|Publication number||US3093396 A|
|Publication date||Jun 11, 1963|
|Filing date||Dec 22, 1960|
|Priority date||Dec 22, 1960|
|Publication number||US 3093396 A, US 3093396A, US-A-3093396, US3093396 A, US3093396A|
|Inventors||John J Segreto|
|Original Assignee||Betsy Ross Feld|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (10), Referenced by (52), Classifications (7)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
June 11, 1963 .1.J. SEGRETO BOOKBINDING METHOD AND APPARATUS 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 F'iled Deo. 22, 1960 INVENTOR ...TUI-1N .l EEEInE'T-m MQW www ATTORNEY June 11, 1963 J. J. SEGRETO 3,093,396
BooKBINDING METHOD AND APPARATUS INVENTOR TmhN T. EET' ETD MMM ATTORNEY J. J. SEGRETO 3,093,396
BooxBINDING METHOD AND APPARATUS 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 Il I L June 11, 1963 Filed Dec.
INVENTOR TDI-1N J. EECr'E'EI BY me M ATTORNEY United States Patent O 3,093,396 BOOKBINDING METHOD AND APPARATUS John J. Segreto, Brooklyn, N.Y., assiguor to' Betsy Ross Feld, Brooklyn, N.Y. Filed Dec. ZZ, 1960, Ser. No. 77,722 Claims. (Cl. 281-21) This invention relates to a method of bookbinding, with particular reference to books which are bound by adhesive alone. The invention also provides apparatus for performing the several steps of said bookbinding method.
Briefly stated, the problem which the bookbinding industry has long faced in connection with adhesive bindings is the problem of combining adequate adhesive strength with sufficient flexibility. It is essential that the signatures and individual pages of the book be securely attached to the cover. It is also essential that the cover remain flexible, to permit of frequent opening and closing of the book. Actually, the two properties of strength and flexibility are corollary to each other, since they are both needed and either without the other would not meet essential bookbinding requirements. Consequently, it is necessary to provide a strong bond which is at the `same time flexible, since an inflexible bond, however strong, will soon break.
To achieve this result, many kinds of adhesives have been tried and used. Moreover, these adhesives have been applied in many thicknesses, with varying degrees of success. A thick layer of adhesive is desirable to provide a strong bond, but the thicker the layer the more apt is it to crack under conditions 4of normal use of the book. Compromises have therefore been established to achieve adequate flexibility coupled with sufficient strength. As in most compromise situations, one or the other of these properties, and generally both, have had to suffer, and it has not heretofore been found possible to cornbine optimum binding strength with optimum binding flexibility.
It is the essential object of this invention to provide a bookbinding method which renders it possible to attain the strongest possible bond of which the adhesive iS capable, while at the same time achieving the fullest measure of flexibility. Briefly stated, this object is attained by laminating the adhesive. Stated differently, substantial thicknesses of adhesive are built up by means of successive .adhesive layers. Each individual layer of adhesive is relatively thin, and consequently retains optimum flexibility. The combination of a number of such thin layers of adhesive provides the thickness necessary to obtain the strongest possible bond of which the adhesive is inherently capable. More specifically, `the present method provides for the application of successive superimposed layers of adhesive. Each layer is skin-dried before the next layer is applied. Consequently, the several layers retain their individuality and particularly their flexibility, but combined they provide the thickness necessary to insure a very high strength coeilicient.
Another object of this invention is the provision of means for impregnating the individual pages with adhesive to a depth heretofore not commercially attainable. After the several layers of adhesive have been applied to the signatures and after the cover has been applied to the outermost of said layers, heat and pressure are applied to fuse the several adhesive layers together and to force the adhesive into the pages. The heat and pressure are applied to and through the cover, and `this procedure produces an evenly and uniformly ironed or pressed flat backbone containing no air bubbles or pockets.
Another important object of this invention is the provision of a bookbinding method of the character described wherein synthetic, heat-expansible adhesives are most advantageously employed. Reference is here made, for
example, to polyvinyl acetate adhesives and the like, which have heretofore been used but not to the same advantage. In the present system the heating step last above described causes molecular expansion of the adhesive and any moisture or water content is thereby caused to evaporate, leaving a very pure, soft, flexible polyvinyl acetate film adhering strongly both Ito the signatures and the cover.
A further object of this invention is the provision of means to finally set the adhesive binding in the shortest possible interval of time and under optimum control 4conditions. More specifically, pressure and refrigeration are both utilized to contract the expanded molecules to their final state, while at the same time maintaining the backbone in perfectly flat or square condi-tion. The result is a hard, flexible film of polyvinyl acetate holding the pages of the book securely together and securely attached to the cover, while maintaining the flat or square configuration of the backbone and permitting optimum` flexing under all conditions of normal use.
The invention is illustrated in the accompanying drawing, in which:
FIG. l is a schematic view or flow diagram showing the several stages and operations in the procedure herein described and claimed.
FIG. 2 is a fragmentary side view of apparatus performing the initial steps of the present invention.
FIG. 3 is a series of three sectional views disclosing the steps illustrated in FIG. 2.
FIG, 4 is another view similar to that of FIG. 2, `showing apparatus for performing .additional steps in the process herein described and claimed.
FIG. 5 is a sectional view showing a series of layers of adhesive applied to the pages of a book by means of the steps illustrated in FIG. 4.
FIG. 6 is a perspective view of one of the sections of the apparatus illustrated in FIG. 7.
FIG. 7 is another view similar to that of FIGS. 2 and 4 illustrating apparatus for carrying out additional steps in the process herein described and claimed.
FIG. 8 is a view similar to that of FIGS. 2, 4 and 7 illustrating apparatus for carrying out the final steps in said process.
FIG. 9 is a sectional view of -a book bound in accordance with the method and on the apparatus herein de' scribed and claimed.
Referring now to the apparatus 'herein claimed and illustrated in the drawing, it will be understood that conventional means are used for feeding collated signatures I@ to one end of the machine. In FIIG. 1 the conventional feeding mechanism -12 is illustrated by a box. In FIG. 2 an endless conveyor 14 is illustrated, this being acomponent of said feeding means 12. The signatures are moved at regularly spaced intervals to a clamping station, where they are clamped between the plates of spring clamp pockets 16. These clamping elements are mounted on Irails 18, on which they move through the initial stages of the process.
The first operation following clamping of the signatures into the clamp pockets is the preheating operation represented by preheater 2li illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 2. This conditions the signatures -for the immediate succeeding steps. In the next stage a rotary saw 22 removes the folds or backbones of the signatures, as illustrated in FIG. 3. In the next step a rotary sanding disc or notcher 2droughens the cut edges of the signature pages and prepares said edges to receive an adhesive. As noted in FIG. 2, a single motor 26 operating through a pair of belts 28 and 30, and a plurality of pulleys, may be used to drive the rotary saw 22 and sanding disc 24 simultaneously. The signatures are now ready for the adhesive applying step in the process.
The adhesive is applied in multiple layers in the apparatus shown in FIG. 4. By way of illustration, four adhesive applying or gluing stations are provided. These stations are represented by applicator rollers 32, 34, 36 and 38, which rotate respectively in glue pots or fountains 40, 42, 44 and 46. These rollers are connected to drive chains 48, which themselves are driven by chain 50. Consequently, all four rollers are synchronized in speed of rotation. As appears from FIG. 4, the several glue pots or fountains may be interconnected by means of ducts 52, 54 and 56, whereby the adhesive is maintained at a substantially constant and uniform level in all four fountains. A feed pipe 58 provides communication between fountain 46 and an adhesive reservoir or tank 60. A iiow of adhesive from said reservoir to said fountain is effected by means of a suitable pump 62, and it will be noted that a valve 64 in advance of said pump, and a check valve on the opposite side of said pump, control the flow of adhesive through said feed pipe. As the clamped signatures are moved from right to left, as viewed in FIG. 4, they are successively brought into contact with the applicator rollers.
Situated adjacent these applicator rollers are heating elements 70, `72, 74 and 76. When a clamped series of signatures is brought into contact with roller 32, a thin film of the adhesive contained in fountain 40 is applied thereto. This film is then skin-dried by means of heater 70. A second film of adhesive is then applied by means of roller 34, and this second film is then skin-dried by means of heater 72. A third adhesive film is applied by means of roller 36, and it is then skin-dried by means of heater 74. The final adhesive layer in the illustrated form of the invention is applied by means of roller 38, and heater 76 delivers just enough heat to render said final layer tacky. The signatures are now -ready for the next step, lin which the cover is attached.
It will be understood that any suitable adhesive may be used in connection with the process above described. However, synthetic adhesives are preferred, and especially the polyvinyl acetate emulsions of the homopolymer group with non-hygroscopic properties. To correlate FIGS. 1 and 4, it will be understood that the gluing operations above described with respect to FIG. 4 are illustrated by means of gluing stations 80, S2, 84 and 86 in FIG. 1. The heating operations above described with respect to FIG. 4 lare illustrated in FIG. 1 by means of heating stations 88, 90, 92 and 94. The four layers of adhesive are illustrated in FIG. 5, wherein 96 designates the first layer, 98 the second, 100 the third and 102 the fourth and final layer.
The next stage in the process is illustrated by station 104 in FIG. 1. This is the pick-up or feed station for covers 106, and it will be noted that these covers are fed to the machine by means of an endless conveyor 108. The final step in the feeding operation is performed by roller 110, which presses the back or backbone of the cover against the adhesive coated edges of the signatures.
A further step in the process is represented by station I112 in FIG. 1. This is the cover breaking station wherein the backbone of the cover is firmly secured to the adhesive coated edges of the signatures, while at the same time said backbone is given its flat or square configuration. As shown in FIG. 7, the now assembled signatures and covers are moved along in sliding contact with cover breaker plate 114. Sufficient pressure is applied to the backbone of the cover to provide it with its iiat or square configuration, and this configuration ris subsequently maintained and rendered permanent by the apparatus shortly to be described.
Station -116 in FIG. l illustrates the next step in the process wherein the adhesive is heated under pressure. Referring once again to FIG. 7, it will be noted that the apparatus at this station includes an endless conveyor belt 118 mounted on rollers 120 and 122. The roller shafts are journaled into or supported by means of bearings on blocks 124 and 126, mounted on a platform 128. The conveyor belt 118 and its supporting rollers are, of course, driven by suitable means such as a sprocket and chain drive 129. At this point it may be noted that all of the moving parts of this apparatus, those heretofore described and those hereafter described, are synchronized, and consequently the chain drive at each station is connected to or synchronized with the chain drives at all of the other stations.
Platform 128 is mounted on a hydraulic ram 130 and on supporting telescopic posts 131 and 133. It is by this means that conveyor belt 113 may be raised or lowered relative to the now covered signatures. There are various reasons for this arrangement, as will shortly become apparent from a description of the functions performed at this station.
Supported by springs 132 mounted on platform 128 are pressure plates 134. By reason of said springs these pressure plates bear up against the upper 4run of conveyor belt 118, and pressure is thereby applied against the backbone of the covers. These pressure plates are also heating elements, and consequently they not only apply pressure to the covers but they also apply heat. Any suitable heating means may be used in this connection, for example, dielectric, induction or resistance elements. The conveyor belt is made of relatively thin material which is heat-resistant but which does not interfere with the heating operation.
Hydraulic ram controls the pressure which is exerted against the covers, and in the event of an interruption in the operation of the machine or other abnormal condition, the ram may be used to lower the entire heating assembly in order to prevent burning of the books.
The amount of heat which is applied to the covers and the duration of the heating operation vary with the requirements of individual applications, kinds of adhesive used, and other factors. It has been found that the heating units should be capable of attaining and maintaining temperatures ranging from about 250 degrees to 2000 degrees Fahrenheit. What happens in the course of this heating operation is to fuse together the multiple layers of adhesive, and the pressure which is exerted against the covers forces the first layer to penetrate deeply into the signature pages. This pressure also irons or presses their backbones and eliminates all air bubbles and pockets. The heat produces all necessary chemical changes in the adhesive and drives otf any moisture contained therein. The result is a homogeneous, soft adhesive film firmly securing the pages of the signatures to each other and to the backbone of the cover.
In order to stabilize and finally set the adhesive to its permanent state at the earliest possible moment, one additional operation is required. This operation is illustrated in FIG. l by means of station 136, which represents the cooling step in the process. Once again, the covered signatures are moved onto a conveyor belt 138 mounted on rollers 140I and 142. The roller shafts are journaled into or supported by suitable bearings on blocks 144 and 146 mounted on platform 148. The conveyor belt may be made of stainless steel or any other suitable heat-conductive material. The upper run of said conveyor belt rests on cooling plates 150, which are supported by springs 152 on platform 148. The entire assembly at this station may be enclosed within a casing 154 and refrigerated air may be blown into said casing by blower 156. The chain and sprocket drive y15S is connected to conveyor belt 138 and its supporting rollers 140 and 142 in order to drive the belt in synchronization with the operations of the machine heretofore described.
What happens at cooling station 136 is to set the adhesive by cooling it under pressure. Temperatures ranging from 45 degrees t0 150 degrees Fahrenheit below zero may be utilized in order to contract the heatexpanded molecules of the adhesive and to set the adhesive to its iinal station, namely a hard, flexible lm securely holding the pages of the signatures and the backbone of the cover together. This range of temperature is purely illustrative, and other temperature ranges may also be utilized to good advantage. Much depends on the speed of operation of the machine and the time of exposure to the refrigerated air. Any suitable cooling means may be used, such as a conventional commercial or industrial type of refrigerating system or solidiiied carbon dioxide and the like.
The bookbinding process herein described and claimed is now completed, and what remains is to release the books from their respective clamps at delivery station 160 illustrated in FIG. 1. The books are now dropped or deposited upon a conveyor 162, which carries them away.
The foregoing is illustrative of a preferred form of this invention, and it will be understood that this form may be varied and modifications and additions may be incorporated therein, Without departing from the essential principles of the invention and the scope of the claims.
1. In a bookbinding system, the process of lapplying an adhesive to the signatures of a book and securing a cover thereto, said process comprising the steps of applying several successive layers of adhesive of `generally uniform thickness to the signatures of the book and skin-drying each layer before the succeeding `layer is applied, the inal layer being dried to tacky condition to receive a cover, placing the backbone of `such cover against the iinal layer of adhesive and lapplying beat and pressure to said backbone to fuse the several layers of adhesive while causing the iirst layer to penetrate the bers of the individual signature pages.
2. The process described in claim 1, wherein the backbone of the cover is held liat lagainst the edges of the signatures iduring the heat and pressure applying operation in order to provide said backbone with a square configuration relative to the plane of the book.
3. The process described -in claim 1, wherein the adhesive is linally set by rapid cooling thereof at relatively low tempenatures.
4. The process described in claim l1, wherein the adhesive is finally set under pressure and at relatively low temperatures attained by refrigeration.
5. A bock-binding system comprising the steps of clamping a plurality of signatures together, cutting the folds olf said signatures, roughening the cut edges of the signatures, applying 4several successive laye-rs of ladhesive of generally uniform thickness to said cut edges, skin-drying such layer before the succeeding layer is applied thereto, the iinal layer being dried to a tacky condition, applying the backbone of said book cover to said tacky layer of adhesive, applying heat and pressure to said adhesive through said backbone, thereby dry-ing the adhesive While forcing it into the iibers of the cut edges of the signatures and squaring the backbone, 'and finally quickly cooling the adhesive under pressure to permanently set the signatures While maintaining the backbone in square relationship to the signatures.
References Cited in the tile of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,804,392 Alger et al. May 12, 1931 1,879,757 Kusch Sept. 27, 1932 1,931,244 Alger et al Oct. 17, 1933 2,277,265 Zahniser Mar. 24, 1942 2,380,047 Hyman July 10, 1945 2,523,860 Budden Sept. 26, 1950 2,968,336 Martin et al. Jan. 17, 1961 FOREIGN PATENTS 723,649 Great Britain Feb. 9, 1955 723,652 Great Br-i-tain Feb. 9, 1955 788,459 Great Britain Ian. 2, 1958
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|U.S. Classification||412/16, 156/908, 281/21.1|
|Cooperative Classification||B42C9/0025, Y10S156/908|