US 3096630 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
July 9, 1963 P. A. WELLER '3,096,630
REFRIGERATION MACHINE INCLUDING COMPRESSOR. CONDENSER AND EVAPORATOR 2 Sheets-Sheet l Filed March 50, 1960 July 9, 1963 P. A. WELLER REFRIGERATION MACHINE INCLUDING COMPRESSOR, CONDENSER AND EVAPORATOR Filed March 30, 1960 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 PETER A.WELLER MM50, LENS Mc Ruz ATTORNEYS United States Patent Office 3,096,630 Patented July 9, 1963 3,096,630 REFRIGERATION MACHINE INCLUDING CUM- PRESSOR, CONDENSER AND EVAPGRATOR Peter Anthony Weller, Farmington, Mich., assigner to American Radiator & Standard Sanitary Corporation, New York, N.Y., a corporation of Delaware Filed Mar. 30, 1960, Ser. No. 18,607 6 Claims. (Cl. 62-506) transfer tubes extending therethrough. Heat transfer fluid such as water is circulated through the tubes, the arrangement being such that water traveling through the condenser tubes extracts heat from the refrigerant to effect condensation, and water traveling through the evaporator tubes has heat removed by evaporation of the refrigerant.
Heretofore the evaporator and condenser (with their respective tube bundles) have usually been constructed as separate shell structures. Each of these separate shell structures must lbe individually installed in the location of use, and much piping is required to provide an operative system. The separate nature of the condenser and evaporator constructions is disadvantageous also by reason of heat losses which are encountered in refrigerant transfer between the sections so that need exists for an improved compact arrangement of unitary condenser and evaporator sections. Such unitary construction materially lowers the manufacturing costs and results in easier installation and less floor space consumption in its location of use.
With the above discussion in mind, it is a general object of the present invention to provide a unitary refrigerant system having the above-mentioned improved features of lower cost, simplified construction, simplified installation, reduced size, and improved heat transfer characteristics.
A further object of the invention is to provide a re frigerant system which can be installed as a single selfcontained package structure, complete with evaporator, compressor and condenser.
An additional object of the invention is to provide a unitary refrigerant machine having improved iiow of refrigerant, the improvement particularly residing in an arrangement wherein relatively short flow `ducts are utilized between the operative components of the system and wherein natural tendencies of the refrigerant in its different states (liquid and gaseous) are taken advantage of in promoting a satisfactory refrigerant circulation.
A still further object of the invention is to provide a compressor-condenser arrangement wherein compressed refrigerant is fed from the compressor into extensive and diverse areas of the condenser so as to promote a rapid, high rate condensing action.
A further object of the invention is to provide a refrigerant system devoid of constricted flow areas such as would retard the proper flow of refrigerant and such as would interfere with proper operation of the system after prolonged service life, as by reason of clogging, plugging or the like.
Another object of the invention is to provide a refrigerant system having an eliminator or condensate collection member arranged to receive evaporated refrigerant from the evaporator and trap condensed refrigerant against entrance into the compressor, the construction and arrangement being such that the eliminator presents an extensive surface area to the evaporated refrigerant, whereby the vapor velocities are maintained relatively low so as to reduce the tendency for liquid entrainment.
yOther objects of this invention will appear in the following description and appended claims, reference being Iliad to the accompanying drawings forming a part of this specification wherein like reference characters designate corresponding parts in the several views.
`In the drawings:
FIGURE 1 is a sectional View of one embodiment of the invention taken substantially on line 1--1 in FIG. 2;
FIG. 2 is a sectional view taken substantially on line 2--2 in FIG. l;
FIG. 3 is a top plan view of a portion of the FIG. l embodiment taken on a reduced scale; and
IFIG. 4 is a reduced scale sectional view taken substantially on line 4-4 in FIG. l.
Before explaining the present invention -in detail, it is to be understood 4that the invention is not limited in its application to the details of construction and arrangement of parts illustrated in the accompanying drawings, since the invention is capable of other embodiments and of being practiced or carried out in various ways. Also, it is to be understood that the phraseology or terminology employed herein is for the purpose of Adescription and not of limitation.
Referring to the drawings and particularly FIG. 1, there is disclosed a refrigerant system including a compressor section identified generally by numeral 10, a condenser section identified generally by numeral 12, and an evaporator section identified generally by numeral 14. It will be noted from FIGS. 1 and 2 that the refrigerant takes a path such that evaporated refrigerant -from the evaporator section 14 travels upwardly through a central tube `or passageway 68 and into the inlet of the compressor section 10. The compressed refrigerant is directed generally laterally in two different directions before being discharged in a generally downward direction at two longitudinally spaced points within the condenser section 12.
By reference to FIGS. 2 and 4 it will be seen that the condensed refrigerant drains downwardly on the sloping surfaces 18 and 20, and thence into the channels 24 which lead to the receiver or trap chamber 26. The collected refrigerant in receiver 26 is drawn upwardly through a conduit 28 and thence into the spray means indicated generally by numeral 30, from whence it is discharged downwardly onto the bundle of tubes 45 extending within the evaporator section 14. The evaporated refrigerant is then drawn upwardly by the compressor as previously explained so as to repeat the cycle. The drawings show the refrigerant distributing means as comprising the spray pipes 102 and 104 acting to discharge refrigerant downwardly onto the evaporator tubes. Such a downward Vdischarge is desirable because it promotes dispersion of the refrigerant into fine droplets and provides satisfactory efficiencies. `It is however possible within the broader aspects of the invention to provide -a distribution means acting to discharge the refrigerant as an upwardly directed spray from adjacent the lower portion of the evaporator. For example, the distribution system might take the form of an axially elongated plate or baffle perforated along its length and receiving refrigerant from the trap chamber to discharge same as -a fine upwardly directed spray.
Referring in greater detail to the structure briefly outlined above, the illustrated arrangement comprises generally a horizontally elongated shell or tube 32 of generally cylindrical cross section. At its opposite ends the shell is provided with the vertical partitions 34 and 36 which serve to mount the end'portions of various heat transfer tubes extending within evaporator section 14 and condenser section 12. The space between the right end of shell 32 and the adjacent vertical partition 34 is subdivided by a horizontal partition 42 and vertical partition 44 to form inlet and outlet chambers for circulating heat exchange fluid such as water through the heat transfer tubes 45 in evaporator section 14. Circulation through tubes 45 is further facilitated by a horizontal partition 47, the arrangement being such that water is pumped through certain of the tubes 45 in the arrow 49 direction from inlet 50 so as to give up some of its heat to the refrigerant in the evaporator section 14. The water is thus directed into a chamber `52 at the left end of the shell structure 32 and is returned to the right end of the shell structure through the remaining tubes 45 so as to extract additional heat from the refrigerant surrounding the tubes.
Condenser section 12 is provided with tubes 51 and 53 communicating with the spaces on opposite sides of the vertical partition 55, the arrangement being such that the fluid travels in tubes 51 in the arrow 57 direction from inlet 58 to chamber 60 and thence in a reverse direction through tubes 53 for discharge. During its travel through tubes 51 and 53V the heat transfer fluid extracts heat from the refrigerant in condenser section 12 to effect the condensing operations.
From the above discussion it will be seen that the evaporator section 14 and condenser section 12 are each provided with separate longitudinally extending tube bundles for circulation of heat transfer iiuid through the system to provide the desired cooling and heating actions in the two sections.
By reference to FIGS. 2 and 4 it will be seen that the shell structure 32 is provided with an elongated partition 64 extending the full distance between vertical partitions 34 and 36 so as to form the aforementioned condenser section 12 and evaporator section 14. The longitudinal partition is provided with two oppositely sloping or slanting sections as shown in FIGS. 2 and 4, so as to form the aforementioned sloping surfaces at 18 and 20 for directing condensate from the condenser section 12. Preferably although not necessarily partition 64 is constructed as a double wall structure with thermal insulation 66 in the spaces between the two walls, the purpose in this arrangement being to thermally insulate the condenser section 12 from the evaporator section 14 so as to improve the heat transfer characteristics of the two sections.
Partition 64 is connected with an upwardly extending duct or passageway 68 which extends centrally through an intermediate portion of the condenser section 12 so as to communicate with the inlet opening 70 of the compressor 10. It will be noted that the compressor is of the centrifugal type and is provided with a power source in the form of an electric motor 72 having the shaft thereof connected with the varied impeller 74. The varies of the compressor direct refrigerant into the scroll structures generally indicated by numerals 78 and 79.
By reference to FIGS. 1 and 3 it will be seen that the scroll structures take fluid from the varies 76 at two diametrically spaced points and direct it in two separate streams longitudinally along the upper surface of the shell structure 32, and thence over to respective ones of the inlet openings 86 for the condenser section 12. yIt will be seen that the two inlet openings 86 are located at widely spaced points along the length of the condenser section, and that the compressed refrigerant from compressor is thereby caused to be given a wide circulation through the condenser. This is in contrast to some arrangements wherein the compressed refrigerant enters the condenser at only one point, in which case some portions of the condenser become relatively ineffective for heat transfer operations. With the illustrated arrangement substantially all portions of the condenser become effective as heat transfer areas, and the device can therefore be constructed as a relatively small structure per given refrigeration capacity requirement.
As previously noted the condensed refrigerant drains along the sloping surfaces 18 and 20 into the channels 24 which extend along the outer surfaces of the shell 32. The drawings show four channels 2.4 extending from the condenser section at points spaced along its length. However it will be appreciated that additional channels could be employed if desired, the number and size thereof depending on the capacity of the system.
The drawings show a receiver or trap chamber 26 formed centrally beneath the evaporator section 14, said trap chamber being in communication with the channels 24 to receive the condensed refrigerant therefrom and direct it into pipe 28.
Referring to FIG. 2 it will be seen that flow of refrigerant into pipe 28 is controlled Iby the valve element 90 carried by the arm 92 which is fulcrummed on a xed pivot 94, the arrangement being such that element 90 is opened and closed in response to vertical movement of the oat 96 carried on arm 92. The oat is of course moved up and down in response to variations in liquid level v98, the arrangement being such that when the liquid level tends to fall below a predetermined value the valve element 90 is closed, and when the liquid level is restored the valve element is opened to permit liquid to be drawn upwardly through the pipe 28.
Pipe 28 connects with a spray means 30 as previously explained. This spray means can of course take difyferent forms depending on the type of spraying mechanisms available to the manufacturer and the different :manufacturing facilities utilized in his plant operations. However, the spray means may consist simply of a cross pipe 100` having connection with the pipe 28 and communicating at its ends with the longitudinally extending pipes 102 and 104. Pipes y102 and 104 may be provided with suitable orifices at spaced points therealong to direct liquefied refrigerant in a spray form onto the heat transfer pipes 45 in the evaporator section 14.
The evaporated refrigerant is discharged from the evaporator through an eliminator or condensate-trapping means 108 which may consist of a suitable framework having a series of undulating metal plates connected and mounted thereto, the undulations being effective to form contact surfaces for causing any condensed refrigerant to impinge thereon so as to be prevented from passing upwardly into the duct 68. The condensed liquid merely drops back into the evaporator section to be evaporated along with the refrigerant from the spray means 30. It will be noted that the eliminator 108 extends the full length of the evaporator section so as to present substantial surface area to the refrigerant ilow. Also, the partition `64 is so arranged with respect to eliminator 108 that, while space is held to a minimum, yet adequate space is available above the surface of the eliminator such that refrigerant can flow unrestricted through the low side of the system without tendency to clog the system after prolonged service.
Brieily the illustrated system provides features of compact construction which enable the evaporator and condenser to be mounted vwithin a single shell structure with high heat transfer efficiency and performance. The connections between the evaporator, compressor, and condenser are of relatively short length so that the refrigerant is being operated on effectively during a substantial portion of its travel through the system. It will also be noted that the system components are arranged so that natural forces are utilized effectively in combination with the force of the compressor to provide an improved circulation of refrigerant through the system. 'Ihus the evaporator section 14 is located directly below the condenser section such that evaporated refrigerant passes through the condenser section during its travel to the compressor. By this arrangement the relatively high temperature condenser prevents condensation of refrigerant in the conduit `63 or in the compressor, and the compressor is enabled to operate more eiiiciently than would otherwise be possible.
The arrangement lof the evaporator and condenser within a single shell is of further advantage in that increased space is made available for the tubes. The tubes can thereby he arranged so as to dispose a lesser number of tubes in each vertical row. As a result of this arrangement each refrigerant particle traverses a iesser number of tubes and there is lessened tendency for all of the heat transfer to take place at the upper tubes (i.e., before reaching the lower tubes). In conventional arrangements the refrigerant condenses before it Vreaches the lower tubes, and hence the lower tubes tend to become coated with a condensed refrigerant film which acts as an insulator to reduce heat transfer. With the illustrated arrangement the heat transfer action is better distributed or spread out so as to provide an improved overall operating efiiciency or capacity.
The cylindrical ,character of the illustrated shell is of material advantage in that the shell acts as a true pressure vessel, thereby permitting construction of the shell with thinner and less costly material than might otherwise he necessary.
The drawings necessarily show a particular embodiment of the invention, but it will be appreciated that the invention is of a greater `scope than the structure vspecifically illustrated, and that modifications and rearrangements may be resorted to as come within the spirit of the invention as defined by lthe appended claims.
l. In a self-contained recirculating refrigeration machine having a lower evaporator unit, a medially located condenser unit, and a compressor unit receiving gaseous refrigerant from the evaporator unit, the compressor unit surmounting the condenser and discharging compressed refrigerant thereinto; a horizontally disposed cylindrical shell completely enclosing the condenser unit and the evaporator unit and having at its axial ends heat exchange passages joined -by heat exchange tubes lying parallel to the axis of the shell to completely traverse the condenser and evaporator units, respectively, an axially extending wall element separating the condenser and evaporator units, the lower surfaces of said wall element defining therebetween a flow path for vapor from the lower evaporator to the upper condenser and the upper surfaces of said wall element defining separate partial liquid return passages from the condenser to a lowermost evaporator sump, and axially spaced external iiow passages completing the condenser-to-sump flow path for liquid refrigerant.
2. In a self-contained recirculating refrigeration machine, an elongated hollow shell, a refrigerant evaponator positioned in the lower part of said shell, a refrigerant condenser positioned in the upper part of said shell, a compressor sunmounting said shell at a median point thereon, a pair of longitudinally extending walls isolating said evaporator from said condenser, said walls being upwardly converging over said evaporator to define -along their lower surfaces a vapor iiow path between said evaporator and sai-d compressor and defining along their outwardly divergent upper surfaces separate drain passages beneath said condenser, a `fluid conduit extending through said walls and connecting said compressor and said evaporator, a sump along the lower portion of said shell, and axially spaced external fluid flow passages receiving liquid refrigerant from the upper surfaces of said walls and completing the condenser-to-sump flow path for liquid refrigerant.
3. In a self-contained recirculating Irefrigeration machine, a horizontally disposed elongated hollow shell, a refrigerant evaporator positioned in the lower part of said shell, a refrigerant condenser positioned in the upper part of said shell, la compressor surmounting said shell at a median point thereon, a longitudinally extending wall isolating said evaporator from said condenser and defining a substantial vapor space above said evaporator, a horizontally disposed fluid baffle extending between said evaporator and condenser in a median portion of said vapor space, a gaseous refrigerant conduit extending through said wall and connecting said compressor in intake relation to said vapor space, said compressor being exhaust connected to said condenser -by two generally axially extending scroll structures superimposed on top of said shell and each having the inner end connected with said compressor and the outer end connected with spaced portions of the condenser at either side of the compressor ifor uniform distribution of compressed refrigerant throughout said condenser, a liquid refrigerant sump in the bottom of said shell, external fluid fiow passages extending from the top of said wall to said sump along the exterior of said shell to conduct liquefied refrigerant from said condenser to said sump, and means for moving liquid refrigerant from said sump and ejecting it as la downward spray into said evaporator beneath said fluid bafiie.
4. In a self-contained, recirculating refrigeration machine,
a horizontally disposed, hollow shell divided by a longitudinal, interior wall into an upper condenser compartment, a :lower evaporator compartment and defining a vapor space above the evaporator compartment,
a horizontally disposed and elongated uid baffle extending the length of said shell and positioned in a median section of said vapor space,
a compressor mounted at the top of said shell and intake fluid connected to the evaporator by a passage extending through said llongitudinal interior wall,
two generally axially extending compressor outlet scroll passages superimposed over said upper condenser compartment and each having the inner end communicating with the compressor exhaust and the outer end communicating with spaced portions of the condenser compartment at either side of the compressor for uniformly distributing compressed refrigerant throughout the compressor compartment,
and means for conducting liquid refrigerant from the condenser to form a downward spray in the evaporator beneath said fluid baflie.
5. In a self-contained, re-circulating refrigeration machine having evaporator, condenser and compressor cornponents,
a unitary horizontal elongated hollow shell,
a longitudinally extending wall dividing the interior of said shell into axially co-extensive upper condenser and lower evaporator compartments,
said wall sloping downwardly and outwardly interiorly of said shell to dene a central substantially axially extending vapor passage communicating with said evaporator compartment and isolated from said condenser compartment and forming the bottom wall of said condenser compartment to catch liquid refrigerant pro-duced in said condenser compartment,
additional wall means interiorly of said shell defining a vertically extending compressor inlet passage communicating freely with said vapor passage and with said compressor compartment inlet,
the compressor surmounting said shell,
substantially axially extend-ing compressor outlet passages superimposed over said upper condenser compartment, each Ihaving their inner ends communicating with the compressor and their outer ends communicating with medial portions of said condenser compartment to either side of said compressor inlet passage,
a sump underlying said evaporator compartment to receive liquid refrigerant from said condenser compartment for discharge into said evaporator compartment,
means for transferring liquid refrigerant Ifrom said condenser compartment to said sump,
a flow control Valve in said sump controlling the com- 7 munication between said sump and said evaporator compartment,
and conduit means extending from said sump into the upper portion of said evaporator compartment to form a downward spray therein.
6. In a self-contained, recirculating refrigeration machine,
a horizontally disposed and elongated hollow shell divided by an axially extending interior wall into an Kaxially extending evaporator compartment and an axially extending condenser compartment with a vapor space above the evaporator compartment,
said shell having -at its ends heat-exchange passages joined by axially extending heat-exchange tubes,
a horizontally disposed and elongated iluid bale extending the length of said shell in said vapor space,
a compressor mounted on top of said shell and uid connected to said evaporator compartment by a passage extending through said shell,
conduit means connecting said compressor in fluid How relation to said condenser compartment,
and conduit means to conduit liquid refrigerant from said condenser compartment into said evaporator compartment.
References Cited in the le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Carrier Mar. 9, 1926 Carrier Nov. 3, 1936 Waterll Dec. 16, 1941 Jones Mar. 24, 1942 Lowe Nov. 22, 1955 Moody July 18, 1961 FOREIGN PATENTS France Oct. 25, 1932 Switzerland Feb. 16, 1933