US 3104719 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Sept. 24, 1963 1 s. FITE MULTIPLE STAGE JET sQUEEzE ANCHOR 3 Sheets-Sheet l Filed Sept. 19, 1961 1N VEN TOR Attorneys sept. 24, 1963 L. s. FITE 3,104,719
MULTIPLE STAGE JET SQUEEZE ANCHOR Filed Sept. 19. 1961 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 Hg. /A
sept. 24, 1963 L. s, Fm; 3,104,719
MULTI-PLE STAGE JET SQUEEZE ANCHOR Filed Sept. 19, 1961 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 Fig. 6
Lui/7er 5I Fife INVENTOR.
BY Hmm United States lPatent O 3,104,719 MULTIPLE STAGE JET SQUEEZE ANCHOR Luther S. Fife, Natchez, Miss., assigner to Petroleum Anchor Equipment, Inc., Natchez, Miss., a corporation of Texas Filed Sept. 19, 1961, Ser. No. 139,102 7 Ciaims. (Cl. 165-243) The present invention generally relatesto an anchor device and more particularly to an anchor that may be employed as a holding device wherever it is impractical to use screw or other types of mechanical anchors and has particular adaptation for use in submerged soils such as off-shore or lake bottoms. The anchor also is especially useful in guying platforms, offshore drilling rigs or the like and is also quite eifective for use as a pipeline holddown and is also capable of use in holding cables in a desirable position and may even be used under water.
Primarily, the present invention employs an anchor device which enables the anchor to be forced into the soil by the jet action of .a novel nozzle assemble together with means for subsequently forcing hardenable concrete or the like laterally outwardly for hardening in an enlarged portion of the jet hole for anchoring the assembly in place.
The anchor is in the form of a tube having .a jet head .on the bottom thereof so that high pressure fluid such as water or the like may be pumped down through the anchor and discharged from the jet head whereby the jet head will form a bore into 'the soil. After the anchor has been jetted to the desired depth, a plug device such as a spherical ball is placed in the tube and it moves downwardly until it comes in contact with a movable bushing so that when high pressure is applied to the ball, the bushing will be moved longitudinally thus exposing and Opening lateral holes .and closing oif the jet head thus causing the water yto be directed laterally outwardly of the anchor against the wall of the hole which has been formed by the jet head. This pumping or jetting operation is continued laterally until a cavity has been formed of desired size to insure the required hold-down. Then, cement containing additives for quick setting or other similar material is pumped .through the anchor until it has returned to or near the surface of the soil on the outside of the anchor and it is then allowed to set up or harden. After the concrete has hardened, the pump is again put into operation for pumping additional cement or other material through the anchor and suicient pressure is applied to break down the soil formation thus forcing or squeezing the cement or other material out into the soil formation in the area adjacent to the side openings in the anchor thus forming a mass of cement or other materials of desired size which is in all cases larger than the jetted hole and large enough to insure the needed hold-down. With this construction, any hold-down capacity can be had to the tensile strength of the tube used in the anchor. Thus, by Varying the size of the tubing, the hold-down capacity of the anchor may be varied.
After the concrete is allowed to set up or harden, the anchor is then ready for use as it is secured to the mass of material by `the fins thereon. The tins have also served another purpose when jetting the anchor into place in that they wil-l centralize the device while the anchor is moving into the hole formed by the jet head.
The `anchor also includes .a novel cable attachment which may swivel in relation to the tube thus enabling the cable to be attached prior to installation of the anchor. Also, the cable is constructed in a manner .that will enable replacement of the cable from the surface of the water or barge deck by attaching the end of the new cable to an end of the old cable and then pulling the other end of the old Vcable until the new cable is pulled through the 3, l 64,7 i 9 Patented Sept. 24, 1 963 ICC cable attachment and back to .the surface whereby the new cable may then be cut from the supply coil and the two ends clamped together above the water surface thus eliminating underwater work.
The formation of a lateral cavity and pumping of liquid cement thereinto may be carried out at several different levels thus assuring a maximum amount of concrete in the formation. Also, in many installations, it will not be necessary to carry out the second pumping operation for squeezing the cement out into the soil which, of course, is dependent upon the holding force desired.
Thus, with the present invention, an anchor device which is easy to use and effective for its particular purposes is provided together with a device which is quite inexpensive to manufacture.
These together with other objects and advantages which will become subsequently apparent reside in the details of construction and operation as more fully hereinafter described and claimed, reference being had to the accompanying drawings forming a part hereof, wherein like numeral-s refer to like parts throughout, and in which:
FIGURES 1 and 1A represent a side elevational view of the anchor of the present invention;
FIGURE 2 is a bottom plan view of the jet head forming the bottom -of the anchor;
FIGURE 3 is a vertical sectional view taken substantially upon a plane passing along section line 3--3` of FIGURE 2 illustrating the construction of the jet head;
FIGURE 4 is a transverse sectional View taken Asubstantially upon a plane pas-sing along section line y4 4 of FIGURE 1A illustrating the lateral holes in the tubing;
FIGURE 5 is a detailed sectional View taken substantially upon a plane passing along section line S-5 of FIGURE l illustrating the cable attachment;
FIGURE 6 is a vertical .sectional view taken subs-tantially upon a plane passing along section line 6 6 of FIGURE 5 illustrating further structural details of the cable attachment;
FIGURE 7 is a transverse, sectional view taken substantially upon a plane passing along section line 7-7 of FIGURE 1 illustrating the construction of a stabilizer n assembly;
FIGURE 8 is a Vertical sectional view taken substantially upon a plane passing along section line 8 8 `of FIGURE 7 illustrating further structural details of the stabilizing iin;
FIGURE 9 is :a longitudinal sectional view of a portion of the anchor tubing illustrating the sleeve or bushing which normally closes the lateral openings together with a ball positioned thereon for moving the bushing downwardly whereby the lateral openings will be opened;
FIGURE l0 is a sectional view similar to FIGURE 9 illustrating the position of the bu-shing and ball plug when moved to a lower position for opening the lateral openings;
FIGURE 11 is a sectional view illustrating a bushing engaged directly with a spring which may be the uppermost bu-shing;
FIGURE l2 is a perspective View of the bushing; yand FIGURE 13 is .afperspective view of an upper bushing having a larger diameter by which a smaller ball capable of engaging a lower bushing may pass therethrough.
Referring now specifically to the drawings, the numeral l10 generally designates the -anchor of the present invention as illustrated in FIGURES 1 and 1A which includes an elongated sectional tube or pipe v12 inwhich the sections are Vinterconnected by screw threaded couplings 14 of the internally threaded type. Mounted on the lower end of the tube 12 is a jet head generally designated by numeral 16. At longitudinally spaced points along the tube 12, there are provided stabilizers each being generally designated by the numeral 18 and the upper end of the anchor is provided with a swivel cable attachment generally designated by the numeral Zi).
Referring now specically in FIGURES 2 4, the jet head 16 includes a nozzle head '22 attached to the lower end of the tube 12 by a coupling member 24. The lower end of the nozzle head 22 is hernispherical and general- 'ly in the form of a nose 2'6. Extending axially from the center of the nos-e 22, there is provided a pair of deiiector yplates or blades 28 and 30 having angularly disposed lower end portions 32 and 34 which terminate Vin beveled edges 36 and 38. The offset portions or angulated portions 32 and 34 extend in opposite directions to each other and the plates 2S and 3) are spaced slightly from each other and may be secured to the nose 26 by welding 40 or the like.
Also attached to the nose 26 is a pair of tubular nozzles 42 and 44 extending interiorly of the nozzle head 22 and having outer ends extending annularly or in inclined relation as indicated by numerals 46 and 48. The nozzles 42 and-44 terminate in oriiices 59 constructed of high pressure tubing with the orifices and odset ends 46 and 48 of the nozzles being directed to discharge high pressure jets of fluid onto the surfaces of the bit plates 28 and 3b on the surface of the inclined portions 32 and 34 remote from the bevel edges 36 and 3S whereby the fluid being discharged will be given a swirl for more efficient jetting of a hote 52 in the soil 54 such as at the bottom of a body of water or lin other types of soil where it is impractical to employ a mechanical type anchor.
"Referring now particularly to FIGURES 7 and 8, each of the stabilizing assemblies 18 includes an elongated cylindrical member generally designated by the numeral S6 having an odset or enlarged central bore 58 received over one of the couplings 14 between adjacent sections of the tube 12. The ends of the cylindrical member 56 are contoured to iit the adjacent portions of the tube 12 as indicated by reference numeral 6d. The cylindrical member S6 is provided with a plurality of radially extending ns 62 rigid therewith and the bottom ends of the -tins 62 are beveled or inclined as indicated by numera'l 64 wherein the fins will centralize the tube in relation to the hole 52 during and after insertion when the anchor is being jetted into the hole 52. Subsequently, the stabilizing :ns 62 have another function set forth hereinafter.
The cylindrical member 56 is constructed of two Vsections `66 and 63 which are detachably interconnected by interdigitated apertured lugs 7@ releasably receiving hinge pins or locking pins 72 therethrough for securing the sections of the tubular member 56 in encircling relation to the coupling 14 by locking the stabilizing n :to the tube.
A number of the stabilizing tins may be employed but at least, the stabilizing hns should be disposed at the second and third couplings on the tube. The stabilizer tins tend to center the anchor in the jetted hole into which the anchor moves and they are attached after the tubing has been assembled just prior to installation of the anchor. The dividing fline between the two halves of the stabilizer passes through the center line of the hinges and the pins 72 are tirst inserted in one pair of hinge lugs 70, the stabilizer is then opened and positioned on the coupling and maintained thereby inserting the pin 72 in the second pair of hinge lugs 7i) on the opposite side thereof. The interior surface of fthe stabilizer is formed to coincide with the contour of the upset tubing and the coupling 14.
FIGURES and 6 illustrate the details of construction of the cable attacthment which includes a pair of generally diamond-shaped plates 74 and 76 in the form of gussets Itogether with interconnecting center sections 78 defining a central opening 80. The ce-ntral opening S0 is also defined by tubular extensions 82 extending above and below center section 78 and are received on the tube 12 with the upper end of the tubular extension 82 abuttingly engaging an annular shoulder of a coupling member 114 thus swiveliing mounting rthe cable attachment on the tube 12. The center section 78 also denes a` pair of large openings S4 and 86 adjacent the side apexes of the plates 74 and 76. The openings 84 and 86 are deiined by the center sections 73 and transversely extending web portions 88 and 90 which are generally ovalshaped in coniiguration. tubular extensions S2 may be suicient to slide over` the regular couplings 14 employed in connecting the sections of the tube but will abuttingly engage an end coupling which may be larger than the intermediate couplings. Also, the members 88 and 90 receive operating cables 92 and 94 respectively by virtue of the cables passing around the members. 92 and 94 to be easily replaced by merely attaching one end of a new cable to one end of the old cable and then pulling on the other end of the old cable wherein the new cable will be pulled downwardly under the particular transverse member S8 or 90 and then back up to the original starting position at which timev the ends of the new cable may be connected to the supporting machinery in an obvious manner.
In employing the anchor, a drive tubing is installed into the upper end of the end coupling and this driving tubing may be unscrewed from the anchor and removed after `the anchor has been set in place.
The tubing 12 is provided with a plurality ofsetsfof radial holes 96 above the jet head and these radial holes 96 are normally closed by a longitudinally elongated tubular bushing 98. The tubular bushing 498 is provided with a longitudinal passageway 1b@ which normally enables passages of the jetting luid therethrough. The
llower end of the bushing 98 rests on a compression coil spring 102 which has the bottom end thereof resting on an annular washer or disk 1M received between the s ections of the tubing and supported on the end of a lower Y tubing and retained in place by the coupling 14 as illustrated in FIGURE 9. the bushing in position and return it to position inV a manner described hereinafter. Y f
The upper end of the bushing 93 or that end which faces the top end of the anchor is provided with a generally conical seat 106 formed by beveling lthe upper end of the bushing. The seat 166 forms a valve seat for a spherical ball valve member 16% which may be inserted into the tube 12 from the upper end thereof after the anchor has been jetted in position for purposes of subse quently applying pressure above the ball itS thus forcing the bushing 93 and the ball valve member 108 downwardly to the position illustrated in FIGURE l0 against the tension of the spring thus compressing the spring 162 and opening the openings 96 whereby flowable concrete or cement may be pumped out through the opening 96 after the hole 52 has been enlarged at the area in alignment with the opening 96 by virtue of high pressure jetting tluid being discharged therefromthus forming a generally bell shaped undercut to the wall of the hole 52 for increasing the diameter of the hole thus enabling the concrete, when pumped into the enlargedl diameter and hardened to eectively anchor the tube in the hole.
lFIGURE `1l illustrates a slightly modified bushing 918' for indicating 4that the bushing may have any suitable thickness as far as the wall thickness thereof is concerned. Also, the lowermost bushing 98 as illustrated in FIGURE 12 will have a relatively small diameter vcompared with an upper bushing designated by numeral`110 in IFIGURE 13 so that the relatively small ball 108 will fall through the seat v112 on the larger bushing V1110 into engagement with the lowermost bushing 98. Then a larger ball may be inserted into the tube for lodging against the seat -1'12 thus enabling sequentia closing of the bushings after the enlarged diameter in the hole has been formed for effectively forming several areas of enlargement in the hole thus further anchoring the tube in the hole.
The internal diameter of theV This enables the cables Y The spring 162 serves to retaink The spring k102 also has the function of returning the bushing 98 to a position for closing the opening 96 in the event pressure above the bushing becomes reduced for any reason. For example, if it is desired to disconnect the drive tubing or reduce the pressure in the tube 12, the spring will close the bushing 98 due to a normal equalization of pressure thus eliminating backflow of uid through the opening 95. Equalization of pressure is accomplished since the ent-ire hole will be pressurized and the pressure will leak back through the nozzle openings for equalizing the pressure although the pressure will normally not be equalized due to the ow characteristics of the fluid.
In some installations, the use of the spring may be omitted and the device may be used lwith a single stage anchoring device or there may be several stages of anchoring depending upon the holding power desired. By forcing the cement outwardly under very high pressure, the cement may actually be squeezed into the various cavities appearing in the ground surface thus assuring that the cement will be intimately locked to the anchor tube and stabilizing tins.
One example of use of the anchor is its use as a holddown or anchor for underwater pipes such as underwater gas transmission lines. In present practice, there is no feasible method of holding pipe lines in place through the use of mechanical anchors installed from surface vessels and the pipe lines are coated with sucient materials, such as concrete, to overcome buoyancy and hold the line stationary on the bottom. This method of laying line from a surface Wessel and barge is expensive because of the cost of the coating material and because of the weight of the coated pipe suspended between the bottom and the laying vessel. As an example, thirty inch pipe with a .375l wall thickness has a net buoyancy of 322 pounds per linear foot and the cost of the coating applied on the pipe is approximately $18.00 per foot. K
The use of the jet squeeze pipe line anchor would eliminate the cement coating and pipe could be strung behind the laying barge on the surface of the water and then ooded causing it to sink to the bottom. The jet anchors would then be installed across the flooded pipe from a small surface vessel equipped with an A frame, or crane, to hold the anchor and drill stem and equipped with a pump connected to the drill stem to be used to jet the anchor into place and to pump down sufficient cement to hold the anchor. After the anchor is in position the drill stem connected with the two inch pipe saddle would be unscrewed and retrieved.V
In actual tests, a jet pipe and from 2% pipe jetted fty feet into sand with forty-eight sacks of cement forced through the port held 122,000 pounds. This type anchor could also be inserted through a bracket which would completely encircle the pipe. The foregoing is considered as illustrative only of the principles of the invention. lFurther, since numerous modifications and changes will readily occur to those skilled in the art, -it 'is not desired to limit the invention to the exact construction and operation shown and described, and accordingly all suitable modifications and equivalents may be resorted to, falling within the scope of the invention as claimed.
What is claimed as new is as follows:
"1. An anchor device comprising an elongated tube having lateral openings, closure means disposed in said tube and normally closing said lateral openings to the interior of the tube, a jet head at the bottom end of the tube, stabilizing means mounted on the tube intermediate the length thereof, attachment means mounted on the tube adjacent the upper end thereof for yattaching a cable or the like to be anchored, and means within the tube for closing oif the jet head and shifting said closure means to 6 open said lateral openings for discharge of anchoring cement laterally of the tube.
2. The structure as defined in claim 1 wherein said jet head includes a generally rounded nose, a pair of axially extending spaced plates terminating in oppositely offset `end portions, nozzles communicating with the interior of the tube and discharging against the inclined surfaces of the plates thereby discharging high pressure jetting fluid in a swirling motion for jetting a hole in which the tube may be lowered whereby the entire length of the tube may be jetted down into such a hole.
3. The structure as detined in claim 1 wherein the stabilizing means includes a tubular sleeve, said tube being constructed of sections and interconnected by couplings, said tubular sleeve being split into longitudinal halves for positioning over one of said couplings and including an annular recess in thevinterior thereof for locking the sleeve to the coupling, means securing the halves of the sleeve to the coupling, and radially projecting fins rigid with said sleeves for centralizing the tube in the hole formed by the jet head and serving as anchor means for engagement by cement when pumped laterally, said fins having an inclined lower edge for guiding the tube into the hole.
4. The structure as defined in claim 1 wherein said attachment means includes a sleeve member swivelly connected to the tube adjacent the upper end thereof, laterally extending parallel plates rigidly aiiixed to the stabilizer, rounded cable engaging members at the side apexof the plates for receiving a cable therethrough whereby the cable may be replaced with a new cable by attaching the new cable to the old cable and pulling it through the area between the plates and inwardly of the cable engaging member.
5. The structure ras defined in claim l wherein said closure means includes a sleeve member slidable the tube, said tube having lateral openings normally closed by said sleeve member, said sleeve member normally being longitudinally immovable and including a seat on the upper end thereof, and said means for closing oif said jet head and shifting said closure means including a plug of less cross sectional area than the tube but of `greater cross sectional area than the sleeve member positionable in the tube for engagement with the seat on the sleeve member thereby causing the sleeve member to move downwardly in response to pressure and closing the sleeve member whereby the sleeve member will open the lateral openings. Y
I6. The structure as dened in claim 5 wherein said sleeve member is in the form of a bushing, spring means urging the bushing back to a closed position in relation to the opening whereby the lateral opening will be closed upon a reduction in pressure above the bushing thereby preventing backow through the tube.
7. The structure as defined in claim 6 wherein a series of bushings and lateral openings are provided in the tube, each bushing in the series having a progressively larger diameter as the series extends towards the top `of the tube for enabling sequential closing oif of the bushing and discharge of the material laterally from the openings.
References Cited in the le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS l1,404,353 Ellis Ian. 24, 11922 1,404,925 Blumenthal Jan. y3l, 1922 1,435,144 Bignell Nov. 14, 1922 1,449,236 Malone Mar. 20, 1923 :1,746,848 Bates v Feb. l1, 1930 2,312,018 Bechman Feb. 23, 1943 2,507,439 Goolsbee May 9, 1950 2,805,043 Williams Sept. 3, 1957