A toy projectile as defined in claim 1 wherein said first releasable holding means includes a relatively fiat transverse member surrounding a portion of said body of said first stage and engageable with said portion, said transverse member having hook means engageable with portions of said second stage body, said transverse member being responsive to air resistance during movement of said projectile to disengage said hook means from said portions of said second stage body.
6. A toy projectile as defined in claim 5, including adjustment means on said transverse member for adjusting the inertia of said transverse member.
7. A toy projectile as denfied in claim 6 wherein said adjustment means includes a counterbalance mass movably supported on said transverse member and extensible relative to said transverse member.
8. A toy projectile as defined in claim 5 including adjustment means on said transverse member for adjusting air resistance of said transverse member.
9. A toy projectile as defined in claim 8 wherein said adjustment means includes a counterbalance mass movably supported on said transverse member and extensible relative to said transverse member.
10. A toy projectile as defined in claim 1 wherein said first releasable holding means includes a transverse member surrounding a portion of said first stage and engageable with said portion, said transverse member having hook means engageable with portions of said second stage body, and a tie member having one end secured to said transverse member and another end secured to said launcher means, said tie member being substantially longer than said first stage body and cap-able of disengaging said hook means from said portions of said second stage body during movement of said first stage body relative to said launcher means.
11. A toy projectile as defined in claim 1, including a pliant resilient sealing member on said closed end of said first stage, said member having an opening extending therethrough in register with said opening of said first stage body and an annular skirt surrounding a portion of said first stage body adjacent said closed end thereof, said sealing means being sandwiched between said one end of said second stage body and said closed end of said first stage body.
12. A projectile as defined in claim 11 including shim means sandwiched between said sealing means and said closed end of said first stage body.
References Cited in the file or this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,422,721 Farr June 24, 1947 2,645,999 Bogard July 21, 1953 2,752,729 Mac-Innes July 3, 1956 2,804,823 Jablansky Sept. 3, 1957 2,829,491 Teague Apr. 8, 1958 2,927,398 Kaye etal Mar. 8, 1960 FOREIGN PATENTS 89,379 Germany Nov. 5, 1896 161,579 Australia Mar. 1, 1955