|Publication number||US3094858 A|
|Publication date||Jun 25, 1963|
|Filing date||Mar 1, 1961|
|Priority date||Mar 1, 1961|
|Also published as||DE1460199A1|
|Publication number||US 3094858 A, US 3094858A, US-A-3094858, US3094858 A, US3094858A|
|Inventors||Gilliam Robert A, Isley John V|
|Original Assignee||Burlington Industries Inc|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (10), Referenced by (3), Classifications (8)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
June 25, 1963 J. v. lsLEY ETAL 3,094,858
LOW PRESSURE. HIGH TEMPERATURE DYE BECK Filed March 1, 1961 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTORS J/v l./ 12525)/ ATTORNEYS" June 25, 1963 J. v. lsLEY ETAL LOW PRESSURE, HIGH TEMPERATURE vDYE BECK 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed March l, 1961 ATTORNEYS United States Patent O 3,094,858 LOW PRESSURE, HIGH TEMPERATURE DYE BECK John V. Isley, Burlington and Robert A. Gilliam, Greensboro, N.C., assignors to Burlington Industries, Inc.,
Greensboro, N.C., a corporation of Delaware Filed Mar. 1, 1961, Ser. No. 92,659 9 Claims. (Cl. 68-5) The present invention relates -to dye becks or dye machines and, more particularly, to pressure dye becks adapted to treat fabrics in rope form at elevated temperatures and low pressures above atmospheric pressure.
'It has been found highly desirable to dye synthetic or man made bers in rope form at temperatures beyond the normal boiling point of the dye liquor at atmospheric pressures. While machines for dyeing fabrics have been heretofore designed for dyeing under elevated temperatures and pressure, such prior machines have not controlled the temperature and pressure in an eliicient manner -to obtain uniform dyeing characteristics. Further, such prior machines injected live steam directly into the dye liquor for heating the dye liquor and such injection resulted in quicker dilution of the dyestuff in :the dye liquor, and consequently, a maximum amount of fabric could not be dyed uniformly and variations in shade of -the material resulted.
`An object of the present invention is to provide an improved and efficient dye beck machine particularly suited for the processing of fabric in rope form at elevated temperatures and pressures without the dye liquor being diluted or boiling away.
Another object of thc present invention is to provide an improved dye beck which makes it possible by elevated temperatures and elevated pressures to economically and advantageously dye otherwise hard to dye synthetic or man made fibers.
Still another object of the present invention is the provision of an improved dye beck machine capable of dyeing man made fabrics in rope form without streaks, blotches, shading, olf-shades, etc., thus insuring an improved quality control vfor the finished product.
A further object of the present invention is to provide an improved dye beck which has a better dyestuf exhaustion and makes it possible for the reduction in the ltime of the dyeing cycle thereby increasing utilization of the dye beck with a resultant reduction in labor and lixed cost per yard of fabric dye.
A further object of the present invention is to provide an improved dye beck utilizing less water and steam during each dyeing cycle by dyeing at increased control temperatures and pressures.
Ancillary to the preceding object, it is a further object of :the present invention to provide a dye beck having negligible waste of dyestutfs by applying pressure to the body of gases above the dye liquor to prevent the same from boiling.
.Another important object of the present invention is to provide a pressurized dye beck whereby accurate control of temperature and pressure is accomplished.
A still further and important object of the present invention is to provide a pressurized dye beck having means for preventing the temperature of the dye liquor and the pressure of the superposed body of gas from increasing above predetermined limits.
Another object of the present invention is to provide an improved pressurized dye beck wherein the steam for heating the dye liquor is confined within the dye beck thereby reducing the cooling and ventilation problems in the dye house, especially during the summer months.
Still another object of the present invention is to provide a dye beck whereby the corrosive elements result- Fgice ing from use ot water and dyestufs is not released into the air of the dye house, thereby decreasing building maintenance.
A further object of the present invention is to provide a negligible waste of dyestuifs by completely closing the dye beck and utilizing means to effectively prevent overilow of dye liquor or evaporation of the same and release from `the dye beck.
These and other objects of the present invention will appear more fully in the following specication, claims and drawings wherein:
FIGURE l is a side elevational view of the dye beck of the present invention, portions being broken away to illustrate features of the same;
FGURE 2 is an end elevational view of the dye beck of the present invention, the view being broken away in portions to illustrate features of the invention and fur-ther schematically illustrating the temperature control means.
l'Referring now to the drawings wherein like character or reference numerals represent like or similar parts, the dye beck of the present invention is generally designated by the numeral 10 and is preferably a cylindrical tank disposed upon a horizontal axis. All interior parts of the tank 10 or parts of system which come into contact -with the corrosive water or dyestufs are desira-bly constructed of stainless steel, similar corrosive resistant metal or corrosive resistant plastic. The cylindrical tank 10 is made of a lower semi-cylindrical section 12 and an upper semi-cylindrical section 1-4, each having peripheral flanges 16, bolted together in an air-tight relationship, as indicated at 18. A suitable gasket 20 is interposed between the flanges 16 of the lower and upper sections 12 and 14 so that the tank will be pressure tight along its connecting seam. The lower section 12 is provided with a pair o-f opposed end walls 22 having welded therebetween a wrapper member 24 which is semicircular in cross-section. A plural-ity of vertically extending ribs 25, which may be angle irons or the like, are welded or otherwise secured to each of the end walls 22 so as to provide them with the necessary rigidity suicient to withstand the internal pressures to which they are subjected. While the present dye beck is referred to as a low pressure dye beck, it will be understood that internal pressures are greater than atmospheric pressure. The maximum pressure to which the tank 10 is subjected is in the order of -2'9 ounces per square inch above atmospheric pressure.
The upper section 14 is similarly constructed to the lower section 12 in that it is provided With a pair of opposed end walls 26 and a semi-cylindrical wrapper member 28. The end walls 26 are suitably braced by the vertically extending ribs 30 welded or otherwise suitably secured thereto. The Wrapper member 28 of the upper section 14 of tank 10 is provided with an elongated access opening therein having a peripheral flange 32 surrounding the same. The opening in the upper wrapper member 28 is adapted to be closed by a door 34 having a suitable gasket 36 thereon for making sealing contact with the liange 3-2. The pressure door 34 is provided with any desirable operating linkage such as the bell crank linkage 3S and is adapted to move on a door track 40 carried by wrapper member 28 to an open position whereby access may be obtained to the interior ofthe dye beck. A handle 42 operates the bell crank linkage 38 to release the door from sealing engagement with the llange 32, the door then being capable of sliding on the door track 40 to an upper position. A cable 44 connected to the door and passing over a pair of pulleys 46 and 48 respectively is provided with a counterweight 50 at its other end so that when the operator releases the handle 42 the door 34 may be easily pushed to and retained in its open position until it is desired to close and relock the same. The access door 3'4 is provided with a glass window 52 whereby the operator can observe operation of the material being dyed within the dye beck.
The tank is provided with a vent pipe 54 in its upper section 14, the vent 54 normally being closed by a damper 56. The damper 56 may be manually opened to vent the interior of the tank 10 during cleaning of interior of the same or in between dyeing cycles. However, during a dyeing cycle, and when the tank 10 is pressurized, the damper 56 is locked in a closed position and provides a seal for the vent pipe 54 so that no fumes or pressure from the interior can leak to atmosphere.
The semi-cylindrical wrapper member 24 defines a curved bottom portion and curved side wall portions for the lower section 12 of the tank. Spaced from the bottom portion of the Wrapper 24 is a false bottom generally indicated by the numeral 58. The false bottom 58 includes a horizontally extending perforated section 60 and a removable perforated bale plate 62 spaced from one side wall portion of the same. As clearly shown in FlG- URE 2, the false bottom 58 provides a surface for supporting the fabric material 63 when the material is being moved through the dye liquor in an endless path and in rope form. In more detail, the fabric material 63 passes over an ovate main drive reel 64 and an idler drive reel 66. The ovate drive reel 64 is suitably journalled in the opposed end walls 26 of the upper section 14 of tank 10, the drive shaft 68 for the main drive reel extending through one end wall 26 and being provided with a gear 70 over which passes an endless drive chain 72. The endless drive chain 72 engages a gear 74 of a right angle reduction gear box 76 carried on a bracket 78 suitably mounted on the external surface of the tank. A motor 80 also mounted on the bracket 78 is adapted to drive a V-belt 82 which in turn drives an input pulley 84 of the reduction gear box 76.
The idler reel 66 is journalled at one end in a removable plate and supporting bracket 86 suitably carried on one end wall 26 of tank 10 so that easy access for repair or inspection of the idler reel may be accomplished. A peg rack generally designated by the numeral 90 is provided for guiding separate lengths of fabric in rope form passing about the idler reel 66 and the main drive reel 64.
As is now evident, rotation of the ovate main drive reel 64 in a clockwise direction, as viewed in FIGURE 2, will cause the fabric 63 in rope form to move from the front of the dye beck toward the rear across the top of the same, the fabric 63 being pleated as it moves from the rear toward the front of the dye beck along the false bottom 58.
Closed curved steam coils 92 are mounted within the interior of the tank 10 between the false bottom 58 and the wrapper 24. The steam coils, as shown in FIGURE 2, extend from a position beneath the bottom portion of the false bottom 58 to a position adjacent the perforated bale 62 and have a curvature concentric with the curvature of the wrapper member 24. Steam from a suitable steam generator schematically represented at 94 flows through a steam inlet 96 into a manifold 98 for the steam coils 92. The steam is discharged from the coils 92 through a steam trap 100 to a suitable condenser or the like. As is now evident, the positioning of the steam coils 92, as described and illustrated, provides a chimney effect in heating the dye liquor. Since there is no raw steam flowing into the dye liquor, there is no turbulence, the heat being transferred smoothly through the dye liquor, the iiow of dye liquor resulting from the transfer of heat being a smooth laminar flow' through the perforated baille plate 62.
Positioned in the bottom portion of the tank 10 is a suitable drain outlet 102 which is closed by a dump valve 104. The dump valve may be operated by a suitable mechanical linkage 106 when it is desired to drain the tank of dye liquor or cleaning solutions.
Pressure tank 10 is provided with a suitable inlet fitting (not shown) which is connected to conventional pump means for pumping dye liquor into the tank prior to the starting of a dyeing cycle. The pumping system includes the usual auxiliary equipment such as valves, sight gauges, storage tanks and the like. Also the tank 10 may be provided with a water inlet connected to the water system of the plant so that the tank can be flushed at the end of a run.
The temperature of the dye liquor within the tank 10 is controlled by the .amount of steam passing through the steam coils 92. In order that the temperature may be elevated to a predetermined temperature and maintained at that temperature, a temperature responsive probe 108 is suitably positioned within the lower section 12 of the tank so that it is constantly sensing the temperature of the dye liquor therein. The temperature responsive probe 108 is connected to -a suitable temperature controller schematically designated by the numeral 110, the temperature controller controlling the amount of steam owing from the steam generator through the coils 92. Thus, after the controller has -been set for a predetermined temperature and if the temperature of the dye liquor is below this predetermined temperature, the probe 108 will sense the temperature and signal the temperature controller so that it operates the steam generator 94 or the like in a manner to supply more steam to the coils 92 whereby the dye liquor is heated until such time it reaches the predetermined desired temperature. Conversely, if temperature of dye liquor is too high, the temperature controller 110 reduces or stops the lflow of steam through coils 92.
By making the tank 10 pressure tight, the air above the dye liquor, which is defined herein as a superposed body of gas, is heated by heat from the dye liquor, and consequently, the pressure of the same is increased due to the expansion of the gas in a conned area as the temperature of the dye liquor is increased. Since the dye liquor boils at approxi-mately the same temperature as water, namely, 212 F., at -a standard atmospheric pressure, the increase in pressure of the superposed body of gas on the dye liquor will prevent the dye liquor from boiling when its temperature increases -above 212 F. It has been found that the temperature-pressure relationship within the tank for giving a satisfactory dyeing of man made fabrics without boiling of the dye liquor is accomplished according to the following table:
In order that the temperature of the dye liquor and the pressure of the superposed body of gas does not exceed a maximum predetermined amount where there is danger of structural failure of the dye beck, the dye beck 10 is provided with a U-shaped duct 120 having one end 122 thereof communcating with the interior of the tank 10 through a suitable opening 124 at a point slightly above the level A of the dye liquor within the tank. 'Ihe U-shaped duct 120 extends downwardly beneath the tank and upwardly on the other side to a level C above the level of the liquid A which is also higher than the level B of the opening 122. A pair of downwardly extending tubes 125 communicate with the upper end of the U-shaped duct -at the level C, the tubes 125' extending downwardly beneath the tank to a point 126 where they can discharge liquid to a suitable drain. Since the tubes 12S are open to atmosphere at 126, effectively the duct 120 is open to atmosphere at the level C. The U-shaped duct 120 is illed with a liquid to the level B.
As the pressure of the superposed body of gas in the tank 10 increases above atmospheric pressure, the pressure acting on the liquid at the level of opening 122 will cause the liquid to be forced down in the duct 120 and upwardly towards the level C. When the pressure within the tank 10 reaches, for example, -29 ozs. per square inch which has been found as a suitable maximum limit when the temperature of the dye liquor is at 218.44 F., the liquid within the duct 120 will start flowing outwardly through the discharge escape tubes 125 and -be discharged therefrom at 12-6 into the drain. The operator ofthe dye beck will then have an indication that the internal pressure of the superposed body of gas and the temperature of the dye liquor has increased to a maximum limit and suitable corrective action may be taken. The U-shape'd duct 120 will overow at a pressure of 29 ozs. per square inch at a temperature of 218.44 =F. when it is designed with a resulting volume of liquid that will be approximately equal to a vertical column of water 40 inches high. By utilizing -a liquid seal in the duct 120, the dye liquor is prevented from boiling and overflowing, and also fumes are prevented from being released into the shop air.
The liquid used in the U-shaped duet 120 is preferably water for the reasons given heretofore, but it, of course, may -be dye liquor. By providing a iiquid seal between the interi-or of the tank and atmosphere, an etlicient means has been accomplished for controlling the maximum pressures and temperatures within the tank.
When a dyeing cycle has been completed and the tank is depressurized, the fabric being removed through the access door 34, the tank may be washed out by passing water therethrough and letting the level of the water rise to level B of the opening 122. Continued flow of water through the tank will cause the water Ito be circulated therethrough and discharged through the overow tubes 12S. When the cleaning operation of the tank is completed, the flushing water is turned E and the dump valve 104 is opened so as to drain the water from the interior of the tank. However, the Water remains in the duct 120 at the level B so that during the next cycle of operation the duct 120 already is provided with a suitable liquid for providing a liquid seal between the interior of the tank and atmosphere. When the tank is ready for a new batch of dye liquor, the dye liquor may be supplied to the tank in the usual manner until it reaches the level A which is at or just below the level B.
By utilizing the temperature controller unit 110 with the liquid column as defined by the duct 120 filled with liquid, an improved dyeing operation results in that accurate temperature of the dye liquor with a predetermined pressure may be maintained so that the dye liquor does not boil at temperatures in excess of its normal boiling point under standard atmospheric conditions. The time of the dyeing cycle is decreased as the dye-stuti:l exhaustion is increased, and a more uniform dyeing of fabric in rope form results.
It -will now be obvious to those skilled in the art that the improved dye beck heretofore described is susceptible to some modifications and changes without departing from the spirit and principles of the invention. The specific embodiment described is merely for the purpose of illustrating the conception of the invention and to disclose a structure which has fully and electively accomplished the objects and advantages of the invention. Therefore, the terminology used in the specification is for the purpose of description and not limitation, the scope of the invention being defined in the claims.
l. In -a dye machine for dyeing fabrics in rope form moving through a dye liquor at a temperature above the boiling point of the dye liquor at atmosphere and under an elevated pressure, the improvement comprising: a pressure tank for the dye liquor and the fabric to be dyed, said pressure tank having an opening therein positioned above the normal level of dye liq-uor; a closure for said opening including means for sealing the same; said tank having a curved bottom and side walls; a false bottom carried in said tank and spaced from said curved bottom and side walls, said false bottom having at least a portion thereof perforated; closed coils positioned between said false bottom and said side walls and the bottom of said tank; means to circulate a hot uid through said coils whereby heat is transferred to and elevates the temperature of the dye liquor and pressure in said tank; and liquid column means open to the interior of said tank at a position at least at the normal level of dye liquor therein, said liquid column means being open to atmosphere at an elevation higher than its opening to the interior of said tank, said liquid colurrm means being responsive to a predetermined elevated pressure in said tank at a predetermined elevated temperature of the dye liquor for controlling further increase in temperature of the dye liquor and pressure in the tank, said liquid column means including a U-shaped duct extending external-ly about the side walls and bottom of said tank, said duct opening at one end thereof to the interior of said tank and at the other end thereof to atmosphere.
2. A dye machine of the character described in claim l including means responsive to the temperature of the dye liquor in said tank for controlling flow of hot uid through said coils.
3. In a dye machine for dyeing fabrics in rope form moving through a dye liquor at a temperature above the boiling point of the dye liquor at atmosphere and under an elevated pressure, the improvement comprising: a pressure tank having a dye liquor therein at a predetermined level and a superposed -body of gas; means in said tank for endlessly moving the fabric through the dye liquor and the superposed body of gas; conduction heating means positioned in the tank below the predetermined level of the dye liquor therein for heating the dye liquor and .thereby increasing the pressure of the superposed gas and causing the dye liquor to circulate; and a U-shaped duct in open communication at one end thereof to the interior of the tank at a level above the predetermined level of dye liquor therein and at the other end thereof to the atmosphere above its opening into the tank, said duct `being -lled with a liquid and providing a liquid seal between the superposed body of gas within said tank and the atmosphere.
4. In a dye machine for dyeing fabrics in rope form moving through a dye liquor at a temperature above the boiling point of the dye liquor at atmosphere and under an elevated pressure, the improvement comprising: a pressure tank for the dye liquor and a superposed body of gas; means in said tank for moving the fabric through the dye liquor and the superposed body of gas; means for heating the dye liquor and thereby increasing the pressure of superposed gas; a U-sh-aped duct having one end thereof open to the superposed body of gas within said tank and the other end thereof open to atmosphere at an elevation above its opening Within said tank, said U-shaped duct extending externally beneath said tank and being lled with a liquid to define a liquid column whereby an increase of pressure -within said tank causes said liquid oolumn to rise in said duct toward its opening with atmosphere.
5. A dye machine of the character described in claim 4, including at least one discharge tube communicating with said duct at its opening to atmosphere, said discharge tube extending downwardly beneath said tank for discharging overflow liquid from said duct when pressure within said tank increases beyond a predetermined pressure.
6. A dye machine of the character described in claim 4, including means responsive to temperature of the dye liquor in said tank for controlling the means to heat said dye liquor.
7. A dye machine of the character described in claim 6 wherein said last-mentioned control means includes a temperature responsive probe positioned in the dye liquor in said tank.
8. A dye machine of the character described in claim 4 wherein the liquid in said duct is dye liquor and wherein superposed body of gas is air.
9. A dye machine of the character described in claim 4 wherein the liquid column defined by said U-shaped duct has -an effective vertical height of approximately 40 inches of water and wherein said liquid column discharges from said duct at -a pressure of approxi-mately 29 ounces per square -inch with a temperature of the dye liquor at approximately 218.44 P.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Seither Nov. 5, 1901,
Wolff Dec. 15, 1903l Elliott lune 10, 1924l Platt Feb. 3, 1942 Wolfenden Dec. 3, 1946- Hallanan Nov. 18, 1947 Derby Oct. 25, 1949 Whittington Apr. 22, 1952 Belcher Apr. 19, 1955 Fahringer Apr. 4, 1961
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|US2431246 *||Jan 25, 1946||Nov 18, 1947||Hallanan Edwin R||Domestic washing machine for clothes, dishes, and the like|
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|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3511068 *||May 29, 1968||May 12, 1970||Hisaka Works Ltd||Dye machine|
|US4538432 *||Dec 29, 1983||Sep 3, 1985||Milliken Research Corporation||Optimum pressure control|
|US4580305 *||Aug 6, 1984||Apr 8, 1986||Milliken Research Corporation||Optimum pressure control|
|U.S. Classification||68/5.00C, 68/15, 68/208, 68/177|
|International Classification||D06B3/00, D06B3/26|