US 3100309 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
1953 J. c. GAMBINO 3,100,309
TOOTHBRUSH Filed Aug. 27, 1959 INVENTOR James C. Gambz'zzo H 770/?IVE Y This invention relates to a new design of toothbrush having the several portions thereof formed and oriented in a fashion such that optimum hygienic brushing of teeth in the vertical direction can be carried out naturally and normally in the use of the brush.
The conventional form of toothbrush requires careful attention to manipulation and substantial dexterity for proper use. Thus, when the conventional form of tooth brush is used in the habitual automatic manner in which virtually all but professional dentists do, the brush becomes an unsatisfactory instrument for the cleansing of the teeth, if not actually a dangerous instrument. While dentists emphasize that brushing strokes should be directed vertically, with the grain so to speak, so that they parallel the longitudinal axes of the teeth, virtually all users brush horizontally because it is easier and mechanically natural to use the brush as it is constructed in that fashion. The combination of the bristles with horizontal brushing and the mild abrasives used in toothpastes often results in causing real damage to teeth, particularly at the necks of the teeth and the gum line. These areas, as well as the interde-ntal areas are very vulnerable.
To use the traditional in-lhie toothbrush correctly, the users elbow should remain elevated and the arm almost perpendicular to the body. This position allows the brushing to stay in line with the teeth and receive the strokes if they are oriented in the correct direction. Since proper cleansing requires that brushing be done for a substantial period of time, generally at least about 3 minutes, this brushing position becomes uncomfortable, simply because it is unnatural.
Furthermore, when the right hand is being used to manipulate the brush on the right side, the position is still more unnatural and, therefore, quite tiresome. The bristles of the toothbrush should clean the surfaces of the teeth, the interdenta-l spaces and massage the gums when the brush is properly used.
Since one of the principal causes of caries in teeth is the acids formed by acidop-hilic bacteria in the mouth, which bacteria in turn live on particles of sugar and starch and other carbohydrate material retained between the teeth or present in the oral cavity, the few strokes carried out with the brush, unless carried out precisely for best cleansing, result in a very poor cleansing job in the service of the teeth. The importance of sound teeth to general health and cosmetic appearance need not be labored.
It is a fundamental object of this invention, therefore, to provide a new kind of toothbrush which has the working portions so designed and oriented that optimum stroking of the teeth with bristles formed for most efficient cleansing can be accomplished with the arm in a natural position. In other words, the fundamental object of the invention is to provide a toothbrush having a form and having bristles formed so that the natural position of the arm using the brush is equated with the optimum position for brushing the teeth in the optimum manner.
It is another object of the invention to provide a toothbrush which has the working brush back arranged essentially with its aris perpendicular to the axis of the handle of the brush. I
It is another object of the invention to provide a toothbrush wherein the bristles are permanently curved in controlled amount and direction so that in combina tion with the brush back perpendicular to the handle 3,l 9 Patented Aug. 13, l fill 2 an optimum cleansing of the teeth in natural brushing can be carried out.
Other objects and advantages of the invention will in pant be obvious and in part appear hereinafter.
This invention is embodied in a new form of toothbrush having certain characteristic structural features in that, first, the brush portion is arranged to be supported along an axis which is held at right angles to the handle of the brush, the brush portion being further characterized by its having curved or preset bristles, so that brushing of the teeth by the bristles occurs at a positive acute angle to the surface thereof with the natural stroking, the brush further having thick, loose, or any preferred arrangement of bristles with the ends of tufts of bristles being shaped as cones for additional efficiency in the cleansing operation. The structural arrangement of the brush with the bristle-supporting back at a right angle to handle makes possible a brushing of the teeth with the users elbow held pendant in its natural position, thereby putting the handle of the brush in a natural lonitudinal orientation with respect to the body.
Referring now to the drawings, which give a more detailed exposition of the details of the structure of the invention:
FIGURE 1 illustrates in some detail the construction of the brush portion and its relation to the handle, showing a preferred curvature of the outer rows of bristles with respect to an inside row of straight bristles;
FIG. la is a fragmentary side elevational'view of the toothbrush of FIG. 1;
FIGURE 2 is a-diagrammatic section illustrating the relationship of this arrangement of bristles with respect to typical tooth surfaces;
FIGURES 2a and 2b provide additional detailed amplification of the showing in FIGURE 2;
FIGURE 3 illustrates the principle of orientation of the brush back with respect to the handle and the angular relationship between the axis of the handle and the plane of the brush back;
FIGURES 3a, 3b, 3c, 3d, 3e, and 3 illustrate variants of the configuration of the bristles consistent with the fundamental principle of maintaining a fixed angular relationship between the bristles and the working plane of the brush itself; and
FIGURES 4, 4a, and 4b illustrate variants of arrangement of handles to maintain preferred relationship with the bmlsh.
Referring now to the drawings,
FIGURE 1 represents a perspective view of the brush portion of the device wherein 10 represents the handle joined to the brush back 11 which is made to substantially conventional size, that is, approximately 4 to 5 centimeters long and possibly 1 or 2 centimeters wide, so as to accommodate several rows of bristles. In this instance, the brush back is shown fitted with three rows of bristles typified by tufts 12, 13 and 14. That is,'the individual tufts identified are characteristic of the remaining tufts in those respective rows.
In FIGURE 1a, which is a section through FIGURE 1, it will be seen that the outer rows 12 and 14 are permanently set or curved toward the center row, which preferably is made of straight bristles.
The degree of curvature may be varied but its optimum is such that with respect to a plane 15 with which the bristle tips might come in contact, the approximate angle of contact for the curved bristles is about 45. It should be understood, of course, that quantitative precision in the attainment of this degree of set is not essential to the device and that variants of 20 from the 45 angle toward vertical or 5l0 toward the center row are permissible and still preserve the principle of the invention.
This principle of the invention which involves having action on the teeth and a massaging action on the gums, particularly the gingival line is better illustrated in FIG- URE 2. .Ifithat figure, and 21 represent upper and lower jaw lines, Espectively, and'22 and 23irxii-vidu ah teeth corresponding to tRincissors. Thegingival line is indicated at 24 and 25, 26 and 27 immediately adjacent to the exposed area of the teeth. It is at this point where dental difficulty arising from inefiective cleansing com mences. In the drawing of FIGURE 2, the mechanism by which the improved brush of this invention acts is virtually self-explanatory. Thus, it is apparent that on an upstroke, as indicated in FIGURE 2a, the row of bristles identified as 14 is bent away from the gingival line and, accordingly, will exert a gentle massaging action on the gum. On the downstroke, as indicated in FIG- URE 2b, the same row of bristles will have the ends of individual bristles downwardly directed at an angle approxi- 'row 12.
V In FIGURE 3, I have illustrated diagrammatically the relationship between the orientation of the brush bristles and the handle. In the figure, it will be apparent that for optimum utilization of the principle of vertical brushing on the teeth, a relationship of approximately 30 to 45. as. an optimum between the handle and the brush portion is to be desired. Within this range, additional curvatures, bends and the like between the handle and the brush may be developed. Thus, in FIGURE 3, it will be seen thatthe brush. back 11 isabout at a 30 angle to the handle at the base of the handle.
' In FIGURES 3ae, I have illustrated several variants 0i bristle form which coordinate the method of making the preset bristle with the principle of this brush design.
It will be noted that in each case the bristle canbe considered a loop which has its ends held in an open position. Thus, in FIGURE 3a, 30 represents the brush back, 31
- the handle, and 32 a straight portion of bristle set in the back, bends 33 and 34 precede straight portions 35 and 36. The important bends 37 and 3%; determine the angle at which bristle ends 3 9 and 4t} reach the working plane of the bristles. To form bristles of this configuration, a closed loop or continuous spiral of the bristle is wrapped around a mandrel of the appropriate shape, set, slit, to form ends 39 and 40, and, when the tuft is formed, it is set in a groove in the brush back with ends 39 and 4f) appropriately spaced andfastened in position;
FIGURE 3b-illustrates avariant of the bristle configuration in which loop 41 is made about half the width bf the back so that with loop 41 it forms a double row of bristles 42 and 43 in the center and the appropriately preset rows of bristles 44 and 45. FIGURE 30 illustrates a variant in which loops 5! and 51 are shaped like 49 and 41, but spaced to form the double row of bristles 52 and 53 with the preset rows 54 and 55.
FIGURE 3d illustrates the manner in which curved bristles approximating an ellipse are used. Loop 69 is formed, approximating an ellipse, slit toform ends 61 and 62, spread and mounted in theback of the brush, In FIGURE". 3e, bristles are formed as flattened ellipses 70 and 71, slit to form ends 72 and 73 and mounted straight side to straight side to form curved rows 74 and 75 and straight rows 76 and 77. In FIGURE 3f the variant in which loops 80 and 81 are'spaced to form is practicable so that interference with the vertical stroking is minimized. FIGURE 4a shows a conventional straight handle 89 and; while its bristles 89 embody the principle of the invention and the brush is useful, the
orientation of the handle makes it" awkwagl. FIGURE 4b fepres%a brush 90, having arcuate handle 91 carried out from the brush back in accordance with the principle of the invention.
Within the limits of design, it would be apparent that various combinations of curved bristles, degrees of curvature, angular bristles and angular degrees in the bristles themselves as shown in FIGURES 2a and 2b may be produced to suit different dental conditions. Also, the preferred combination of one straight row of bristles and two rows of curved bristles has been described as preferred in connection with FIGURE 1, but it will be apparent that other combinations can be provided. That is, all
.rows of bristles can be curved in one direction or the other, for example, to satisfy the situation wherein the user of the brush would have natural teeth only in the upper or the lower jaw.
With this combination of handle and brush, it will be apparent that changing the orientation of the two main parts of the toothbrush, the brush and the handle, produces an instrument which makes it possible to carry out the brushing with the users elbow downwardly pendant in a natural position. The handle is thus held without any diIIic-ulty and easily assumes an orientation which is longitudinal to the body of the user. This position induces correct orientation of the brush bristles with respect to the teeth, gum line and the inside of the mouth and the stroke isa natural one in developing the longitudinal up and down brushing so strongly recommended by dental practitioners. A further real advantage of the brush constructed in accordance with this invention is that horizontal brushing of the teeth becomes extremely difficult and awkward, if not actually impossible. With proper use, the curved or angulated bristles strike the area to be brushed, namely, the surfaces of the teeth and the interdouble straight rows 82 and 83 and curved rows 84 and 85 is shown- V a a FIGURE/4 illustrates the basic principle of orienting the-handle with respect to the brush back. There, a tooth dental spaces at the preferred 4-5 angle of brushing.
Children in the early training stages, can be quickly and readily taught the proper technique for brushing the teeth because the stroke is a natural vertical one. It, of course, goes without saying that individual preferences relating to the size of brushing area, its exact shape, curvature and angle of the handle and the hardness and gauge of the bristles may be varied. Thatis, While employing the principle of this form of toothbrush, namely, curved bristles at an angle to the handle, it is quite apparent that a substantial variety of individual forms of toothbrush can be made. 7
Of the several shown, the most generally acceptable model, probably because it permits execution of optimum critical strokes in the up and down directions with cleaning action on both arches without changing position of the handle and general massage of the gums, is that shown in FIGURE 1.
For the manufacture of brushes conforming to the drawings and embodying the concept of this invention, it is apparent that the formation of bristles preset to the desired configurations is essential. The materials from which the bristles are made may be any of those commonly used in the manufacture of brushes. In fact, natural bristles can be softened with ordinary hair waving lotion if desired and set over-a form of the desired configuration, so that natural bristles themselves can be given a predetermined configuration and used in the process. 7
However, itis quite apparent that in the manufacture of brushes, synthetic bristles such as the nylons, orlons and any of the variety of synthetic fibers used for the manufacture of. bristles commonly are suitable. In, other words, the precise chemical identity of the bristle is of secondary or minor importance and it need only be of a composition which lendsitself to the formation of bristles.
In general, any technique by means of which the synthetic resin bristle per se can be bent to the desired configuration or by means of which the liquid resin can be set or cast into the desired configuration for the bristle will be suitable for the manufacture of bristles for purposes of manufacturing brushes in accordance with this invention.
As with natural bristles, ordinary straight line synthetic bristles can be softened, set over a form, hardened and thus, be given the predetermined angle necessary for purposes of this invention. For example, nylon bristles or other synthetic resin bristles can be lightly moistened with solvent, such as methylethylketone, or even solvent vapor, just sufficient to make the material receptive to adopting a permanent kink. When so softened, they may be bent around a form and set While around that form.
A modified system of forming the bristles, of course, is to extrude the liquid or molten resin directly in a spiral configuration which gives a contour corresponding to the bristle desired and, thereafter, cutting the spiral at an appropirate point to form a bristle having the shape shown in FIGURES 3a, 3b, 3c, 3d, etc. With such technique, it is possible to form simultaneously two tufts of bristles, one being straight and the other preset as shown in the drawings.
What is claimed is:
1. A toothbrush particularly adapted for brushing the teeth in vertical strokes, comprising: a substantially rectangular-shaped base having a face and a back, said face carrying tufts arranged in three longitudinal parallel rows of tufts having their inner ends thereof secured in said base and extending outwardly from said face; the outer ends of said tufts in the outer of said parallel rows being bent inwardly toward the inner parallel row of tufts with the tips of said parallel outer rows of bent tufts being spaced apart; the tufts in the inner of said parallel rows being straight and extending normal to said face; and a handle extending outwardly from one side of said base normal to said three parallel rows of tufts and being bent at an acute angle to the plane of said base in a direction away from that of said tufts, said tips of said outer rows of bent tufts providing .a massaging action on the gums and a scraping action on the teeth.
2. A toothbrush as defined in claim 1 in which the tufts in said outside rows are curved throughout their entire length. i
3. A toothbrush as defined in claim 1 in which the straight tufts are shorter than said bent tufts and the outer ends of said straight tufts terminate inwardly of the outer ends of said bent tufts.
4. A toothbrush as defined in claim 1 in which the outer ends of said bent tufts and the outer ends of said straight tufts terminate in a comomn plane parallel to said face, the outer ends of said parallel rows of tufts being spaced apart.
5. A toothbrush as defined in claim 1 in which said inner row of tufts is a parallel row of tufts, the straight tufts being shorter than said bent tufts and with the outer ends of said straight tufts terminating inwardly of. the outer ends of said bent tufts.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,115,165 Briggs Oct. 27, 1914 1,468,888 Stuart Sept..25, 1923 1,647,453 Krantz Nov. 1, 1927 2,084,873 Strause June 22, 1937 2,114,149 Pensky Apr. 12, 1938 2,167,129 Sleeper July 25, 1939 2,312,828 Adamsson Mar. 2, 1943 2,431,861 Babe Dec. 2, 1947 2,432,264 Tyler Dec. 9, 1947 2,599,191 Meunier June 3, 1952 2,618,801 Hibbs Nov. 25, 1952 2,771,624 Ripper Nov. 27, 1956 FOREIGN PATENTS 653,167 =France Nov. 8, 1929