US 3099985 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Aug- 6, 1963 P. c. WILSON ETAL 3,099,985
RESUSCITATOR Filed Dec. 2l, 1960 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 :f j j /k/@zvelr BY www ATTORNEY Aug- 6, 1963 P. c. WILSON ETAL 3,099,985
RESUSCITATOR Filed Deo. 21, 1960 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 ATTORNEY Aug 6, 1963 P. c. WILSON ETAL 3,099,985
RESUSCITATOR Filed DSC. 2l, 1960 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 INV ENTORS ATTORNEY States Ute This invention, a continuation-impart of our previous application, Serial No. 839,135, now U.S. Patent No. 3,01 8,7 75 dated January 30, 1962, relates to resuscitators but more particularly to a single chamber resusctator for mouth to ymouth resuscitation, which insures tidal inflation of fresh unbreathed air to non-breathing victims in a physiological manner, at the normal breathing rate and volume of air of the operator.
Therefore, it is an object of this invention to provide a simplified but effective single chamber type of resuscitator apparatus adapted to restore breathing by artificial respiration.
Another object of this invention is to provide a mouth to mouth resuscitator for forcing tidal breaths of air into the lungs of .a victim and including a pressure powered slide valve controlled lby the breathing of an operator.
A further objective is the provision of a durable apparatus with the design and arrangement of the component parts being such that each part is instantly accessible for emergency cleaning or replacement of parts within the minimum of time.
Still another object is the provision of -a simplified apparatus that enables the easy and safe, but convenient storage of the subject equipment .as well as its rapid transportation to the desired locations.
A further and :most important objective is the provision of an apparatus which will enable the use of the oper-ators respiratory action for its motivation with complete assurance and safety.
A still additional objective is to provide an apparatus so designed that oxygen in high concentrations may be administered zby the mouth to mouth method to a nonbreathing victim and also in concentrations approaching 100 percent to a victim requiring it but also breathing on his own.
Another .and still very important object is the provision of a shield which, although permitting air to pass through in either direction, -will also reduce the possibility of vomitus from entering .the resuscitator to a minimum.
Still another object is the provision vof a resusoitator wherein the operator may rebreathe some CO2 which would tend to preclude possible symptoms of hyperventilation and thus allowing resuscitation to be given over longer periods of time.
A further objective is to provide a basic unit which will, in the .absence of the application of tools, convert to use with a. hose so that resuscitation may be administered while the operator may :be walking bes-ide a stretcher bearing a dit victim or while chest surgery is being performed or even in eme-rgency heart massaging as well as in similar situations where the operator may be able to move about the vicinity of the victim, still having the use of both of his hands. It can be appreciated that this function is apropos in connection with toxic air rescue wherein the use of a face mask or cannister would be unnecessary.
A further objective is to provide a basic unitary device which, in the absence of special tools, may be converted to a resuscitator for -use in mask to mask operation involving poison gas, allowing the operator to plug into the gas mask of a victim, providing resuscitation with the victim breathing through his own mask so that the operator may unplug .and proceed on to another possible victim for repetition of the iabove procedure.
In the drawings:
FIGURE 1 is a vertical front view of our invention illusi trating an operator during exhalation and a victim during inhalation, the lower portion of the resuscitator being in section.
FIGURE 2 is la vertical sectional view taken on the line 2f-2 of FIGURE 1, showing the operator in the inhalation phase and the victim in the exhalation phase.
FIGURE 3 is .a top plan view of the apparatus.
FIGURE 4 is a bottom plan View of the :apparatus with the shield removed.
FIGURE 5 isa bottom plan view of the vacuum Valve.
FIGURE 6 is an elevation of the vacuum valve.
FIGURE 7 is a front elevational View of a modified vomit shield illustrating a portion of the cap -24 and cylindrical base portion A in section and the manner in which the shield is supported therein.
FIGURE 8 is a plan view of the modified vomit shield shown in FIGURE 7.
Referring now to FIGURES 1 and 2 .a preferred embodiment of our invention is shown :as comprising a biottom cylindrical portion A threaded `onto an upper cylindrical portion B forming a resuscitator cylinder 11. When threaded together, the lower and upper cylindrical portions A and B provide a main air exchange chamber 12 having a volume of approximately 550 cc. or the volume of 1 adult tidal breath. A cap l18 having a cylindrical mouthpiece 20 formed integrally therewith and extending above the cap 18 is adapted to be threaded onto the top of the upper cylindrical portion B.
The mouthpiece 20 is adapted to contain gauze antiseptic purposes and also has openings 23 at its bottom to permit air to pass therethrough into the main air exchange chamber- 12. It is to be noticed that the lower cylindrical portion A may be unthreaded and replaced by a hose connection which will be later explained.
A lower cylindrical cap 24 is attached or threaded onto 22 for the lower portion A and is provided with :a neck member 26 to which a conventional face mask 23 is attached. The lower portion B .and the cap 24 form a victim ai-r discharge chamber 25. A Valve opening 301 extends along the longitudinal aixs of the resuscitator cylinder 11 between the main -air exchange chamber 12 and the discharge chamber 25.
Referring to FIGURE 1, a victim air supply or inhalation passage 31, intersecting the valve opening 30, extends between the main air exchange chamber 12 and the discharge chamber 25. A flutter or nylon ap valve 4S positioned at the lower end of the victim inhalation passage 31 is .arranged to be opened upon exhalation of the operator to pass -fresh :air into the chamber 25 or cap 24 and closed upon inhalation by the operator -and/or exhalation by the victim. A slide valve 32, of general dumbbell formation, as shown in detail in FIGURES 5 and 6, is freely mounted for vertical reciprocating movement in the valve passage 30. The slide valve -32 comprises two 'opposing cylindrical cup members 34 and 36 interconnected at their bases by means of a cylindrical neck 33.
The cylindrical cup 34 is of smaller diameter than the cup 36. The diameter of that portion of the valve opening 30 above the intersecting passage 31 is slightly larger than that of the cup 34 while that portion of the valve opening 30 lbelow the intersecting passage 31 is slightly larger than the cup y36. With this arrangement the freelymounted slide valve 32 reciprocates within the valve opening 30 between a lower position in which the air passage 31 is open :as shown in FIGURE 1 and anupper portion in which the cup 36 closes the air passage 31 as shown in FIGURE 2.
An inverted domeshaped vomit shield 52 having spaced arcuate openings 5S about its downturned peripheral edge is centrally positioned within the discharge chamber 25 and rests on the cap 24, a hollow open end cylindrical stem 54 `formed on the shield 52 and having a plurality of partially into the valve to receive the end of the Thepassage S2'passes directly into the chamber 25 f via 'a il-apper valve 55 which opens upon inhalation of the victim and' closes during exhalation. This permits a conscious victim to breath directly by-passing the rescuscitator when-desired. A safety shutoff valve 47 is provided to close the fresh air passage 42 when mouth-to-mouth resuscitation is to be performed.
The oval passage 40 intersects the opens -into the main lair exchange of spaced openings 46. An inlet valve opening 30 and chamber 12 by way ilapper valve 49 restricts the passage 40Y and is arranged to open during inhalation -by the operator and closed during exhalation.
A projecting shoulder or stop 38 -restricting thevalve opening 30 is provided at the intersection of the passage 40 and the valve opening 30. The stop permits the slide valve 32 to reciprocate vertically between the raised por#v tion, the cup 36 engaging the stop38, as shownV in FIG- URE 2, and the lowered position, the `cup 34 engaging the stop 38, as shown in FIGURE 1.
Opposite ythe victim fresh air -by-passpassage or air intake 42 is another extended victim exhalationconduit or passage -44 providing sforoutlet during exhalation by a victim and also permitting the insertion of an outlet valve when required. lIt is Ito be noted that the *cup 36 closes the victim exhalationvpassage 44 when the `slide valve 32 is in the lower position.
It is to be observed that in FIGURES'Q-and l() amodiiication of the vomit shield 52 shown in FIGURES 2 and 4 has been specifically disclosed.- This modification disclosesa conical formation 70 having a plurality of spaced arcuate or curved cut-ou-ts 72 around the bottom periphery. Attached to or integrally-formed therefrom, -is a stem 74 of smaller diameter than the valve opening 30 permitting the stem 74 to extend therein. A circular ilange- 78 is located centrally of said stem-74 and precludes further upward movement of the vomit shield as particularly disclosed i-n 'FIGURE 7. With this construction the circular ange 78 provides as-top permitting the shield to be readily positioned in the cap 24,v while'the slotted vertical -rising stem 74 extends into the valve opening 30I to minimize the amount of vomit entering therein.
In the operation of the apparatus, inhalationv by the operator, as shown-in FIGURE 2, opens the dapper valve 49 and `causes a lowering of pressure above the slide valve32, thus creating an atmospheric lift upon the slide valve- 32. increased Y pressure directly below the slide valve 32 created by the prior inflation cycle andV exhalation by the victim causedby the elasticity of the victims lungs-assists in giving the-valve 32 an immediate smooth and effortless start in its upward movement. vThe slide valve 32 continues to move upward until the cup 36 engages the stop 38 Where it remains positioned during the yoperator inhalation period. The slide'valve 32 remains in this upper position due to the lowered pressure in the main air exchange chamber 12 and the rush of incoming air the Vcup 34. The slide'valve 32 in this position opens vthe victim exhalation passage 44 and closes the victim inhalationpassage 31, preventing any exhaled air from the victim from mixingv with the fresh air rushing intoA the main air exchange chamber 12.
When the operator 'exhales, as shown in FIGURE 1,
through the passage 40# tending to support` slide valve vupon inhalation' .4 the increase in pressure in the main air exchange chamberv 12 closes the valve -49 and forces the slide valve 32 downwardly to the lower position where the cup 34 engages the stop 38, opening the victim inhalation passage 31. 'I'he fresh air in the main air exchange chamber 12 is forced through the inhalation passage 31 to open the downlet yilapper valve 48 and enters the cup 24 and face mask 28. During this time the tlow of fresh air through the passage 31 for-ces the cup 36 downwardly holding the cup 34 in engagement with the stop 38. In the lower position the slide valve 32 simultaneously closes the fresh air passage 40 and' the victim exhalation passage 44, allowing'noalternative but-fortheexhalation of the operator to force `inilation of the victim.
Thus it can be seen that the "slide valve 32 is smoothly and automatically reciprocated by the atmospheric pressure changes in the resuscitator cylinder 11 created by the natural breathingv of the"operator" This `action duplicates the physiological act of breathing and results in great advantages.
While we have describedo'ne embodiment of our invention in detail, it will be obvious that various changes couldlbe possible. -Wetherefore desire that our invention be solelyllim'ited by the' vscope of the appended claims.
1 We claim:A
1. A resuscitator for' rendering artical Vrespiration-t0 a victimiat -the' normal breathing ratevof an opera-tor comprising:laresuscitator cylinder having amain air exchange -chamberof a' volume of one tidal breath or approximately 550 cc.; an operator mouthpiece opening intosa'id exchange chamber attached; to oneend of saidresuscitator cylinder; a face mask attached to the other endo'f said-resuscitator cylinder and adapted to t a-victimya victim' inhalationpassage in said resuscitator cylinderl interconnecting said main air exchange chamber and said face mask; a fresh air inlet passage in said resuscitator cylinder opening into said main air exchange-chamber* l dfe'xternally of said resuscitator cylinderya victinrexhalatio'n` passage extending through said resuscitator cylinder and opening into said face mask and externally of said resuscitator cylinder; a valvechamlber formed in said resuscitator cylinder, said valve chamber communicating with saidgfresh Yair vpassage and said victim inhalationand exhalation passages; and a freely mounted, reciprocable slide valvel positioned in said valve chamber ladapted to be moved by `pressure changes in said resuscitator cylinderoperating on said slide valve induced by and at the normal rate of said operator breathing into said mouthpiece, whereby 'upon inhalation :off said operator the air pressure in said main air exchange cham'fber is loweredgcausing said slide val-veto move and open saidffr'e'sh air and-victim exhalation passages while closing said Victim inhalation passage to till said main air exchange chamber with fresh air, said movement of said of said operator being assisted by the elasticity of the victims lungs, and upon exhalation of saidv operator said xair pressure in said main air exchangechamberis increased to move said slide valve and close` said fresh airpassage and said victim exhalation passage vand open said victim inhalation passage, forcing tidal breaths of air from said main air exchange chamber through said victim inhalation passage into said mask at theV normal Vbreathing rate `of said operatonand stop means for limiting the movement of said slide valve.
2. A resuscitator las defined in claim 1 including a vomit shield for preventing vomitus from entering the main air exchange chamber.
3. In a mouth-to-moirth resuscitator for rendering articial respiration to ia victim, a resuscitator cylinder having a main air Aexchange chamber of a volume of one tidal breath or approximately 550 cc. and having a fresh air passage and victim inhalation and exhalation passages therein; a valve chamber in said resuscitator cylinder com municating with said fresh 'air and victim inhalation and exhalation passages and a freely mounted slide valve positioned in said valve chamber and neciprocated by pressure changes induced by an operator breathing into said main air exchange chamber to open said fresh air passage and victim exhalation passage and to close said victim inhalation passage filling said main air exchange chamber with fresh air upon inhalation by an operator yand rto close said fresh air and victim exhalation passages to open said victim inhalation passage upon exhalation by said operator whereby tidal breaths of fresh air are forced from said main air exchange chamber through said victim inhalation passage at the normal breathing rate of said operator.
4. Apparatus as defined in claim 3 including a second fresh air by-pass passage in said resuscitator cylinder permitting a victim to breathe directly when desired.
5. A resuscitator as defined in claim 3 wherein said valve chamber comprises upper and lower cylindrical chambers; said upper chamber being of smaller diameter than said lower chamber, and said slide valve is of general dumbbell formation provided with opposed cup-like end members of different diameters and which are respectively received in said upper and lower chambers; and means for limiting the movement of said slide valve in said valve chamber.
6. In a mouth-tosmouth resuscitator for rendering artificial respiration by forcing tidal breaths of air into a victim at the normal breathing rate of `an operator and including a resuscitator cylinder having a main air exchange chamber of a volume of one adult tidal breath or approximately 550 cubic centimeters iilled and emptied by the normal inhalation and exhalation of an operator, the improvement comprising fresh air and victim inhalation and exhalat-ion passages formed in said resusciitator cylinder, flap valves normally closing said fresh air and victim inhalation passages, a valve chamber in said resuscitator cylinder communicating with said fresh air land victim inhalation and exhalation passages; and a recipnocable, freely mounted, pressure powered slide valve positioned in said valve chamber adapted to be moved by pressure changes induced in said nesuscitator cylinder by and `at the norrnal rate of `said operator breathing into said resuscitator cylinder, whereupon inhalation by said operator opens said fresh air passage ap valve and moves said slide valve to open said fresh air and victim exhalation passages and close said victim inhalatiol i passage filling said main lair exchange chamber with fresh air and exhalation by said yoperator opens said inhalation passage flap valve and moves said slide valve to close said fresh air passage and said victim exhalation passage `and open said victim inhalation passage forcing tidal breaths of fresh air from said main air exchange chamber through said victim inhalation passage at the normal breathing rate of said operator.
Brown May 19, 1959 Cross July 4, 1961