US 3094778 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
June 25, 1963 c. F. H. MAILLAND 3,09 ,77
ARTIFICIAL DENTURE v Filed July 7, 1960 FIG-2 D .NMM a m A+ MM in F E M A L w u '0 United States Patent 3,094,778 ARTIFICIAL DENTURE Claude Frangois Hippolyte Mailland, Rue Paul Valry, Paris, France Filed July 7, 1960, Ser. No. 41,319 Claims priority, application France Oct. 2, 1959 3 Claims. (Cl. 32-5) This invention relates to dental prosthesis apparatus or dentures and has as its essential object a complete elimination of hooks, and suction or other means which are presently indispensable for holding dentures in position on either the upper or the lower jaw.
It is known that teeth do not present a uniform cross section and in particular the cross sectional area at the level of the neck of the tooth is smaller than that at the crown of the tooth. In other words, it may be said that teeth do not constitute prismatic or cylindrical bodies but rather frustoconical bodies having their smaller base at the neck of the tooth.
Hence, in making a denture, if the latter is to be freely insertable to and removable from its prescribed position in the wearers mouth, such denture must be provided with spaces between the artificial teeth therein, large enough to permit the passing therethrough of the thickest portions of any teeth remaining in the wearers month. As a result, when a denture is put into place it cannot exactly conform to the shape of the necks of such remaining teeth and thus fill the existing interdental spaces, and this explains why it is necessary to provide retainer means such as hooks, suction devices or the like.
It is known furthermore that the outer surface of a normal gum is not accurately uniform and smooth, but rather presents recesses, asperities and/or ridges, so that it is practically impossible when making a denture to provide the latter with artificial gums wherein the inner surfaces would conform accurately to the outer surfaces of the natural gums, since if this were the case it would not only be impossible for the artificial gums to overlie the natural gums, but it would also be impossible to remove the denture.
As a result of the foregoing, it is not possible to take advantage of the unevenness in the natural shape of the teeth and the natural configuration of the gums in order to retain a denture in position. In fact said unevenness prevents the making of dentures that would accurately conform to the base of the teeth at the level of the neck of the tooth and the shape of the natural gums, and would thereby be capable of retaining their position without the assistance of retainer means, the more usual of which comprise hooks encircling to a greater or smaller degree the sound teeth remaining in the mouth and which serve as supporting posts or columns.
With the above in mind, the basic idea of the invention lies in the use, broadly, of any unevenness that may be present both in the shape of the natural teeth and/or in the shape of the natural gums of the wearer in order to ensure a perfect locking of a denture in position without the use of hooks or similar devices.
Another object of the invention is the provision of dental prosthesis apparatus that may be placed in the mouth without requiring any particular adjustment.
Further features and advantages of the invention will stand out from the ensuing description with reference to the accompanying drawing which illustrates, schematically and by way of example only, two forms of embodiment of the novel dental prosthesis apparatus or denture.
In the drawing:
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a denture for the upper iaw constructed according to a first embodiment of the invention.
3,094,778 Patented June 25, 1963 7 FIG. '2 is a transverse sectional view of the apparatus of FIG. 1.
FIG. 3 is a larger-scale sectional View of a resilient connecting member.
FIG. 4 is a view similar to FIG. 1 illustrating a modified embodiment.
In the exemplary embodiment shown in FIG. 1, the denture includes a body 1 of conventional shape conforming to the roof of the mouth and having artificial teeth such as 2 secured thereto and further including separate parts 3 and 4 adapted to overlie outer surfaces of the portions of the natural gums positioned immediately below the artificial teeth 2. The parts 3 and 4, instead of being formed integrally with the body 1, are provided in the form of two separate parts connected with said body 1 through resilient members.
Each resilient member (see FIG. 3) includes a tube 5 imbedded within the body 1 of the denture and having freely extending through it a rod 6 imbedded at one end in the part 3 or 4 of the apparatus and threaded at its other end so as to be adapted to receive a nut 7 serving to seat, and adjust the tension of, a spring 8 surrounding said rod 6 and housed within the tube 5. The latter in turn is formed at or adjacent to its inner end with a screw thread for the mounting of a sealing cap 9 which, when the apparatus has been completed, is positioned in bores such as 10 drilled in the body 1 of the apparatus.
As a result of the mounting system just described, each of the parts 3 and 4 is movable with respect to the denture body 1, and this allows each of said parts to open out and thereby permit the insertion and removal of the denture even though the inner face of each said part accurately conforms with the outer face of the natural gum area which it is to overlie.
In constructing a denture according to the invention the following procedure is used. The denture, whether total or partial, is first prepared in the conventional manner, but without the bums. The denture blank thus made is placed back on its pattern or mould and the gum part is then fashioned so as to conform accurately with the shape of the natural gum and the interdental spaces reproduced on said mould. The tubes 5 were preliminarily secured to the body 1 of the denture and the screw rods 6 secured to the parts 3- and 4 constituting the artificial gums. It then only remains to insert said rods into the corresponding tubes and then, after having positioned the springs 8, screw the nuts 7 so as to obtain the desired compression of said springs. Finally the sealing caps 9 are screwed on and may if desired be then blocked by coating them with cement or other compound completely to seal the openings of the holes 10.
In the modified embodiment shown in FIG. 4, the portions 3 and 4 of the denture are in turn constructed each in two parts namely a part 11 or 12 integral with the denture body 13 provided with the artificial teeth 14, and an end or corner part 15 or 16 which is resiliently mounted and prepared as previously described.
Apart from the fact that the prosthesis apparatus of the invention can retain its position in the mouth without the use of hooks or other securing means, it has the further advantage that it may be inserted into the month without any prior adjustment since the denture as delivered from the prosthesis maker exactly reproduces all the configurations of the model or pattern produced from the moulding made by the dental surgeon.
It will be understood that the denture was described and illustrated for purely illustrative and not for restrictive purposes, and that various modifications may be made in the details of the forms of embodiment shown without exceeding the scope of the invention. Thus in particular in the case of a partial or total denture the resiliently mounted artificial gum portion may be more or less extensive, and may even correspond to the full extent of the gums.
What I claim is:
1. A denture comprising a main part including artificial teeth carried thereby, at least one further part having a surface for overlaying an outer portion of a gum of the wearer, resilient means interconnecting said parts including at least one assembly comprising a tubular casing element imbedded in one of said parts and a plunger element imbedded in and projecting from the other of said parts into said tubular c asing element and slidable therein, and a spring in said casing element urging said plunger element thereinto.
2. A denture as claimed in claim 1 wherein said plunger element comprises a rod projecting from said other part and a head adjustably screwed on the projecting end of said rod.
3. A denture as claimed in claim 1, wherein said casing element has one end portion thereof imbedded in an aperture of said one par-t and has a cap screwed over said imbedded end portion thereof for sealing the casing element from the interior of the mouth.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,732,898 Krasnoff Oct. 22, 1929 1,7 32,899 Krasnoif Oct. 22, 1929 FOREIGN PATENTS 81,256 Netherlands Apr. 16, 1956