US 3101733 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Aug. 27, 1963 T. J. LORD 3,101,733
EXPLOSIVE VALVE Filed July 14, 1961 THON/l5 J. L ORD 24 F L-1 BYE g5 ,ws 19 rrofen/Y United States Patent Ol This invention relates to .single action or one-time valves, particularly of .the explosive type. Although not so limi-ted the invention 'has especial application to integrated valve units especially adapted -for use on pressure bottles or vessels and selectively energized for release of contained pressure iluids.
An object of the invention is to present .a compact,
unitary device of the kind described readily applicable to pressure vessels to become yan integra-l part thereof.
Another object of the invention is to present `an explosive type valve especially characterized iby simplicity and reliability.
Another object of the invention is to obviate the use in valve devices as described of multiple .flow passes for pressure iiuid supply and for safety blow-oil?.
Still ,another object of the invention is to utilize a single valve outlet which in nonoperating situations is closed by a shipping plug adapted to negate reaction forces' in the event of inadvertent release `ou? pressure. A still `further object of the invention is to utilize a diaphragm-disc assembly both as a rupturable means for a controlled release of pressure and as .a :safety outlet for obviating an excess pressure :build-up in the vessel.
Other objects and structural details of the invention will appear Yfrom the following description, when read in connection with the laccompanying drawings, wherein:
FIG. 1 is a view i-n longitudinal section of a valve in accordance with the illustrated embodiment of the invention, the valve being shown installed in a pressure bottle;
FG. 2 is a top plan view of the valve of FIG. 1, shown at a reduced scale .and with the `shipping plug removed;
FIG. 3 is' a fragmentary view in side elevation of the Referring to the drawing, a valve in accordance with` vthe illustrated embodiment of the invention comprises a body 1@ constructed of an aluminum alloy or other material resistant to high inter-nal pressures. The body is adapted to` be installed in a pressure bottle 11 or the like to become a unitary yet detachable part. thereof, as by being formed with an externally threaded boss` 12 adapted -to have a threaded reception in an opening 13 in the Wall of the bottle 11. A flange 14 on the body contines an O-ring '15 in a complementary groove in the bottle 11 in such manner as to prevent pressure iluid escape around the threads of the boss 12. The bottle 11 :conventionally may contain fluid under relatively h-igh pressure, as on the order of 3,00() pounds per square inch, and the valve unit functions positive-ly to confine @such pressure within the bottle until such time as the valve is actuated to provide through the body 10 :a controlled escape .path :for 4the contained pressure.
rlhe boss 12 is recessed to provide a chamber 16 communicating with bottle opening 13 and hence with the interior of lthe bottle. An interior passage y17 connects the inlet chamber l16 with a transversely extending 3y0lly733 Patented Aug. 27, 1963 ice chamber 1b opening through the body 10 outside the bottle 111. The wall of chamber 18 is threaded -ior simplied connection with piping leading to a place of use of ythe contained pressure. A shipping plug .19 may have a threaded installation in the chamber 181 under non-operating conditions. Serving to prevent the entrance of `dirt .and foreign materials into the valve, the shipping plug is lformed also with `a longitudinally extending ow passage 21 and a plurality of communicating radial passages 22. These define an escape path `for pressure Huid in the event of an inadvertent release of the contained pressure in :a manner tending tor negate reaction forces.
Disposed in transverse fashion in the inlet chamber 16 is a rupture disc lassembly comprising .a relatively rigid ring 23 and a deformable rupturable disc Z4. The ring 23 is formed ywith a through 'bore 2S and with a counterbore 26. The latter provides a `seat for the disc 24 which is caused thereby to assume la position closing bore I25. The ring ,'23 is stationarily installed in an internal transverse groove 26l inthe boss l12, and is so located thereby as to place the ruptured disc assembly intermediate the bottom open end of chamber 16 and passage 17 leading to outlet chamber 18. The disc 24, While held in the ring 2&3 in -any suitable manner .and made of `any suitable material, is in the illustrated instance .a thin, light-Weight metallic `disc which is brazed tothe ring 23 in the bottom of fcoun-terbor-e 26. Presenting normally a continuous, unbroken surface, the disc 24 effectively seals the outlet chamber 18 from the interior of the pressure vessel.
ln accordance with a feature of .the instant invention, the rupture ldisc assembly is used both for burst safety control and as a part of the means Ito bring about the selective, control-led release of the contained pressure. For .greater predictability of the burst pressure, the disc is prestressed by exposing the unsupported mid-portion thereof to a pressure approaching the value of the burst pressure, or Ithat pressure at which it is desired to relieve the contained pressure as a safety precaution. As a result of such prestress-ing, the mid-portion of the disc assurnes .a hernisp-herical shape, substantially as indicated, in which a part of the `disc is projected into the bore 25 and assumes therein a concavo-convex configuration. A rise in the con-tained pressure to a value significantly higher than that used in the prestressing of the disc accordingly will cause disc 24 to rupture or to break 'whereupon pressure iluid 'from the vessel 11 may escape through bore 25 tothe rear of inlet chamber 16' and thence to outlet chamber 18 by Way of passage 17 Where it is discharged 4to atmosphere under the reaction inhibiting control of shipping plug 19.
Bursting of the disc 24 as described is a safety function of the valve. To perform its intended control or selective pressure release function fthe valve is provided with selectively operable means to rupture `disc 24. This means, in the illustrated instance, includes la tubular projectile 27 is 4adapted to be received within the bore 25 of inlet chamber 16 above or to the rear of `the rupture disc assembly. The projectile 27 extends into inlet chamber 16 With its inner end in nearby relation to the concavoconvex portion of disc 24. Such outer end of the projectile has a concave shape complementing the convexly presented surface of disc 24, With the outer peripheral edge o-f `such end being given a knife-like edge. Th projectile 27 is adapted to 'be received within the bore 25 of -r-ing 23 .and if forcibly thrust downward or outward from the position shown in FIG. 1 will pass through and beyond the bore 25, and, in the process cut out a segment of the disc24. The disc is thus ruptured and opened for pressure fluid escape.
The tubular projectile is formed with longitudinally spaced apart sets of radi-al ports 29 and 31 utilized in the out-thrust position of the projectile to assure communication between the interior of the vessel 11 and inlet chamber 16 to the rear of the rupture disc assembly. Thus, land `as shown in FiG. 4, when the projectile has been Ithrust outwardly to rupture disc 24 it `assumes approximately the position shown in FIG. 4 `wherein the ports 31 lare projected beyond the rupture `disc lassembly and are open for pressure uid flow from the interior of the vessel 11. Having iaccess through the body of the projectile to the ports 29 the pressure iiuid is discharged thereby into the inlet chamber i6 to the rear of the rupture disc `assembly and ii-ows by way of passage 17 to outlet chamber 18. The latter, las heretofore noted, is under operating or installed conditions suitably connected to 4a place of use of the pressure fluid. In order to limit the outwardly thrusting motion of the projectile 27, and accurately to place the ports 29 and 3-1 on opposite sides lof the rupture disc assembly, the exterior `of the projectile and 4the inner end of bore 25 in ring 23 are formed fwith complementary taper formations 33 and 34. When in its extended or out-thrust position, therefore, the projectile 27 seats in the ring 23 limiting and positioning the projectile yas described.
The bore 28 which receives the yprojectile 27 is longitudinally aligned with inlet chamber 16. At what may be considered its inner end it merges with an aligned reduced diameter bore 35. rIhe projectile 27 is formed at its inner end with a solid portion 36 presented as a piston to the inner end of bore 35. The opposite end of bore 35 is closed except for a reduced diameter opening 36 extending through the outer surface of the body 10. The bore 35 and piston portion 36 of projectile 37 accordingly deline a chamber 3%. Received in such chamber in relatively close fitting relation to the sides thereof is a pyrotechnic actuator 39 having the characteristics of a propellant cartridge. When ignited, actuator 39 generates a powerful expansion force which, -in this instance, is directed toward the piston portion 36 of the projectile 27 in la manner to deliver an outward thrust to the projectile, driving it forcibly from the position shown in FIG. 1 to the position shown in FIG. 4.
While any known form of pyrotechnic actuator may lbe used, in the illustrated instance the device 39 comprises `an outer met-al case d1. At one end thereof the case 41 is turned inwardly to provide a mount for a thin metal or plastic disc 42. Inside the case 4i, immediately Aadjacent to the disc 42, is a charge 43 of propellant material 43. Contiguous to the charge d3, toward the opposite end of the case 41, is a layer of pyrotechnic or ignitor material 44. In -overlying relation to the material 44, and in closing relation to the said opposite end of the case 41, is a plug 45 of 1a plastic `or like material. A pair of electrically conductive posts 46 and 47 lare mounted in the plug 45 to project through the plug, within and without the case 41. The inwardly projecting ends of the posts lterminate within the layer ld of ignitor material and `are there connected by an electrically conductive bridge wire 48. The `outer ends of ythe posts project through and beyond the reduced diameter bore 37 and terminate outside the body 10.
That side of the body 16 through which the posts 46 and 47 project has :an auxiliary body 49 secured thereto,
as by means of `a yscrew 51. The auxiliary body 49 overlies the body and is made of a molded plastic or like material which is electrically nonconductive. The auxiliary body 49 has a recess 52 receiving the posts 46 and 47. Formed in the body is a pair of leaf contacts 53 and 54 which, near their one ends, contact respective posts 46 and 47. At their other ends `the leaf members 53 and 54 are connected through resistors 55 #and 56 to respective electrically conductive bars 57 and 58 also molded within or otherwise lcarried by the auxiliary body 49. The bars 57 and 58 :are connected by llexible conductors 59 and 61 toa source of electricity.
In accordance with `the mode of operation of the pyrotechnic actuator and its controls, the circuit to the actuator by way Iof the conductors 59* and 61 normally is open. Upton closing of such circuit, electrical current ows to and through one of the posts 46 or 47, across the bridge wire 48 to the otherl post and then back to the source. Wire 48 is heated thereby and quickly ignites pyriotechnic material 44. F.this acts as a fuse, touching off the propellant charge 43. Powerful expanding gases eject or rupture the disc i2 and vare so `directed against the piston portion 36 of the projectile 27, with the results heretofore described.
Upwardly and inwardly bent extensions on the bars 57 and 58 terminate in spaced apart spring contact arms 62 and 63. These are selectively joined by an insert pin 64 adapted to be pressed in place between the contact arms and resiliently held by engagement of the arms dn a peripheral groove 65 in the pin. When positioned as described, and as shown in FIG. 3, the pin 64 provides a short circuit for electric current flow, obviating its passage through the actuator 39. It is hence a safety device by which actuation of the valve may be prevented should the circuit across conductors 59 and 61 be closed prematurely or by mistake. Prior to a planned tiring of fthe valve the shorting pin 64 is withdrawn from its insert position, as by pulling on `an attached lanyard 66. The valve is in this manner prepared or armed for use.
The illustrated form of fthe invention contemplates use of a tubular projectile as disclosed. 4It will be evident, however, that other forms of rupture producing means may be used. A simple punch, for example, might be formed on the end of a projectile Vfto pierce the disc or diaphram 24. Escaping pressure from the vessel 11 would then deform the disc to deiine a full open area through the rupture disc assembly.
The mating surfaces 33 and 34, on projectile Q7 and in bore 25, provide for a wedging engagement of the projectile with ring 23, after firing. As a result the projectile tends to maintain its outthrust position against opposing pressures from within vessel 11. In the event positive retention is desirable, snap ning or like means may be suitablyY disposed between the projectile and body 10.
What is claimed is:
1. A valve adapted for mounting on a pressure vessel or the like and selectively operable for pressure release,
including a body formed with a through uid ow passage Y having an inlet end adapted to communicate with the pressure source, a mount installed in said body in said passage and having la through opening therein, a side wall of said opening tapering from one diameter on one side of said mount to a larger diameter on the other side thereof, a rupturable disc having a peripheral portion seated on said one side of the mount and a concavo-convex central portion received in said opening, a projectile slidable in said body in aligned relation to said mount on the said other side thereof, said projectile being tubular and having longitudinally spaced apart radial openings and a tip facing the convex surface of said disc, means for driving said projectile into and through said opening in said mount to rupture said disc in the process, and means on the exterior of said projectile complementing the taper in said opening engageable therewith to limit thrust of said projectile into and through said opening and to position said projectile with said longitudinally spaced `apart openings thereinon respectively opposite sides of said mount.
2. A valve according .to claim 1, characterized in that said mount and said disc comprise a unitary assembly separably installed in said valve body, the installation of said assembly presenting the concave surface of said disc to confined pressure, the shape of said disc producing a prestressing of said disc for accurate burst pressure predictability.
3. A valve according to claim l, characterized in that the tip of said projectile is open with its edge having a 6 concave shape complementing uhe convexly presented sur- 2,972,998 Detwiler Feb. 28, 1961 face of said disc and terminating at its extremity in a 2,975,595 Lyons Mar. 21, 1961 knife-like edge. 2,997,051 Williams Aug. 22, 1961 References Cited in the le of this patent 5 FOREIGITI PATENTS UNITED STATES PATENTS 770,276 Great Brltam Mar. 20, 1957 2,474,826 Canam July 5, 1949 OTHER REFERENCES 2,515,068 Young July 11, 1950 Explosive Actuated Valves, by Maurice W. Connell, 2,557,448 Mathisen June 19, 1951 presented Sept. 24-26, 1956. y(A copy of this publication 2,719,532 Grant Oct. 4, 1955 is in the Scientific Library of the Patent Office.)
2,753,945 Beebee July 10, 1956