US 3091889 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
June 1963 F. ZAIC 3,091,889.-
FLYING DEVICES Filed Feb. 24. 1959 4 Sheets-Shae; 1
Frank Zaic F. ZAIC FLYING DEVICES June 4, 1963 Filed Feb. 24. 1959 Fig.5
4 Sheets-Sheet 2 Fig. 8
INVENTOR. Frank Z ai 0 BY m Fig. I0 246 F. ZAIC FLYING DEVICES June 4, 1963 Filed Feb. 24. 1959 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 Fig. 16
INVENTOR. Frank Zaic WWMC June 4, 1963 F. zAlc: 3,091,889
FLYING DEVICES Filed Feb. 24. 1959 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 INVENTOR. Frank Zaic BY WW4 United States Patent 3,091,889 FLYING DEVICES Frank Zaic, Ridgewood, N.Y. (16915 Kinzie St, Sepulveda, Calif.) Filed Feb. 24, 1959, Ser. No. 794,900 9 Claims. (Cl. 46-79) This invention relates to flying devices, and is a continuation-in-part of my prior application filed July 21, 1955, Serial No. 523,576, now Patent No. 2,876,585.
As in the case of my former invention, this application is directed to flying devices that are launched or propelled initially at high speeds, and which must descend downwardly at relatively lower speeds upon the dissipation of the initial propelling force-the primary objective of this invention being the improvement of flying devices of the above-mentioned category by providing novel control means which permit high launching speeds, with an automatic adjustment for effecting reduced speeds upon descent. And it is a further object of this invention, as in that of my said prior invention, to enable the automatic control of the plane-elevating member to be effected without adversely affecting the longitudinal balance of the plane.
In the flying devices of the aforesaid parent application, an elevating member is employed that is free-floating in the region of its high speed position, the control vane member taking over when the planes speed is reduced to cause the plane elevating member to move into its low-speed range of positions. In the present invention, the plane elevating member is spring-loaded and normally urged into its range of low-speed positions. The arrangement is such that at low speeds the elevating member acts upon the control vane member to keep it within its own low-speed range of positions. But at high speeds, the control vane member is urged into a high speed position by the action of the air thereupon, the arrangement being such that the control vane moves the plane elevating member, against its resilient resistance, into a high speed position-so that both the control vane and elevating plane members are thus together brought into their respective high speed positions.
It is also my objective to provide a relatively simple device having the features above mentioned.
Other objects, features and advantages will appear from the drawings and the description hereinafter given.
Referring to the drawings,
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a form of my invention showing the control components at low speed positions.
FIG. 2 is a side view of the device of FIG. 1 showing the forces acting thereupon at low speed.
FIG. 3 is a perspective view of the rear portion of the evice of FIG. 1, with the control components at high speed positions.
FIG. 4 is a side view of the device of FIG. 1 showing the forces acting thereupon at high speed.
FIG. 5 is a fragmentary plan view of FIG. 1.
FIG. 6 is a rear view of FIG. 5.
FIG. 7 is a fragmentary plan view of FIG. 3.
FIG. 8 is a rear view of FIG. 7.
FIG. 9 is a fragmentary perspective of another form of my invention, showing the rear portion thereof and illustrating a trigger release mechanism, the figure showing the device in its high-speed position.
FIG. 10 is a view like FIG. 9, but showing the device in its low-speed position.
FIG. 11 is a rear view of FIG. 9, the dot-dash lines indicating the position of the control components in their respective high-speed positions as shown in FIG. 10.
FIG. 12 is a fragmentary perspective view of the rear Patented June 4, 1963 2, portion of a flying device according to another form of my invention, the control vane being shown at high-speed position.
FIG. 13 is a view like FIG. 12, but showing the control components at respective low-speed positions.
FIG. 14 is a fragmentary perspective view of the rear portion of a flying device containing another modification of my invention in which two control vanes are employed, the plane being shown in a low-speed position.
FIG. 15 is a view like FIG. 14, the control components being shown in their respective high-speed positions.
FIG. 16 is a side view of FIG. 14, the dot-dash lines showing the control vanes in their high-speed positions.
FIG. 17 is a perspective view of a model airplane showing my invention as applied to controlling the angular position of the wing (rather than of the elevator), the device being shown in low speed condition.
FIG. 18- is a somewhat enlarged fragmentary perspective of the control portion of the device of FIG. 17, showing the parts in their high speed positions.
FIG. 19 is a plan view of FIG. 17.
FIG. 20 is a somewhat enlarged section of FIG. 19 taken along line 2tl2il, showing a high-lift low speed condition.
In the embodiment of my invention illustrated in FIGS. 1 to 8, showing a model airplane, a wing component 10 extends transversely from opposite sides of the fuselage 11, a fixed rudder 12a being disposed at the rear of the fuselage. The stabilizer, referred to generally by the reference numeral 13, contains the forwardly disposed fixed portion 14a and the plane elevating member 15a connected by hinge 16a to said portion 14a and extending through the apertured portion 19a of the stop bar 13a, whereby the said elevator member is movable between two limiting positions defined by the upper surface 17a of said bar and the lower surface 2% thereof.
The control vane member of this form of my invention is identified by the reference numeral 21a, said member being attached at its leading edge to the rudder by the hinge 2.2a. Resilient means in the form of a rubber band 34a is anchored at 35a to the fixed stabilizer portion 14a and at 36a to the elevator 15a, so that the latter will be urged to a high-lift condition. The control vane 21a has no direct connection with any resilient means, the air force during flight causing it to move inwardly towards the rudder 12a. Affixed to the upper surface of the elevator 15a adjacent the rudder 12a, is the cam member 37 containing an inclined cam surface 38 sloping downwardly and outwardly from the rudder 12a, and in intercepting relationship with the bottom rear edge 39 of the control vane 21a.
In this form of my invention, high speed operation will cause the control vane Zia to move toward the rudder 12a, by the pressure due to the air-flow acting against the surface 26a at the relatively high launching speeds. During such movement, the said bottom edge 39 of the control vane will engage the cam surface 38, pressing it downwardly and thereby causing the elevator 15a to move downwardly against the action of resilient means 34a. The arrangement is hence such that during high speeds the air-flow pressure forces the control vane 21a to align itself substantially along the line of flight, and during such operation forces the plane elevating member 15a into a neutral position against the action of elastic band 34a. At low speeds, the tension in said elastic band is sufficient to overcome the air-flow force acting on the control vane 21a; the elevator 15a will then assume high-lift conditions and at the same time, through the action of cam surface 38, cause the control vane 21a to move outwardly away from the rudder 12a against the action of the air-flow pressure. Then tension in the resilient member 34a is suflicient to maintain the elevator against the stop surface 17a of the stop bar 18a, when the air-flow pressures have been sufiiciently reduced.
The aerodynamic action is illustrated by FIGURES 2 and 4. It will be noted that the gravitational pull G at the center of gravity 31 is disposed forwardly of the wing lift W, as in the form of my invention of said parent application, the elevator lift being indicated by the arrow S. In FIG. 2, the flight path is indicated by the arrow B, and in FIG. 4 the flight path is indicated by the arrow C. By referring to FIG. 2, it will be seen that the lift W of the wing is balanced about the center of gravity 31 by the downward force S of the elevator. The aerodynamic balance will be preserved as long as the lifting surfaces remain at their particular angle of attack. In FIG. 4, Where the elevator 15a is in neutral angle or high speed position, and vane 21a against rudder 12a, the wing has no lifting force to counteract the force of gravity G. Since the control vane 21a is disposed in a plane 90 from the plane of the wing, the actuating aerodynamic forces will have no effect on the longitudinal balance of the plane.
FIGS. 9 to 11 illustrate a so-called trigger action device, whereby the elevator is held ositively in its lowered position during launching, and then suddenly released aiter the air-flow pressure on the control member has been sufficientiy reduced. The control vane 21c is pivotally connected to the hinge member 22c mounted on the rudder 120, the resilient member 24c urging the control vane 21c outwardly away from the rudder, in the manner aforesaid. As in the last-described device, a resilient member 34c normally urges the elevator member 15c upwardly into a negative angle with respect to the wing. Mounted on the elevator 15c is the trigger release stop 40, the relatively narrow upper edge 41 of which is positioned for engagement with the bottom edge 42 of control vane 210 when the latter is in its closed or high speed position shown in FIG. 9. In this position, the downwardly protruding extension 43 of vane 21c is in engagement with the stop bar 18c, the vane being held in such engagement by hand during launching.
In high-speed conditions, such as prevail during launching, the air flow pressure on control vane 210 will maintain it against the rudder 12c after it is released by hand. When the speed is reduced to a predetermined point, the tension in the resilient member 240 will cause the vane 210 to slip over the trigger stop 40. When this occurs,
the resilient member 340 will be enabled to urge the elevator 15c upwardly into a high-lift condition, as illustrated in FIG. 10. Attached to the rudder is a stop bracket 44 which is proportioned to hold the vane 21c against movement beyond a predetermined outer limiting position, as shown in FIGS. and 11.
FIGS. 12 and 13 illustrate a form of my invention having a rigid link 69 pivotally mounted at 70 at the rear edge of elevator d and at 7-1 on the rear edge of the control vane 21d. Said elevator member 15d is movable upwardly under the influence of resilient member 34d, in the manner above explained; and when this occurs, the link 69 is pivoted about its axes to assume the low-speed position shown in FIG. 13. The rigid link 69 thus also serves as a limiting means whereby the vane 21d is held against movement beyond its outer limiting position-the link extending through aperture 12d.
A further modification of my invention is shown in FIGS. 14-16. Here, instead of a vertically disposed controlled vane, as illustrated in the above-described em bodiments, two control vanes 21c and 21 are employed, these being in substantially horizontal planes when the device is in the high speed position illustrated in FIG. 15. Said vanes are hingedly connected at 72, the hinge connection being secured in known manner to the fuselage 11e. Extending outwardly from said fuselage are two headed pins 73 and 74. The shanks of these pins serve as guides for the two strings 75 and 76 attached to the control vanes Me and 217, respectively. The said strings 75 and 76 are joined to the member 77 which is pivotally connected to bracket 78 attached to the underside of the elevator 15c, the latter being connected to the stationary stabilizer portion 14:: by the resilient band Me. It is preferred that the hinge 72 be so disposed that the vanes 21a and Zllf will be in the center of the flight path so that their position will not produce any forces tending to rotate the plane about the center of gravity.
Under launching conditions, as illustrated in FIG. 15, the control vanes Zle and 213 are close together, whereby a pull is exerted on member 77 in the direction of the arrow K in FIG. 15, thereby causing the elevator component 15c to swing downwardly against the action of resilient member 34a. During the low speed condition as illustrated in FIGS. 14 and 16, the pull exerted by vanes Zle and 21 on member 77 is reduced, thereby permitting the resilient member Me to urge the elevator 15c into its upper high-lift position. With this device, the control vanes 21a and 21 can perform their desired function of actuating the elevator component 152 without disturbing the aerodynamic balance of the device.
FIGS. 17-2O illustrate the manner in which the control vane of my invention operates directly upon a wing, rather than upon a conventional elevator. The movable Wing portion 79 is connected by the resilient member 80 to the stationary wing component 81-said member 80 normally urging the wing to its uper high-lift position illustrated in FIGS. 17 and 20. The control vane 21m, pivoted to the fuselage at 82, is connected by flexible member 2811 to that portion of the movable wing structure on the same side of the fuselage as the said control vane.
In the operation of this form of my invention, the vane 21n will assume a position against the fuselage, as illus trated in FIG. 18. When this occurs, the flexible member 2821 will pull the wing member 79 into its high speed position illustrated in FIG. 18, where stationary portion 81 of the wing is substantially in alignment with the movable portion 79. When the speed is reduced and the rear portion of wing 79 is lowered due to the action of resilient member 80, the control vane 2111 will be moved outward- 1y by the member 28n.
It is thus apparent that in the various forms of my invention above-described and illustrated, the control of the plane is efiected through a movable control vane which is operatively associated with a plane-elevating device. In each case, high launching speeds are attainable, with no looping tendency, to produce an arrow-like flight; but when the launching force has been dissipated and the speed reduced, the control vane operates so as to permit the elevating device to assume a low-speed position for descending movement.
In the above description, the invention has been disclosed merely by Way of example and in preferred manner; but obviously many variations and modifications may be made therein. It is to be understood, therefore, that the invention is not limited to any specific form or manner of practicing same, except insofar as such limitations are specified in the appended claims.
1. In a flying device, a plane elevating member mov able between a predetermined high-speed non-lifting position and a range of low-speed lifting positions, a control vane member disposed in a plane normal to that of said plane elevating member and movable between a high-speed position substantially in the path of flight and a predetermined range of low-speed positions angularly disposed with respect to the path of flight, resilient means connected to said elevating member urging it away from its said high-speed position, actuating means on said device disposed between and adapted for operatively connecting sald elevating member and said control member, said actuating means being so proportioned and positioned that the movement of said control vane member Within a predetermined portion of its operative path in a direction towards its high-speed position will actuate said plane elevating member in a direction towards its said high-speed position, said plane elevating member being in its highspeed position when said control member is in its highspeed position, and stop means engageable with said plane elevating member at said high-speed position.
2. In a flying device, the combination according to claim 1, and stop means engageable with said plane elevating member at said high-speed position and at the extreme low-speed position of its said lifting positions.
3. In a flying device, a plane elevating member movable between a predetermined high-speed non-lifting position and a range of low-speed lifting positions, a control vane member movable between a high-speed position substantially in the path of flight and a predetermined range of low-speed positions angularly disposed with respect to the path of flight, resilient means connected to said elevating member urging it away from its said high-speed position, a cam aflixed to said elevating member and having an operative inclined surface positioned for intercepting relation with said control vane member, whereby said operative surface and said control member will be engageable so that said control and elevating members will mutually actuate each other, said cam and said control member being so proportioned and positioned that the movement of one of said members within a predetermined portion of its operative path in a direction towards its high-speed position will actuate the other member in a direction towards its said high-speed position.
4. In a flying device, the combination according to claim 1, said stop means having a trigger release stop member mounted on said plane elevating member and positioned substantially in the plane of said control vane member and engageable with an edge thereof when the latter member is in its said high-speed position.
5. In a flying device, the combination according to claim 1, said stop means having a trigger release stop member mounted on said plane elevating member and positioned substantially in the plane of said control vane member and engageable with an edge thereof when the latter member is in its said high-speed position, said device having at the rear thereof a stop bar, said control vane member having at the rear thereof an extension proportioned and positioned to engage said stop bar when said control vane member is at its high-speed position.
6. In a flying device, the combination according to claim 1, said actuating means comprising a rigid link pivotally connected to said plane elevating member and said control member.
7. In a flying device, the combination according to claim 1, said actuating means comprising a rigid link pivotally connected to said plane elevating member and said control member, said link being connected to the respective rear edges of said plane elevating and control members.
8. In a flying device, the combination according to claim 1, said actuating means comprising a rigid link pivotally connected to said plane elevating member and said control member, said device having at the rear thereof an apertured portion, said link being connected to the respective rear edges of said plane elevating and control members and extending through said apertured portion.
9. In a flying device, the combination according to claim 1, said plane elevating member comprising a wing member, and a flexible member attached to said control vane member and anchored to said wing member, said flexible member being of a length whereby it is taut when said control and movable wing members are in their said respective high-speed posit-ions.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,007,964 Crane July 16, 1935 2,034,143 Jacobs Mar. .17, 1936 2,136,067 Witte Nov. 8, 1938 2,597,521 Pemberton et al May 20, 1952