US 3097642 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
July 16, 1963 A. M; RUSSELL 3,097,642
FACE MASK Filed Aug. 21, 1956 I 5 Sheets-Sheet l July 16, 1963 A. M. RUSSELL 3,097,642
FACE MASK Filed Aug. 21, 1956 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 July 16, 1963 Filed Aug. 21, 1956 A. M. RUSSELL FACE MASK 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 United States Patent 3,097,642 FACE MASK Allan M. Russell, 19101 Van Aken Blvd., Shaker Heights, Ohio Filed Aug. 21, 1956, Ser. No. 605,248 4 Claims. (Cl. 128-146) This invention relates in general to face masks for the administration of gaseous fluids. More particularly it relates to an improved face mask for use either as a conventional rebreathing mask, a reservoir type mask, a positive pressure mask, or a non-reservoir large volume direct flow mask, all providing high oxygen concentrations. This mask is adapted for use either with a continuous flow of gaseous fluids or with gaseous fluids regulated for flow on demand or inspiration only. More specifically, this versatility is achieved through significant discoveries in both the construction of the mask body and apparatus for use in combination with the mask body. Generally, face masks for the administration of gaseous fluids of the reservoir or rebreathing type are equipped with a reservoir bag or bag for applying rebreathing techniques secured to the mask body by means of a separate rigid intervening connector. In order to achieve the necessary coupling and gas seal between the connector and the bag, a metal ring clamp, band, or wire necessitating tightening with tools such as a screw driver or pliers is usually required. Attachment of the bag to the mask body by such an arrangement is apt to cause .or promote cracking and deterioration of the bag mateportable emergency units or airborne compartments, and
certainly desirable in hospital equipment rooms.
In more specialized uses of face masks for the administration of gaseous fluids, such as, for example, the treatment of obstructive dyspnea, edema of the lungs, or congestive heart failure, to name a few, it has been found expedient to induce pressure in the lungs by providing resistance to expiration. This is customarily accomplished in a single purpose mask by securing a positive pressure valve to the mask body in much the same manner as the conventional reservoir bag or bag for applying rebreathing techniques is secured. Such valves are usually cumbersome, and their installation or re moval while the mask is in use is difficult, if not impossible. This results in an interrupted flow of gaseous fluids to the wearer While the conversion is taking place.
To the end of providing a face mask which eliminates these disadvantages, extensive research has been conducted, and as a result a face mask has been devised which, in combination with a detachable reservoir bag or bag for applying rebreathing techniques and a removable positive pressure valve, overcomes the stated shortcomings of conventional equipment.
It is accordingly one of the principal objects of this invention to provide in combination a face mask and detachable reservoir bag or bag for applying rebreathing techniques that eliminates an intervening connector and clamp, band, or wire and at the same time maintains a snug frictional engagement and gas seal between the mask body and bag.
Another object of this invention is to provide in combination a face mask and a separable reservoir bag or bag for applying rebreathing techniques which are readily attached or detached without the use of tools thus simplifying variation in methods of administering gaseous fluids by merely slipping in place the pressure valve over the exhalation valve turret of the mask body, and which enables switching to and from normal administration of gaseous fluids without interruption in flow.
A feature of the invention resides in the manner in which the various pliable members are formed, in which certain of said members are stiffened without loss of resiliency, and in the trimming or forming of certain portions of the mask body to achieve snug frictional engagement with other components of the mask combination.
These and additional objects and advantages will become more readily apparent as the following description proceeds, taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings in which:
FIG. '1 is a front view in perspective of the face mask and attached bag and positive pressure valve.
FIG. 2 is a front elevational view of the face mask I body with the bag and positive pressure valve removed.
FIG. 3 is a sectional view taken along line 33 of FIG. 1.
FIG. 4 is a longitudinal sectional view taken along line 4--4 of FIG. 1.
FIG. 5 is a rear elevational-view of the face mask and a portion of the bag.
FIG. 6 is an enlarged view illustrating the manner in which the bag is attached about the inlet turret, the latter having its inlet valve in place.
Referring now to the drawings and particularly FIGS. 1 and 2, the face mask is provided with a mask body 10 preferably of a soft, pliable material such as latex rubber.
The mask body 10.1135 an oral and nasal section in which are embedded two malleable metal members 11 and 12 preferably in the form of wire loops. The members 11 and 12 not only provide stiffening means for the pliable material of the mask body -10, but enable it to be conformed to the facial configurations of the wearer, and to be maintained in any desired position in such facial areas where adjustment is most generally required.
Three turrets 13, 14, 15 are provided in the vicinity of the oral and nasal sections of the mask body 10. These turrets are formed preferably of the same material as the mask body 10 and integral therewith. The side walls of the turrets 13, 14, and 15 are reduced or conto deflect exhalation downward, thereby preventing interference with the sight, or fogging of eyeglasses or goggles of the wearer of the mask.
In addition, the mask body 10 is formed to provide a face engaging flange 20 (see FIGS. 3, 4, and 5), which is trimmed or formed to allow a sufficient opening to freely receive the mouth and nose of the wearer. Studs or buttons 21, in spaced relation to one another on the mask body 10, are also provided to receive head straps 22 which hold the face mask on the wearer. For a more detailed description of such elements as embedded members 11 and 12, the deflector 18, the face engaging flange 20, and the head straps 22, reference may be had to my copending application Serial Number 303,030, filed August 7, 1952, now Patent No. 2,818,861, for Oxygen Mask, of which application this application is a continuation in part.
Referring again to the turrets 13, 14, and 15, a valve body 23, preferably of spoked Wheel-like construction and of a resilient material, but in any event considerably stiffer in character than the material of the mask body 10, is disposed in the central opening of each of the turrets. The valve bodies 23 are provided with an annular groove 24 adapted to engage the valve body receiving wall 17 of the turrets 13, 14, and 15 (see FIG. 3). The valve bodies 23 are thus retained in snug and gas sealing engagement with the mask body 10. The stiffer character of the material of the valve bodies 23 provides added stiflening means for the soft, pliable material of the mask body intermediate the embedded members 11 and 12.
Each of the valve bodies 23 has a central opening through which a tab 25 of a resilient flap-like check valve 26 may be drawn and secured, the direction in which the tab 25 is drawn determining the direction of flow desired to be checked.
The turrets 13 and 15, and their included valve bodies 23 and valves 26 are for emergency or excess demand inhalation, and exhalation, respectively. The central turret 14 being most directly situated with respect to the oral and nasal passages of the wearer is generally utilized for introduction and inhalation of gaseous fluids. The position of the turrets with relation to each other and their arrangement on the mask body 10 are, of course, subject to variation. The disposition illustrated, however is preferred.
Referring again to the mask body 10, the preferred embodiment is illustrated with a bag 30 attached to the turret 14. The bag 30 is preferably made of the same lightweight, flexible material as the mask body 10 but with a thinner wall, and is provided with an arched neck 31 to direct the bag away from bed clothing or clothing of the wearer and to permit free movement of the bag relative to mask body 10. The bag 30 has a tube 32 inserted at its lower or pendant inlet end 33 whereby gaseous fluids such as oxygen are directed into the bag from a gas source (not shown). This tube insures the inlet remaining open in the event the bag is pulled or twisted. The tube 32 is inserted into the bag 30 a sufficient distance to prevent inundation of the inner end (not shown) by condensate settling out of exhaled gaseous fluids and deposited in the pendant end of the bag.
The necked end of the bag 30 is provided with a formed resilient ring 34, preferably integral therewith and of the same material as the bag 30 (see FIGS. 1, 3, 4, and 6). The ring 34 is adapted to be stretched about the turret 14 and snapped into position in the annulus or groove '16 of turret 14.
In the preferred embodiment illustrated the material forming turret 14 which houses inlet valve body 23 is formed or trimmed to completely cover the rim only of the valve body. When the ring 34 of the bag 30' is snapped into position as described, a snug frictional engagement and seal is effected between the bag 30 and the turret 14. Due to snug contact between the members of like or similar materials, slippage is prevented and wear is substantially eliminated. Moreover, forces exerted on or by the bag 30 are evenly distributed to the mask body 10, and not on the rim of the valve body 23, thus preventing the latter from becoming dislodged.
The construction of the necked end of the bag 30 and the turret 14 as described, notwithstanding the snug seal formed therebetween, permits ready detachment of the bag from the mask body 10. It is only necessary to apply thumb pressure to the ring 34. Thus detachment of the 4 bag 30 after use, and sterilization can be easily accomplished.
An added advantage is that the bag 30 can be detached and folded for compact storage within the mask body 10. This is particularly advantageous when the face mask is used for high altitude flying or with portable emergency units.
As stated earlier, the face mask is adapted for a wide variety of uses. Its versatility of application in reservoir and rebreathing techniques for administering gaseous fluids centers about the bag 30 and the check valve 26, attached to valve body 23 housed in turret 14. With the check valve 26 in the position illustrated in FIGS. 4, 5, and 6 the bag 30 serves only as a reservoir for incoming gaseous fluids. The gas, such as oxygen for example, directed into the bag from a source thereof, is available in substantial volume, as determined by the volume of bag 30, for inhalation by the wearer through the valve 26. Exhalation into the bag is prevented by the valve 26. This technique results in a high concentration of gaseous fluids constantly available in the bag 30 for inhalation and thus the term reservoir technique.
To use the face mask for rebreathing purposes, the check valve 26 is readily removed from valve body 23, housed in turret 14. Thus, on exhalation, a portion of the exhaled gaseous fluids passes into the bag where it mixes with the gas in the bag 30 obtained from a source (not shown). This mixture of previously exhaled gas and gas, such as oxygen from the source, is inhaled by the wearer on inspiration. This technique for administering gaseous fluids produces favorable therapeutic results in those circumstances Where such procedure is indicated.
Still another technique possible with applicants mask is in the administration of gaseous fluids by the nonreservoir large volume direct flow method. To convert the face mask for such use it is necessary only to detach the bag 30 from the mask body 10 and then remove the valve body 23 and its check valve 26 from turret 14. One end of a section of large bore tubing of suitable diameter and provided with a ring similar to ring 34 is inserted into the opening of turret 14 or about the turret depending on the size of the tubing employed and as desired. The other end is connected to a gas source. Gaseous fluids of desired concentration and volume are then directed to the wearer.
The emergency demand inhalation turret 13 is provided for demand inhalations, such as are comomn in cardiac cases or if for any reason there should be a substantial decrease or stoppage in flow of gaseous fluids from the gas source to the wearer of the face mask. The emergency demand inhalation turret valve 26 in the turret 13 opens under such inspiratory conditions for inspiration from the atmosphere.
The exhalation valve 26 housed in the turret 15 opens in response to exhalation pressures and acts generally as the main vent for the face mask.
For purposes of utilizing positive pressure techniques a positive pressure valve 40 may be mounted over the turret 15 housing the exhalation valve (see FIGS. 1 and 3). Such a valve is desirable in those special circumstances where it is necessary to produce variable pressures Within the lungs to reduce the tendency of the pulmonary capillaries to filter serum through their Walls into the alveolar spaces. The pressure in the pulmonary capillaries is small, and a therapeutic result may be achieved with pressures as little as one centimeter of water applied to the outside of the capillary wall. The pressure valve 40 is adapted for use in combination with the face mask to produce such pressures varying from 0 to 4 centimeters of water.
The pressure valve 40 preferably has a cup-shaped housmg 41 made of a lightweight, durable material such as aluminum. The peripheral Wall of the valve 40 is preferably marked or labeled with the word top to indicate the operative position in which it is to be mounted with respect to the mask body as worn. The base 42 of the housing 41 is provided with an opening or port 43 to permit passage of exhaled gaseous fluids. A rotatable disc 44 preferably having five openings graduated in size, the largest of which is equal in size or smaller than the opening 43 in the base 42 of the housing 41, is rotatably secured to the housing by a pin or rivet 45. The graduated openings are suitably spaced on the disc 44 and are adapted to siugly'register with the opening 43 for any desired setting of the disc 44. The'disc 44 is further preferably provided with a lobate edge 46 for easy manipulation, and indexing means (not shown) are provided between the valve housing 41 and the disc 44 to maintain the latter in any selected position.
When positive pressure within the lungs is required, the pressure valve 40 is installed by mounting it over turret 15 housing the outlet or exhalation valve. This can be easily accomplished either while the face mask is worn or before it is placed on an individual. The cupped edge 47 of the valve 40 contacts the mask body when the valve 40 has been properly mounted. The valve 40 is held in position on turret by the snug sealing engagement of the inner peripheral wall 48 of the valve 40 and the material forming the turret 15 (see FIG. 3).
The pressure valve 40 operates on the principle that when expiration takes place through a constricted opening, a positive or back pressure is produced within the lungs due to the inability of exhaled gaseous fluids to escape to atmosphere in normal volume. The five graduated openings labeled A, B, C, D, and E on the disc 44 are cali- 'brated to produce pressures Within the lungs corresponding approximately to 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 centimeters of water, respectively. When the largest opening labeled A is in register with the opening 43, there is little or no pressure during exhalation. The smallest opening labeled E, on the other hand, Will provide a pressure of approximately 4 centimeters of water within the lungs. The degree of resistance to exhalation of gaseous fluids is varied, of course, subject to each individuals physiological requirements and condition.
To assist in determining the amount of pressure being administered to any given individual, a dual purpose opening normally closed by a button or stud 49, is located in the central section of the mask body 10. This permits admittance of one end of a piece of tubing into the mask body 10 while the other end is placed in a simple water manometer. In this manner the pressure being produced within the lungs can be measured more accurately. Once the prescribed pressure has been established, the desired setting can then be made with disc 44. Another function of the opening is to provide means for admitting a duodenal drainage tube while the wearer is undergoing inhalation therapy.
It will be apparent that applicants face mask has extreme versatility of application, not only in hospitals and emergency units, but in high altitude flying. Its simplicity of operation and its relative inexpensiveness are added features of this valuable development. Certain modifications in construction of applicants face mask, and apparatus used in combination therewith, .will be suggested to those skilled in the art. All such modifications come within the spirit of this invention are intended to be included within its scope as best defined by the appended claims.
1. Apparatus for the administration of gaseous fluids, comprising a mask adapted to enclose the oral and nasal passages and formed of soft, pliable material, said mask being provided with a thin flexible face engaging flange of substantial breadth and means comprising a wire loop embedded in said mask having at least a portion thereof extending to an intermediate area of the mask adjacent the oral and nasal passages for adjustably conforming the mask in the areas of the oral and nasal passages to insure its engagement with the face, a plurality of turrets in said mask in the area of the nasal and oral passages, each of said turrets being provided with an opening, stiffening means in said turret'openings, a check valve in at least one of said turret openings, and adjustable means removably mounted over one of said turrets to provide preselected resistance to exhalation of gaseous fluids while at all times permitting exhalation therethrou-gh, comprising valve means including means forming a series of constricted openings graduated in size, said valve means being arranged to permit exhalation through a selected one of said constricted openings.
2. Apparatus for the administration of gaseous fluids,
comprising a mask adapted to enclose the oral and nasal passages and formed of soft, pliable material, said mask being provided with a thin flexible face engaging flange of substantial breadth and means comprising a Wire loop embedded in said mask having at least a portion thereof extending to an intermediate area of the mask adjacent the oral and nasal passages for adjustably conforming the mask in the areas of the oral and nasal passages to insure its engagement with the face, a plurality of turrets in said mask in the area of the oral and nasal passages, each of said turrets being provided with an opening, and at least one of said turrets being formed to provide an annulus, stiffening means in said turret openings, a check valve arranged to form an inlet valve in at least one of said turret openings, and a reservoir bag having means including a ring formed integral therewith adapted to be received in said annulus, said reservoir bag being detachably secured about said turret formed to provide an annulus with said ring in engagement with said annulus, whereby a snug frictional engagement and a gas seal are achieved.
3. In apparatus for administration of gaseous fluids, a mask adapted to enclose the oral and nasal passages, said mask having a face engaging portion, and means comprising a wire loop embedded in said mask having at least a portion thereof extending to an intermediate area of the mask adjacent the oral and nasal passages for adjustably conforming the mask in the areas of the oral and nasal passages to insure its engagement with the race, a turret in said mask in the area of the oral and nasal passages, said turret having an opening, a check valve in said turret opening for exhalation of gaseous fluids, said check valve permitting exhalation through said turret opening but substantially preventing inhalation therethrough, and valve means removably mounted on said turret to provide preselected resistance to exhalation of gaseous fluids comprising, a housing one portion of which is open, said housing having a single port communicating with said open portion to permit passage of gaseous fluids, and means provided with a plurality of openings of predetermined different areas adjustably attached to said housing over said port, said means provided with a plurality of openings being adjustable with respect to said housing to place at all times a selected one of said openings of said difierent predetermined areas in register with said port to provide a pro-selected resistance to exhalation of gaseous fluids.
4. A gas impervious bag for connection to a face mask to provide a container for gaseous fluids comprising an inflatable portion an end of which is adapted for connection to a source of gaseous fluids other than gaseous fluids derived from exhalation, a tube inserted into said end of the inflatable portion, said tube being inserted a sufficient distance into said inflatable portion to prevent inundation of its inner end by condensate settling out of exhaled gaseous fluids received within the bag, said tube additionally insuring that there is no stoppage of flow of [gaseous fluids from said source due to pulling or twisting of said bag in the region of its connection to said source of gaseous fluids, said inflatable portion being capable of receiving and retaining variable volumes of gaseous fluids, an arched neck integral with said inflatable portion and resilient means including a ring continuous References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 7,476 Lane July 2, 1850 2,327,995 Bulbulian Aug. 31, 1943 2,344,920 Maggi Mar. 21, 1944 2,348,277 Boothby et a1 May 9, 1944 8 Sharbaugh et al Feb. 25, 1947 McKee Sept. 11, 1951 Matheson Sept. 22, 1953 Wong Mar. 19, 1957 Brown Apr. 9, 1957 Glasser July 15, 1958 Galleher Mar. 3, 1959 FOREIGN PATENTS Austria May 10, 1940 Italy Apr. 10, 1937 France May 27, 1935