US 3097698 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
July '16, 1963 c. B. CORLEY, JR., ETAL 3,097,693
WIRE LINE CEMENTING TOOL Filed Dec. 5. 1960 FIG. 2.
CHARLES B. CORLEY,JR., GARLAND C. TERREL, BY SAMUEL E. LOY,
United States Patent 3,097,698 WIRE LINE CEMENTIN G TOOL Charles B. Corley, Jr., and Garland C. Terrel, Houston, and Samuel E. Loy III, Midland, Tex., assignors, by mesne assignments, to Jersey Production Research Company, Tulsa, Okla., a corporation of Delaware Filed Dec. 5, 1960, Ser. No. 73,801 1 Claim. (Cl. 166-162) This invention relates generally to well w'orkover operations, and more particularly to wire line apparatus for squeezing a liquid through perforations in a pipe stning cemented in a borehole in the earth.
In connection with well completion operations, it customary to cement either a casing string or one or more production pipe strings (flow tubings) to the sides of a borehole that penetrates one or more productive earth formations. The purpose of the cementing operation is to prevent fluid migration between production zones when two or more zones are to be produced through the same borehole or between the uppermost production zone and fresh water sands penetrated by the borehole. For any of a number of reasons there may be an imperfect bond between the cement and the sides of the borehole. For example, the mud or filter cake may have been imperfectly removed before the cementing operation so that earth formation fluids migrating to the well bore during production could at least partially wash away the filter cake. When it is suspected that voids exist between the cement and the slides of the borehole, it is customary to place a bridging plug in the pipe string, to perforate the pipe string and the surrounding cement above the bridging plug, and to squeeze a quantity of a fluid cement-itious mixture, such as a cement slurry or a fluid plastic, through the new perforations. The fluid cementitious mixture remaining in the bore of the pipe string then may be circulated out by means of a tubing stning lowered within the pipe string. A similar operation may be conducted to seal off perforations to a formation that has been depleted preparatory to reperforating for the purpose of producing another formation.
On other occasions it may be desirable to squeeze other types of liquids through perforations in a pipe string. Examples of such liquids are acids, plastic sandconsolidating liquids, and surface-active agents.
There are circumstances when it is undesirable to circulate out liquids remaining in a pipe string after a workover or maintenance operation. It then becomes desirable to lower the liquid into the well on a wire line tool, to squeeze the liquid through perforations in the pipe string, and to remove the excess liquid from the pipe string along with the wire line tool.
In accordance with one aspect of the invention, there is provided a housing for lowering a quantity of fluid into a well, comprising an upper member and a lower member telescopingly connected together so as to be adapted for Limited telescoping movement between a most telescoped position and a least telescoped position. Ports in the members are adapted to come into alignment when the members are in one of the positions thereof to permit passage of fluid therethrough. Sealing means are provided between the members to isolate the ports when the members are in the other position thereof. Annular packer means above and below the ports are provided to seal a portion of the annulus between the housing members and the walls of the well pipe so that the perforations in the well pipe can be isolated from the well bore. The packers are adapted to be expanded into sealing engagement with the pipe string walls when the apparatus is at the level of the perforations. 'Ilhe upper portion of the housing is in fluid communication 3,097,698 Patented July 16, 1963 from the well along with the fluid that remains therein.
Objects and features of the invention not evident from the above discussion will become apparent upon consideration of the following description thereof when taken in connection with the accompanying drawings, wherein:
FIG. 1 is an elevational view of a well installation showing an embodiment of the invention being lowered to the depth of well pipe perforations through which cement is to be squeezed; and
FIGS. 2 and 3 are cross-sectional views of an embodiment of the invention illustrating the two operative positions thereof.
In FIG. 1 there is shown a well installation including a pipe string 3 which may be either a casing string or a production pipe string cemented to the walls of bore hole 1 in accordance with so-called tubingless completion techniques. The borehole 1 penetrates an earth format-ion 17. Perforations 19 are shown as penetrating the pipe string 3, the cement sheath 2, and as extending into the earth formation 17. It will be assumed that for some reason it is desirable to squeeze a fluid, such as a cement slurry, into the perforations.
An apparatus 15, constructed in accordance with the teachings of the invention, is shown as being lowered into the well by lowering apparatus including a running tool 13, cable type jars 11, a stem 9, a wire line socket 7, and a wire line 5. The lowering apparatus may be of the type illustrated on page 4354 of the'Composite Catalog of Oil Field Equipment and Services, 24th Revision (1960). For purposes which will become apparent below, a collar stop 31 is shown as having been set in a collar recess 32 in the pipe string. The collar stop is illustrated in FIG. 1 as being integral with the apparatus 15. However, the collar stop may be separate from the apparatus 15. The illustrated construction is preferred inasmuch as only one wire line trip is needed to perform the squeezing operation instead of the two wire line trips required if the collar stop was separate from the apparatus 15. The collar stop may be of the type illustrated at page 3969 of the Composite Catalog of Oil Field Equipment and Services, 23rd Revision (1958).
The apparatus 15 is illustrated in greater detail in FIGS. 2 and 3. The apparatus comprises an upper housing member 46 and a lower housing member 50 connected together so as to be adapted for limited telescoping movement between the least telescoped position shown in FIG. 2 and the most telescoped position shown in FIG. 3. In the least telescoped position the lower housing member 50 is adapted to hang from an annular, inwardly extending flange 49 on upper housing member 46 by means of the annular flange 48 at the upper end of lower housing member 50. A shear pin 47 extends into flange 48 from upper housing member 46 to hold the housing members in their least telescoped position while the apparatus is being run into the well.
A cap member 37 having a fishing neck 33 is connected to the upper end of upper housing member 46 by means of a packer member 43 which is flangedly connected to the upper housing member 46 at its lower end. At the upper extremity of upper housing member 46 there is provided a number of downwardly facing annular serrations 39. A shear pin 41 extends through the cap member 37 and engages the serrations to hold the cap member and the upper housing member 46 in the relative position shown in FIG. 2. A port 35 provides fluid communication between the interior of the cap member and the upper portion of the borehole above the apparatus 15. The prongs of the running tool 13 are shown as engaging the fishing neck 33.
The collar stop 31 is illustrated in FIGS. 2 and 3 as being connected to the apparatus 15 through a coupling apparatus comprising a collar stop extension 67 and a coupling member 65 adapted to extend into the interior of the lower end of lower housing member 50. The coupling member 65 is provided with downwardly facing serrations 61 and is flangedly connected to the lower end of an annular packer member 63. The annular packer member 63 may be formed of rubber or rubber-like material, and is flangedly connected at its upper end to the lower end of lower housing member 50. A shear pin 59 extends through the lower housing member 50 to engage the serrations 61 and to hold the coupling member 65 against downward movement.
It is manifest that shear pins 41 and 59 are designed so as not to shear under the force imposed thereon by packer members 43 and 63 acting alone in the packing position thereof. Y
The apparatus 15 is illustrated in FIGS. 2 and 3 as having been run into the well so that packer members 43 and 63 are respectively above and below the perforations 19 so as to straddle the perforated zone. With the collar stop set in a collar recess 32, downward jarring with jars 11 initially will force lower housing member 50 downwardly relative to coupling member 65 to expand annular packer member 63 into engagement with the inner wall of the pipe string 3, and will force cap member 37 downwardly relative to upper housing member 46 so as to expand packer member 43 into engagement with the inner wall of the pipe string 3. This will isolate the portion of the annulus between the packer members 43 and 63 and around the upper and lower housing members from fluid communication with the well bore. Further downward jarring will shear the shear pin 47 and will force the upper housing member 46 downwardly to its most telescoped position relative to lower housing member 50, as is shown in FIG. 3. This will bring the ports 51 and 55 into alignment. Hydraulic pressure exerted through port 35 Will force the fluid cement 45 out through the ports 51 and 55 into the annulus between the packer members 43 and 63 and around the housing members 46 and 50 into the perforations 19. After the squeezing operation has been performed, upward jarring with jars 11 will supplement the force of packer members 43 and 63 sufficiently to shear the shear pins 41 and 59 to permit the packer members to resume the position shown in FIG. 2.
From the above discussion it will become apparent that the invention is advantageous in that there is eliminated the necessity for providing a tubing to circulate cement out of a pipe string after a squeeze-cementing operation. Furthermore, practically all of the cement remaining in the pipe string after the squeezing operation is retrieved from the pipe string. Little if any cement will be left adhering to the walls of the pipe string. The apparatus is simple and virtually fool-proof, and may be used repeatedly for successive operations.
The invention is not necessarily to be restricted to the specific structural details or arrangement of parts herein set forth, as various modifications may be effected without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.
The invention having been completely described, what is claimed is:
For use in a well comprising at least one pipe string disposed in a borehole, cemented to the sides of the borehole and perforated to open fluid communication to a productive earth formation, apparatus for squeeze-cementing through the perforations comprising:
an elongated container for cementitious fluid including an elongated upper member and a lower member in telescoping relationship;
a first port in said upper member near the lower end thereof and a second port in said lower member, said first and second ports being adapted to be brought into alignment when said telescoping members are substantially in their most telescoped position;
stop means on said telescoping members defining the limits of the telescoping relationship thereof;
anchoring means adapted to be set at a predetermined 'level in the pipe string to prevent further downward movement thereof;
annular packer means connecting said anchor means and said lower telescoping member so as to permit limited relative movement therebetween, said annular packer means being adapted to be laterally expanded into sealing engagement with the inner wall of the pipe string by setting down of said lower member on said stop means to hold fluid between said container and the inner wall of the pipe string, said annular packer means being of normal lateral diameter less than the diameter of the pipe string to permit fluid passage therearound;
said anchoring means terminating at its upper end in a downwardly facing serrated section;
shear pin means connected to said lower telescoping member and engaging said serrations constructed and arranged to hold said anchoring means against downward movement relative to said lower telescoping member under pressure exerted by said annular packer means;
a cap member extending over the upper end of said upper telescoping member, having a passageway therein for providing fluid communication between the upper portion of the pipe string and the interior of the container whereby hydraulic pressure may be exerted on fluid in the container to force the fluid through said first and second ports, up the annulus between the container and the pipe string, and into the perforations through the pipe string;
an annular upper packer member connecting said cap member to said upper telescoping member, constructed and arranged to expand against the walls of said pipe responsive to downward force exerted on said cap member;
said upper telescoping member terminating at its upper end in a downwardly facing serrated section;
second shear pin means connected to said cap member and engaging said serrations in said upper telescoping member, constructed and arranged to hold said upper telescoping member against downward movement relative to said cap member under pressure exerted by said annular packer means acting alone;
said cap member including a fishing neck adapted to be connected to a wire line retrieving tool.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,676,785 Lewis July 10', 1928 1,802,525 Newlin Apr. 28, 1931 1,858,501 Hinderliter May 17, 1932 2,207,478 Cameron July 9, 1940 2,526,021 Fultz Oct. 17, 1950 2,740,478 Greene Apr. 3, 1956 2,922,477 Wall Jan. 26, 1960 2,935,133 Eckel May 3, 1960 2,969,839 Greene Jan. 31, 1961