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Publication numberUS3104825 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateSep 24, 1963
Filing dateJun 30, 1958
Publication numberUS 3104825 A, US 3104825A, US-A-3104825, US3104825 A, US3104825A
InventorsStanley A. Hayes
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
hayes
US 3104825 A
Abstract  available in
Images(4)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Sept. 24, 1963 s. A. HAYES MIXING APPARATUS 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 Original Filed June 30, 1958 IN V EN TOR. STANLEY A. HAYES M imam A TTORNEVS Sept. 24, 1963 s. A. HAYES MIXING APPARATUS 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 Original Filed June 50, 1958 Sept. 24, 1963 s. A. HAYES 3,104,825

MIXING APPARATUS Original Filed June 50, 1958 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 YA/W Alf/AVA v w A V A Arman/5V5.

Sept. 24, 1963 s. A.'HAYES 3,104,825

MIXING APPARATUS Original Filed June 50, 1958 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 INVENTOR. 5774/1/46? 4. H4765 United States Patent "ice 14 Claims. (Cl. 239-407) The present invention relates generally to mixing devices and more particularly to .apparatus for mixing a first liquid into the carrier stream of a second liquid.

This application is a continuation of my copending application Serial No. 746,312, filed June 30, 195 8, now abandoned, which is a continuation-impart application of my preceding application Serial No. 497,106, filed March 28, 1955, now forfeited.

Apparatus capable of mixing a first liquid into a carrier stream of a second liquid have many diiterent uses such as mixing fertilizer in irrigation Water, adding detergent to a water stream for washing articles and applying liquid chemicals such as insecticides, toxicants and fungicides to plants, trees shrubs, lawns and agricultural crops.

Various types of prior art apparatus for mixing first and second liquids have been widely used. For example,

garden hose sprayers of the type disclosed in my earlier patent, No. 2,592,896 function to educt a chemical solution into a carrier stream of water under pressure from a garden hose connected to a city water system. Such garden hose sprayers employ a jet pump eductor of a special type which is capable of maintaining a constant ratio of educted chemical to water over varying water pressures. While such prior art jet pump eductors operate very satisfactorily from a garden hose, such eductors are not suitable for use in series with sprinkling apparatus which places a high back pressure on the eductor since such eductors will operate only over a very limited range of back pressures.

For example, prior art eductors have not operated satisfactorily when such an eductor is connected in series with a number of sprinklers which require a large pressure drop across the sprinklers to provide coverage over a large area. This problem may be remedied by placing a pump in the system downstream from the eductor to restore pressure in the carrier stream of the second liquid (i.e. water) after the first liquid (i.e. chemical) has been educted into it. The use of such .a pump is expensive and diflicult to maintain where the educted liquid is corrosive or otherwise harmful to the pump.

Such prior art eductors are also unsatisfactory for portable systems which employ a pump with a length of hose such as 50 feet connected between the pump and the eductor to permit a wide area to be covered without moving the pump. The operator is required tocalry a large quantity of chemical with the eductor or a separate hose is required to connect a chemical container located adjacent the pump with the eductor. This is not practical where wettable powders and other materials that do not completely dissolve are to be sprayed since such ma terials will settle out in the suction hose carrying the slow moving chemical solutions and impair the operation of the sprayer.

The above disadvantages of prior art eductor apparatus are overcome by the present invention. This invention provides mixing apparatus which utilizes the eductor principle to introduce a first liquid (chemical) into a carrier stream of a second liquid (water) without imposing a serious pressure drop in the carrier stream and it is operable over a wide range of back pressures on the mixing apparatus. Another advantage of this invention is that it permits the first liquid to be mixed into the second liquid on the discharge or high pressure side of a pump and Patented Sept. 24, 1963 2. thereby avoids the passage of the first liquid which may be corrosive through the pump.

In accordance with the present invention, there is provided a main conduit adapted to be connected to a source of a second liquid such as water. A bypass conduit opens into the main conduit at an upstream and a downstream location. A first or chemical eductor is disposed in the bypass conduit and includes an inlet passage, an aspiration chamber, .and an outlet passage arranged in that order. Conduit means are connected between the aspiration chamber of the first eductor and a source of the first liquid (i.e. chemical). A second or power eductor is disposed in the main conduit and includes an inlet passage, a mixing chamber and an outlet passage arranged in that order. The mixing chamber of'the second eductor is connected to the bypass conduit at the downstream location of the main conduit whereby the first liquid is educted into a carrier stream of the second liquid in the first eductor and the discharge stream from the first eductor flowing in the bypass conduit is educted into the second liquid flowing through the second eductor in the main conduit. The

inlet passage of the second eductor may comprise a section of reduced diameter in the main conduit disposed adjacent the downstream location Where the bypas conduit joins the main conduit. The reduced diameter section is in educting relationship with the portion of the bypass conduit between the eductor in the downstream location.

In the preferred form of the present invention, valve means .are disposed in the main conduit between the upstream and downstream locations for controlling the ratio of the second liquid flowing through the bypass and main conduits. Where the second liquid may be obtained from a source at a substantially constant pressure, for example, a constant pressure discharge pump, almost any type of well known jet pump eductor may be used in the bypass conduit to educt the first liquid. However, when the source of the second liquid is such that there are substantial pressure fluctuations, for example, a municipal water supply or variable pressure discharge pump, a first eductor of a special configuration such as disclosed in United States Patent No. 2,592,896 should be used when it is desired to maintain a constant proportion of the first liquid with respect to the second liquid.

The invention will be more fully understood from the following detailed description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings in which:

FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram showing the use of the invention in a portable mixing system, which may be used for washing operations;

FIG. 2 is an elevation of one embodiment of the invention used for washing operations;

FIG. 3 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional elevation of the area enclosed by line 3-3 of FIG. 2;

FIG. 4 is a plan view of the mixing chamber taken on line 44 of FIG. 2;

FIG. 5 is a sectional elevation taken on line 55 of FIG. 4;

FIG. 6 is a longitudinal sectional elevation of another embodiment of the mixing device for use in watering systems;

FIG. 7 is a view taken on line 7-7 of FIG. 6;

FIG. 8 is a schematic elevation of a. watering system using the mixing device shown in FIGS. 6 .and 7;

FIG. 9 is a schematic elevation of an alternate mixing device of the invention;

FIG. 10 is a view taken on line 10-10 of FIG. 9;

FIG. 11 is a longitudinal sectional elevation of another embodiment of the invention; and

FIG. 12 is a longitudinal sectional elevation of the presently preferred embodiment of the mixing device for use in watering systems.

Referring to FIG. 1, a pump 10 having a suction line 11 disposed in a reservoir 12 of a carrier fluid or second liquid 14 is connected to discharge the carrier liquid into a main conduit 16. A first or chemical eductor 18 is connected in a bypass conduit or line 19 opening into the main conduit at an upstream location 20 and a downstream location 2-1. Aside leg 22. on the eductor 18 extends into a reservoir 23 containing a first fluid or liquid 24 to be introduced into the carrier liquid. The main conduit includes a section 25 of reduced diameter in the main conduit adjacent the downstream location. The section 25 of reduced diameter in the main conduit forms the inlet passage of a second eductor disposed in the main conduit 16. This second eductor includes an outlet passage 25A of larger cross sectional area than the inlet passage 25 and disposed downstream from the junction 21 of the main and bypass conduits. A mixing chamber is disposed between the passages 25 and 25A and permits the discharge stream from the reduced diameter section 25 to directly contact the combined stream of first and second liquids flowing from the eductor 18 and through the bypass conduit 19 for entraining this material into the first liquid flowing through the main conduit 16.

The operation of the system of FIG. 1 is as follows: The pump delivers the carrier liquid, such as water, through the main conduit 16 and the second eductor including the passages 25 and 25A to provide a pressure drop between the points 2% and 21 Where the bypass conduit joins the main conduit. This pressure differential causes some of the carrier liquid to pass through the first eductor 18 and suck the first liquid up the side leg into the stream of carrier liquid flowing in the bypass line. The combined stream of carrier and first liquid leaving the eductor 18 is discharged into the bypass conduit which is connected to the mixing chamber of the second eductor at junction 21. The stream of carrier and first liquid passing through the bypass conduit is forced into the mixing chamber of the second eductor where it is entrained with the carrier stream discharged from the inlet passage 25 of the second eductor. The outlet passage 25A of the second eductor functions as a .diflusion passage for confining (or sealing) the liquid streams flowing from the main and bypass conduits and allows the transfer of energy from the high vel-ocity'discharge stream from the inlet passage 25 to the stream issuing from the bypass conduit 19. As a result of the action of the second eductor the stream leaving the outlet passage 25A of the second eductor is a completely mixed high velocity stream. The fluid pressure in the mixing chamber of the second eductor at the downstream junction 21 of the main and bypass conduits may be much lower than the pressure in the main conduit 16 downstream from the outlet passage 25 of the second eductor. This provides a relatively high pressure differential across the first eductor 18 to provide efiicient eduction of the first liquid into the bypass conduit while providing a relatively small overall pressure differential across the second eductor. The eificiency of the apparatus of FIG. 1 in which two eductors are provided with the first eductor delivering a mixture of the first liquid and the carrier liquid into the mixing chamber of the second eductor is very high. This high efiiciency results from the action of the second eductor which efiiciently converts the potential energy in the high pressure water stream into kinetic energy in the inlet passage of the second eductor and back to potential energy in the outlet passage of the second eductor in the form of pressure downstream from the outlet passage of the second eductor. It should be noted that the pressure in the mixing chamber of the second eductor at the junction 21 of the main and bypass conduits may be greater or l ss than atmospheric pressure depending upon the relative size of the passages at the first and second eductors and the inlet pressure of the carrier stream at the junction 20 of the main and bypass conduits. For this V 4; reason the inlet passage 25 of the second or power eductor is referred to as being in educting relationship with the portion of the bypass conduit connected to the main conduit at the downstream location 21 instead of aspirat ing relationship since the word aspirate implies a pressure below atmospheric.

Referring to FIGS. 2 through 5, a main conduit 26 comprises a cylindrical main conduit chamber 28 having an inlet end provided with a suitable fitting 30 to be connected to a flexible hose (not shovm) which supplies a carrier liquid from a suitable source, such as a pump (not shown). The discharge end of the main conduit chamber is provided with a coupling 32 by which it is connected to a plurality of sections 34 of rigid tubing which form the outlet end of the main conduit which in turn is connected to mixing head 36 as described in dc opening in the main conduit chamber to form the inlet.

portion of a bypass line 39. One end of a chemical eductor 49 is screwed into the end of the elbow fitting remote from the main conduit chamber and the other end of the chemical eductor is coupled to a plurality of sections 42 of rigid tubing which in turn is connected to the mixing head as described below.

Referring to FIG. 3, the chemical eductor comprises a nipple 44 threaded externally at its inlet end and internally at its discharge end. The nipple is provided with a passageway formed in three stepped sections 45, 46 and 47, each succeeding section from the nipple inlet to Oil! let being of slightly smallerdiameter than the preceding section. The interior of the nipple adjacent the out let end of section 47 tapers outwardly to a threaded bore 48 of substantially larger diameter than any of the preceding sections. The nipple is provided with a hexagonal exterior 5% intermediate its ends (see FIG. 2) to facilitate its assembly and disassembly in the bypass line.

A sleeve 52 of substantially the same length of section 46 is press-fitted into that section. The sleeve is provided with an external annular groove 54 about its center and a bore 56 in the annular groove, the bore being aligned with a larger side bore 58 provided in the center of the nipple. Bore 58 is threaded internally to receive one end of a suction leg 60 having its other end connected to a source of a first liquid (not shown) to be introduced into the carrier liquid. The discharge end of the suction leg is provided with an enlarged bore 62 which houses a check ball 64 which in turn is caged by a half-moon disk 65 friction fitted into a longitudinal slot 66 in the interior of the discharge end of the suction line and outwardly of the check ball.

' The mixing head (see FIGS. 2, 4, and 5) comprises a relatively thin upright rectangular body 68 having a horizontal first liquid inlet 70 and a carrier liquid inlet 72 disposed directly below the first liquid inlet, both inlets being in the rear surface of the head. The inlet end of the carrier liquid inlet is threaded internally to receive the discharge end of the main conduit and is tapered at its opposite end to a section 74 of reduced diameter which extends through the body adjacent the forward surface of the head when it is stepped up in diameter to form a section 76.

The discharge end of section 74 is threaded internally to receive an externally threaded jet 78 having a stepped bore '79 through its body including sections 80, 81 and 82, each section from inlet to outlet being of smaller diameter than the preceding section, and each section being connected by short tapered portions. An intermediate portion '83 of the jet exterior is of hexagonal shape sausa e tapered from an intermediate portion of the here to form a reduced opening 88 at the nozzle discharge end, the tapered portion of the nozzle serving as a mixing chamber 39 for the fluids emerging from the main conduit and the bypass conduits.

The mixing head is provided with a vertical bore Q53 in its upper end formed in 4 stepped sections 91, 92, 93 and 94, each succeeding section from the exterior to interior being of smaller diameter than the preceding, section 94 being short with respect to the other sections and terminating just above section 74. The lower portion of section 93 is connected to the first liquid inlet by curved bore 96 cast into the mixing head. The intermediate portion of section 92 is connected to the annular space 84 around the jet by a curved passageway 98 cast in the mixing head. The shoulder formed by the sections 92 and 93 is provided with an annular groove 1% which forms a raised shoulder 192.

The upper end of section 92 is threaded to receive a packing gland nut 164 having a flange 1% at its upper end which seats on an O-ring 11*;8 resting on the shoulder formed between sections 91 and 92. A vertical central bore 116 is formed through the length of the packing gland nut and is provided with an internally projecting ring 112 in its intermediate portion. A valve push rod 114 is disposed through the bore 116 in the packing gland nut and is provided with a section 116 of reduced diameter at its lower end to slide snugly through the ring in the bore of the paclcing gland nut. An O-ring 118 is disposed in the annular groove 119 in the portion of the push rod that travels in the ring during the operation of the valve to insure a fluid tight seal. The lower end of the packing gland nut is provided with sections 124 and 121 of reduced diameter, section 121 being at the extremity of the nut and of the smaller diameter. Section 121) forms an annular space 122 with the section 92 of bore 9%). A gasket 124 is disposed around the section 121 of the nut and seats on the shoulder W2. A valve disk 126 bears against the lower end of the push rod and extends across the lower end of the packing nut to seal section 93 from the interior of the packing nut when the valve is closed. A horizontal bore 123 in the packing nut provides a passageway from the packing nut interior to the annular space 122. A compression spring 130 is disposed between the valve disk and the bottom of section 94 to urge the valve in a normally closed position.

A slot 137 is formed diagonally across the top of the mixing head and houses a horizontal lever 134 which is pivotally pinned at its forward end by a pin 136 friction fitted in a bore 138 through the mixing head at right angles to the slot. A vertical compression spring 13% is disposed under the lever arm adjacent its rear end to urge the lever into its uppermost position. A vertical recess 14% in the rear surface of the mixing head below the rear end of the lever arm houses a pulley wheel 142 mounted to rotate about a horizontal axis. A vertical bore 144 in the mixing head provides communication between the recess and the slot. One end of a flexible cord 46 is attached to the rear end of the lever arm and extends down through the bore 144, around the pulley and rearwardly where it is attached to the forward end of a pin 148 slidably carried at the lower end of a bracket 149 mounted on the forward portion of the main and bypass conduits. The rear end of pin 1A3 is pivotally attached to an intermediate part of a downwardly, rearwardly extending trigger 1519 which is pivotally attached at its forward end to the bracket just under the main conduit.

The operation of the apparatus is as follows: The second or carrier liquid is delivered through the main conduit by the pump or supply system, issuing from the nozzle of the mixing head in the form of a powerful spray or stream, as required. The valve in the mixing head is normally urged closed, and none of the first liquid is sucked into the carrier stream until the trigger is actuated. As the first liquid is required, the trigger is depressed causing the valve to be opened. This permits the carrier liquid to flow through the bypass line and the chemical eductor 4% creating a suction on the leg in the chemical eductor. The check ball 64 in the suction line is pulled away from the discharge end of the suction line and the first fluid is pulled into the chemical eductor and the carrier liquid in the bypass conduit and this mixture is then mixed with the carrier fluid emerging from the jet or passage 82 in the main conduit. The carrier stream is discharged from the reduced diameter section 82 into the mixing chamber 89. The combined flow of carrier liquid and first liquid in the bypass line also flows into the mixing chamber 89 through the annular space 84 surrounding the reduced diameter section 82. The mixing chamber in cooperation with the small opening 88 in the nozzle 86 confines the combined discharge streams through the main and bypass conduits and allows the transfer of energy from the high velocity discharge stream from the passage d2 of the main conduit to the stream from the bypass conduit. The reduced diameter section 2 in the main conduit is thus in educt-ing relationship with the portion of the bypass conduit between the valve in the mixing head and the mixing chamber.

If a stream of only carrier fluid is desired, the trigger is released and the two springs cause the valve in the mixing head to close. The pressure built up in the bypass line closes the check valve in the suction line. The carrier fluid continues to flow from the jet and due to its aspiratin-g action will immediately clear the first liquid out of the bore leading from the valve in the mixing head to the annular space around the jet. This is particularly important in operations such as rug cleaning where the first liquid is a detergent and any hang up of first liquid in the mixing head would tend to prevent an efficie-nt rinsing of the rugs.

Thus the apparatus of FIGS. 2 through 5 provides a simple but efficient means for introducing a first liquid into a second liquid. Furthermore, when the chemical eductor portion of the apparatus is brought into use, the mnount of fluid delivered by the apparatus is increased rather than decreased since any pressure drop across the main conduit is compensated for, at least in part, by the bypass. The amount of increase can vary within rather wide limits, but in general, with the bypass and main conduits each wide open, the ratio of flow through the bypass to total flow can be between /3 to about depending on total pressure available, viscosity of the fluids, pressure drop through the system, dimensions of the various elements, and concentration of educed fluid in the final mixture which is to be produced.

The apparatus of FIGS. 2 through 5 is useful in many types of application, for example, spraying insecticides, washing vehicles, carpets and rugs, mixing fertilizer in irrigation water, etc. and the type of jet nozzle used in the mixing head will depend upon the use of the apparatus. For example, in washing carpets or tugs, a strong, fan-shaped stream is usually desirable. A small, round high velocity stream is usually advantageous in washing vehicles, and a fine spray is usually preferred in distributing insecticides. Any suitable type of jet nozzle arrangement may be used without departing from the scope of this invention.

Referring to FIGS. 6 and 7, which show one embodiment of the mixing device of this invention adapted to be used in a watering system, a generally L-shaped housing or body 152 has a bore or opening 154 extending through it, and is internally threaded at each end to receive conventional pipe connections. Beginning at the right-hand end of the body (as viewed in FIG. 6), a globe type control valve 156 is mounted in the body and adapted to open or close the bore 154 to control the flow of water or second fluid through the body. As shown by the arrows in FIG. 6, water flows through the body from right :to left. A vacuum breaker valve 158 is mounted in the body approximately at the point where the body makes a right angle turn. A globe type metering valve 169 is mounted in the left-hand and top portion of the body, and includes the usual gland nut 161, bonnet 1'62, stem 163 and disk 164, which is adapted to bear against an annular seat 165 around a vertical opening 165A located at the top of a generally L-shaped partition 16% for-med integrally with the body under the metering valve.

The partition extends a substantial distance into the body interior to form a bore section 167 which is oval (see FIG. 7) in cross-section, which is substantially smaller in cross-sectional area than the remainder of bore 154. The partition includes a longitudinal bypass bore ld into which is press-fitted a chemical eductor bushing 169 having a downwardly extending side leg bore 17% terminating at its lower end in an internally threaded pipe coupling 172 mounted on the lower exterior portion of the body. ,A suction hose 173 is connected at one end to coupling 172. The chemical eductor includes a straight, uniform longitudinal bore 174 joined by a short outwardly tapered bore 175 at its right-hand end. The longitudinal bore 174 is stepped up in diameter at a section 177 at the left-hand end of the eductor. The upper end of the side bore 17% opens into the longitudinal bore where it is stepped up in diameter at 177. An overhang 189 is formed integrally with the upper part of the partition. The overhang extends to the left of the partition and as shown in FIG. 7, the upper surface of the overhang is concaved upwardly in a plane which is perpendicular to the direction of flow of liquid through reduced section 167. In the plane parallel to the direction of flow through the reduced section 167, the upper surface of the overhang has a slightly upwardly convex curvature. A il-shaped notch 182, is cut in the left-hand end of the eductor bus-hing to open in the left-hand end of the enlarged bore section 177. Ordinarily, the main flow of water is over the top of the partition and through reduced section 167, with a relatively minor portion of the water stream being bypassed through the chemical eductor and section 177. Thus, bore 154- is a main conduit through the body, with the metering valve and reduced section 167 forming a section of reduced diameter in the main conduit, and the longitudinal straight and tapered bores of the chemical eductor serve as a bypass around a portion of the main conduit.

Referring to FIG. 8, which shows schematically the use of the mixer of FIGS. 6 and 7, the body is mounted a foot or two above ground level with the vacuum breaker valve being at the highest point of water flow through the body. The right end of the body is connected by an adapter 183 to a water supply pipe 134. The left end of the body is connected by an adapter 185 to a water distribution pipe 186 :to which are connected a series of sprinklers 183, and irrigation bubblers 1%. Other water distributing devices can be connected to water pipe 186, if desired. Preferably, the supply and distribution pipe lines 184 and 186 are larger in cross sectional area than the average bore 154- through the mixer body 152 so the velocity of the water is substantially increased when flowing through the body.

To use the mixing device shown in FIGS. 6 through 8, the control valve 156 is opened so that water flows through the body from right .to left. The water flow forces a disk 191 in the vacuum breaker valve 158 to move upwardly and close to air. Assuming that the metering valve 16% is substantially wide open, practically all the water flow (between about 66% and 99% of the total flow) is through the valve and reduced section 167 of the main conduit 154. A relatively minor portion of the fluid stream passes through the chemical eductor and bypass conduit 16$. The water flowing through the section 167 of the main conduit issues as a high velocity 8 V stream into the bore or passage 154 located downstream from the eductor 16%. The stream issuing from the section 167 has a major velocity component in the direction of the passage 154 and the passage 154 has a greater cross-sectional area than the section 167. As

a result, the stream issuing from the section 167 seals against the walls of the passage 154 downstream from the chemical eductor 169 and forms a second or power eductor which transfers energy from the high velocity discharge stream from the sect-ion 167 to the liquid discharged from the chemical eductor 169.

The water [flowing through the chemical eductor 169 creates a suction in the side bore 170 and host 173 and aspirates or educts the first fluid from the container 194 into the water stream or second fluid" flowing through the eductor 169. The mixture of fluids in the outlet 182 of. the eductor 169 are then carried into the Water stream flowing in the bore 154 of the main conduit. The water leaves the left-hand end of the body and flows out the sprinklers, irrigation bubblers, and any other units which may be attached to the water supply line 186.

As explained above, the metering valve and the reduced section 3'67 cause the water in the main conduit to flow in an educting relationship with the outlet end of the bypass conduit. It is this arrangement which permits the eductor to operate agaiust much higher back pr essures on the downstream side of the body than previously possible. For example, the pressure differential across the chemical eductor 169 may be quite large,

say psi. (pounds per square inch) due to the low pressure area adjacent the outlet end 182 of the eductor 69 (resulting from theeducting action of the stream flowing through the passages 167 and 154) even though the pressure drop across the entire mixing device or housing 152 is small, say l0-20 p.s.i., due to a high back pressure. This is a particularly advantageous feature, since it permits many various water distributing units to be connected to line 186 and be operated either all together, one at a time, or any combination in between those two extremes.

The amount of water and the ratio of the first liquid to the second fluid or water stream flowing out of the mixing device can be regulated by suitably adjusting valves 156 and If the irrigation bubblers are cut ofi by suitable valve means (not shown), the back pressure on the eductor is substantially increased, and at the same time the pressure applied to the sprinklers is also increased. Thus, the sprinklers tend to oversprinkle or over-water their respective areas, and second, the eductor must operate against a higher back pressure. Due to the educting relationship of section 167 in the body, the eductor is capable of operating even though there is a substantial increase of back pressure. To avoid overwatering, the control valve or the metering valve, or both, are controlled to reduce the flow of water through the body.

If it is desired to suck the first liquid into the water stream at a fixed ratio, it may be accomplished by suita given amount of fertilizer or insecticide over a predeter-mined area. However, if the concentration of the educed liquid in the water stream must be maintained within certain limits to be eflective, this is readily accomplished by adjusting the metering valve and the control valve. I

When the watering operation is complete, the main control valve is closed, and due to the elevated location of the vacuum breaker valve, water drains from the left-hand end of the body to cause the vacuum breaker valve disk to move down and to open to air and avoid the possibility.

of any contamination of the water supply system by any remaining traces of the educed liquid, because the disk seals on an annular seat 192. The vacuum breaker valve also functions when the water pressure in the supply line drops, say due to a broken water main, and provides positive protection against a contamination. if the watering system is to be used without the eduction of any liquid into the water stream, the end of the eductor is closed either by screwing a plug (not shown) into the connection 172, or line 173 is closed by a valve (not shown), or air is allowed to be sucked into the main system of water.

FIGS. 9 and 10 show schematically an alternate arrangement in which a gate-type valve 195 can be used as the metering valve in place of the globe-type valve 160 and chemical eductor shown in the apparatus of FIG. 6. The valve of FIGS. 9 and 10 includes a body 196 having an inlet 197 and an outlet 198. A gate 199' is adapted to be moved up and down by handle 2% to open the valve and also close it against a seat 201 on the upper edge of an upwardly extending projection or partition 2S2 formed integrally with the bottom portion of the body 196. The partition includes longitudinal bores 2G3 and 2=ll3A extending through it, and a downwardly extending side bore 294 opens at its upper end into the longitudinal bore 2&3 and at its lower end opens out of .a pipe nipple connection 205. The bore 203 has a greater cross-sectional area than bore 203A to permit the stream issuing from bore 263A to create a low pressure or partial vacuum in the bore 204 as discussed previously. A deflector 206 is attached to the lower edge and downstream side of the gate so that when the gate valve is partially opened as shown in FIGS. 9 and 10, liquid flows from right to left as viewed in FIG. 9 between the lower edge of the gate and the top of the projection to aid the flow of liquid out the downstream end of the longitudinal bore 203.

FIG. 11 shows schematically another embodiment of the invention in which a Water stream flows from right to left through a main conduit 2G7, and out a nozzle 2% connected to the left-hand end of the main conduit. A bypass conduit 2&9 is connected at an upstream location 210 and a downstream location 211 to the main conduit. A first eductor 212 is set in the bypass conduit and has longitudinal bores 213 and 213A through it. The bore 213 has a greater cross-sectional area than bore 213A to provide the eductor action. A side bore 214 opens at one end into longitudinal bore 213 and is connected at its other end to a hose 216 leading to a supply of a 1I'St liquid such as liquid insecticide 218. A second eductor 229 is set in the main conduit at the downstream location. The second eductor also includes longitudinal bores 22 2 and 222A of substantially greater diameter than the longitudinal bore 213 of the first eductor, and is capable of handling about 6 times more volume of fluid through its longitudinal bore than the first eductor. Again, the bore 222 has a greater cross-sectional area than the bore 222A. A side bore 224 opens from the longitudinal bore 222 of the second eductor into the end of the bypass conduit connected to the main conduit at the downstream location. A control valve 226 may be used if desired in the main conduit between the upstream and downstream locations to increase regulation of the amount of fluid bypassed from the main conduit through the bypass conduit.

In the operation of the apparatus of FIG. 11, water flows through the main conduit from right to left in a quantity determined by the setting of valve 226. Depending on the setting of this valve, a portion of the liquid flowing through the main conduit is bypassed through the first eductor, and into the side bore 224 of the second eductor, which exerts an educting effect on the outlet end of the first eductor.

Referring to FIG. 12, which shows the presently preferred embodiment of the mixing device of this invention adapted to be used in a watering system such as that shown schematically in FIG. 8, a generally L-shaped housing or body 23% has an inlet bore 232 formed in its right (as viewed in FIG. 12) end and an outlet bore 234 at its left end. The inner end of the inlet bore opens through a globe-type control valve 236 into the right end of a first passageway 238, which opens at its left end through a vacuum breaker backflow valve 240 into a second passageway 242 located approximately where the body is bent at a right angle. The left end of the second passageway opens through a globe-type metering valve 244 into the right end of a third passageway 246, which is tapered to a reduced cross-sectional area at its left end where it opens into the right end of the outlet bore, which is substantially larger than the third passageway. The first, second, and third passageways, along with the inlet and outlet bores, form a main conduit through the body through which a major portion of the water flows. A bypass conduit 248 is connected at its right end to the right end of the second passageway. A chemical eductor bushing 250 is press-fitted into an enlarged bore 251 opening into the left end of the bypass conduit. The chemical eductor bushing includes a straight uniform longitudinal bore 252 which opens at its right end into a short outwardly tapered bore 254 located at the right end of the chemical eductor bushing. The left end of the longitudinal bore 252 opens into a tapered bore 254 located at the right end of the chemical eductor bushing. The left end of the longitudinal bore 252 opens into a tapering bore 256 at the left end of the chemical eductor bushing. A downwardly extending lateral bore 258 in the eductor bushing opens at its upper end into the longitudinal bore where the longitudinal bore joins the tapered bore 254. The lower end of the lateral bore opens into an annular recess 260 around the intermediate portion of the eductor bushing, which is in communication at its lower portion with a downwardly extending side bore 262 in the body 230. Side bore 262 opens at its lower end into an in ternally threaded pipe nipple 264 into which is threaded a supply hose 266 for a first, or educed, liquid.

The general flow of fluid through the body 23% is from right to left as shown by the arrows in the drawing. The left end of the chemical eductor bushing extends slightly out into the junction of the third passageway and the outlet bore so that it is in effect surrounded by the stream of liquid flowing into the outlet bore. The cross sectional area of the main conduit is general-1y elliptical and similar to that shown in FIG. 7 for the reduced section 167. However, in the device of FIG. 12, the curvature of the third passageway 246 is concave upwardly in the plane of the drawing of FIG. 12 so that the direction of flow of liquid from the main conduit is more nearly parallel with that flow through the chemical eductor. This arrangement provides a greater educting effect on the liquid discharged from the chemical eductor than does the apparatus of FIGS. 6 and 7.

To use the mixing device of FIG. 12, the control valve 236 is opened so that water flows through the body from right to left. The water flow forces a disk 268 in the vacuum breaker valve to move upwardly and close to air. Depending on the setting of the metering valve 244, the flow of water through the body is split into two streams at the right-hand end of the second passageway. A minor portion of the water stream goes through the bypass conduit and the remainder of the water flows through the third passageway. At the left end of the chemical eductor where the two streams rejoin, the flow of water from the main conduit through passages 246 and 234 exerts a strong educting effect on the discharge end of the chemical eductor. In fact, with the right-hand end of the eductor longitudinal bore plugged, a vacuum of 15" of mercury was developed in the apparatus shown of FIG. 12 by simply flowing water through only the third passageway with a supply pressure of about psig at the inlet bore. It is this strong educting effect exerted by the flow of water from the main conduit which permits the eductor arrangement shown in FIG. 12 to operate against surprisingly high back pressures. In an actual test with the apparatus l l. of FIG. 12, with the eductor unplugged, and the metering valve wide open, a suction of 26.4" of mercury was developed in hose 266 against a back pressure of 20 p.s.i.g. with a supply pressure of about 67 p.s.i.g. Even when the back pressure was increased to 42 p.s.i. g., there still was developed in the hose 266 a vacuum of of mercury, which is more than adequate to educt virtually all liquids at a satisfactory rate into the water flowing through the body.

It should be noted that the passages 2.46 and 234 form a second jet pump eductor in the apparatus shown in FIG. 12. It is this second eductor that creates the strong educting effect that aids the operation of the eductor 250. In the apparatus shown in FIGS. 2-5, 6, and 9-10, the reduced section of the main conduit entering into the main conduit of larger cross-sectional area adjacent the downstream location of the bypass conduit also forms a second eductor. This second eductor results from the reduced section of the main conduit being in educting relationship with the bypass conduit.

Although many different types of chemical eductors in the bypass conduit can be used, I have found that the tapered type shown in FIG. 12 operated most satisfactorily over a wide range of supply pressures and back pressures. Also, it is preferable for the flow through the chemical eductor to discharge into an enlarged chamber, such as that shown in PEG. 12, and preferably substantially coaxially into the outlet bore so that the high velocity jet from the chemical eductor is located in the center of the liqiud stream flowing out the outlet bore, where the liquid velocity is at a maximum.

From the foregoing examples, it will be apparent that the compounded educing arrangement of this invention permits a greater total liquid throughout for a given ratio of educed liquid to carrier liquid than previously possible because of the relatively large suction developed with a minimum amount of pressure drop in the main conduit.

1 claim:

1. Apparatus for introducing a first liquid into a carrier stream of a second liquid comprising a main conduit adapted to be connected to a source of the second liquid, a bypass conduit opening into the main conduit at an upstream and a downstream location, an eductor in the bypass conduit, and a section in the main conduit of a diameter less than that of the remainder of the main conduit, the section being disposed adjacent the said downstream location in educting relationship with the portion of the bypass conduit between the eductor and the downstream location.

2. Apparatus for introducing a first liquid into a carrier stream of a second liquid comprising a main conduit adapted to be connected to a source of the second liquid, a bypass conduit opening into the main conduit at an upstream and a downstream location, an eductor in the bypass conduit, the eductor andbypass conduit being of such size relative to the main conduit so as to bypass a relatively minor portion of the flow of second liquid while the relatively major portion of the second liquid flows through the rnain conduit, a first passage in the main conduit adjacent and upstream from said downstream location, and a second passage in the main conduit downstream from said downstream location, the second passage having a greater cross-sectional area than the first passage and being arranged to seal the stream of liquid issuing from the first passage, whereby the fluid in the bypass conduit is educted into the stream issuing from the first passage.

3. Apparatus for introducing a first liquid into a carrier stream of a second liquid comprising a main conduit adapted to be connected to a source of the second fluid, a bypass conduit opening into the main conduit at an upstream and a downstream location, an eductor in the bypass conduit, a section in the main conduit of a diameter less than that of the remainder of the main conduit, the section being disposed adjacent the said downstream location in educting relationship with the portion of the bypass conduit between the eductor and the downstream location,

and a valve in the main conduit between the upstream and downstream location.

4. Apparatus for introducing a first liquid into a carrier stream of a second liquid comprising a main conduit adapted to be connected to a source of the second liquid,

a bypass conduit opening into the main conduit at anupstream and a downstream location, a first eductor in the bypass conduit, means connecting the source of the first liquid to the first eductor so that the first liquid is educted into the carrier stream of the second liquid flowing through the first eductor, and a second eductor in the main conduit at the downstream location, the second eductor having a side bore opening into the downstream end of the bypass I conduit.

5. Apparatus for introducing a first fluid into a carrier stream of a second fluid comprising a main conduit adapted to be connected to a source of the second fluid, a bypass conduit opening into the main conduit at an upstream location and a downstream location, an eductor in the bypass conduit for the intake of the first fluid, a valve a main conduit adapted to be connected to the pump dis-.

charge and permit the second fluid to flow at substantially the rated capacity of the pump, a bypass conduit opening into the main conduit at an upstream location and a downstream location, an eductor in the bypass conduit for the intake of the first fluid, a valve in the bypass conduit between the eductor and the downstream location, and

a reduced diameter section in the main conduit adjacent the downstream location in educting relationship with the portion of the bypass conduit between the downstream location and the valve.

7. Apparatus for introducing a first fluid into a carrier,

stream of a second fluid comprising a main conduit adapted to be connected to a source of the second fluid, a bypass conduit opening into the main conduit at an upstream location and a downstream location, an eductor in the bypass conduit for intake of the first fluid, means for controlling the flow of the first fluid independent of the flow of the second fluid through the main conduit, a reduced diameter section in the main conduit adjacent the said downstream location, and a common mixing chamher into which the reduced diameter section and bypass conduit discharge, the bypass conduit opening into the mixing chamber around the said reduced diameter section.

8. Apparatus for introducing a first fluid into a carrier stream of a second fluid comprising a main conduit adapted to be connected to a source of the second fluid, a bypass conduit opening into the main conduit at an upstream location and a downstream location, an eductor in the bypass conduit for intake of the first fluid, means for controlling the flow of the first fluid independent of the flow of the second fluid through the main conduit, a

reduced diameter section in the main conduit adjacent the said downstream location, and a common mixing chamber into which the reduced diameter section and bypass conduit discharge, the bypass conduit opening into the mixing chamber around the reduced diameter section, the mixing chamber having an outlet opening which is reduced in diameter toward the outer end of the outlet opening.

9. Apparatus for introducing a first fluid into a carrier stream of a second fluid comprising a main conduit adapted to be connected to a source of the second fluid,

a bypass conduit opening into the main conduit at an upstream location and a downstream location, an eductor in.

the bypass conduit for intake of the first fluid, means for controlling the flow of the first fluid independent of the flow of the second fiuid through the main conduit, a reduced diameter section in the main conduit adjacent the said downstream location, and a discharge nozzle connected to the main conduit and having an outlet opening which decreases in size toward its outlet end, the reduced diameter section discharging into the inlet end of the noz zle and forming an annular channel between the inlet end of the nozzle and the discharge end of the reduced diameter section, the bypass conduit opening into the annular channel so that the reduced diameter section and nozzle educt with respect to the bypass line.

10. Mixing apparatus comprising a body having an opening through it with a liquid inlet at one end of the opening and a liquid outlet at the other end, a partition attached to the body interior extending into the body to be spaced from a portion of the body interior to form a section of reduced cross sectional area in the body, an eductor mounted in the partition, the eductor having a longitudinal bore opening on opposite sides of the partition and a side bore opening at one end into the longitudinal bore and opening at the other end out of the body, means for flowing liquid through the body from the inlet toward the outlet to force liquid through the longitudinal bore of the eductor, and means for directing flow of liquid through the section of reduced cross sectional area in the same general direction as liquid flowing through the longitudinal bore.

11. Mixing apparatus comprising a body having a main bore through it to provide an inlet and an outlet, a partition attached to the body interior and extending into the main bore to be spaced from a portion of the body interior to form a section of reduced cross-sectional area in the main bore of the body, a metering valve seat formed on the partition, a metering valve disk mounted in the body adjacent the metering valve seat, means for moving the metering valve disk toward and away from the metering valve seat to close and open the space between the partition and the said portion of the body interior, an eductor mounted in the partition to bypass the metering valve disk, the eductor having a longitudinal bore opening on opposite sides of the partition and a side bore opening at one end into the longitudinal bore and opening at the other end out of the body, and a vacuum breaker valve mounted in the body upstream from the eductor to open the main bore when the pressure in the body exceeds atmospheric pressure, and to close the main bore and admit air into the body when the pressure in the body is less than atmospheric pressure.

12. Apparatus for introducing a first liquid into a carrier stream of a second liquid comprising a main conduit adapted to be connected to a source of the second liquid, a bypass conduit connected to the main conduit to form a first opening at an upstream location and a second opening at a downstream location, an eductor in the bypass conduit, means defining a first passage in the main conduit adjacent and upstream rromthe second opening, means defining a second passage in the main conduit downstream from the second opening, the second passage being of greater cross-sectional area than the first passage and arranged so that the stream of the second liquid issuing from the first passage seals against the walls of the sec ond passage, whereby a low pressure area is created surrounding the second opening and the liquid in the bypass conduit is aspirated into the carrier stream flowing through the first passage.

13. Apparatus as defined in claim 12 wherein the first passage is arranged to direct the stream flowing therethrough into the second passage with a major velocity component of the stream being in the same direction as the second passage. 7

14. Apparatus for introducing a first liquid into a carrier stream of a second liquid comprising a main conduit adapted to be connected to a source of the second liquid, a bypass conduit opening into the main conduit at an upstream and a downstream location, a first jet pump eductor in the bypass conduit, means for connecting the first eductor to a source of the first liquid so that the first liquid will be educted into the liquid flowing'through the first eductor, means forming a second jet pump eductor in the main conduit adjacent the opening of the bypass conduit at the downstream location, the second eductor being arranged to educt the liquid in the bypass conduit into the carrier stream flowing through the main conduit, whereby the first liquid may be efiiciently educted into the second liquid with a very small pressure drop across the second eductor.

References Qited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,458,975 Clauson June 19, 1925 2,316,781 Fox Apr. 20, 1943 2,599,678 Walker June 10, 1952 2,692,608 Clearman Oct. 26, 1954 2,711,928 R anda June 28, 1955 2,856,234 McNair et :al Oct. 14, 1958 2,868,584 Faust Jan. 13, 1959 2,881,782 Nash Apr. 14, 1959 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent No. 3.lO4,825 September 24, 1963 Stanley A. Hayes ears in the above numbered pat- It is hereby certified that error app s Patent should read as ent requiring correction and that the said Letter corrected below.

lines 23 to 25 strike out "The left end of e 252 opens into a tapered bore 254 f the chemical eductor bushing."

Column 10, the longitudinal bor located at the right end 0 Signed and sealed this 21st day of April 1964.

(SEAL) Attest: EDWARD J BRENNER ERNEST W. SWIDER Attesting Officer Commissioner of Patents

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3181797 *Apr 3, 1963May 4, 1965Hayes Spray Gun CompanyMixing apparatus having plural eductors
US4247046 *Apr 20, 1978Jan 27, 1981Hechler Iv ValentineMulti-stage solution proportioner dispenser
US4936542 *Mar 27, 1989Jun 26, 1990Abbott LaboratoriesCatheter flow control valve
US5567247 *Aug 11, 1995Oct 22, 1996Armor All Products CorporationMethod for cleaning outdoor painted/artificially stained surface
US5595345 *Aug 4, 1995Jan 21, 1997Armor All Products CorporationDouble barrel sprayer for selective spraying of water or diluted product and use thereof
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Classifications
U.S. Classification239/416.5, 239/317, 137/890, 137/599.13
International ClassificationA01C23/04, A01C23/00, G05D11/00
Cooperative ClassificationG05D11/00, A01C23/042
European ClassificationG05D11/00, A01C23/04B