US 3105494 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
J. K. DUNCAN Oct. 1, 1963 RING BINDER Filed Sept. 23, 1960 INVENTOR. Jamas 71. Duncan jzoaf 2 WW 217 Unite States Patent Ofiice 3 ,105,494 Patented Oct. 1, 1963 3,105,494 RING BINDER James K. Duncan, Park Ridge, 111., assignor to Duncan Research, Chicago, 111., a partnership Filed Sept. 23, 1960, Ser. No. 58,966 3 Claims. (Cl. 12924) The present invention relates to a ring binder having an overcentering means to hold the binder in the ringopen and in the ring-closed positions.
Ring binders of the type having a split ring so that the binder may be opened for the insertion or removal of pages therefrom and thereafter closed to hold the pages on the rings have been widely used for a number of years. The ability to change pages in the binder readily and simply is an obvious advantage. However, such binders as are generally available on the market are not inexpensive. The fabrication and assembly of the parts limit the minimum price at which such binders can be sold.
To provide less expensive ring binders, there have been developed other forms which, in the main, do not employ split rings. One of these other forms that has received widespread acceptance for certain applications is that of the rolled plastic binder. While a very substantial reduction in cost has been achieved by these other forms, the universal applicability has been sacrificed. Many of these forms require special machinery to insert or remove the pages from the binder. This, of course, limits the ability of the user to readily change pages as may be desired.
To overcome this, in some instances resort has been had to pages having T-shaped perforations or keyhole slots to fit about the rings. While this permits the user to insert or remove pages, it has the disadvantage that the pages are not as securely held on the rings as would be the case if the page were solid between the edge of the sheet and the perforations adjacent that edge. Furthermore, the tabs defining the slot between the perforations and the edge of the pages tend to become bent, giving an unsightly appearance and further reducing the holding power of the page on the ring.
The principal object of the present invention is to provide a binder which has split rings to facilitate the insertion and removal of pages, yet which can be manufactured for a relatively nominal cost as compared to the rings binders presently available on the market. One of the principal features of this invention is that means are employed to give an over-the-center action as the binder is opened or closed. Thus, when the binder is in the closed position, the rings are held securely closed. When the binder is in the open position, the rings are fixed in that position. Since the rings are held securely opened, the user has no difliculty in inserting or removing pages from the binder. When the desired changes have been made, a suitable pressure will cause the overcentering means to go across center and again firmly fix the rings in the closed position.
The binder I have devised is of such a nature that all or a portion of the structure may be inexpensively formed by a plastic extrusion or injection molding. In the embodiments in which only a portion of the binder is so formed, the remaining part(s) of the binder may be a Very simply fabricated metal shape.
Further objects and advantages of my invention will become apparent from the following description taken in conjunction with the drawings, in which:
FIGURE 1 is a perspective view of a binder of my invention holding a plurality of pages;
FIGURE 2 is a section of the binder of FIGURE 1 as viewed along line 2-2 of FIGURE 1 FIGURE 3 is a view corresponding :to FIGURE 2 of an alternative embodiment;
FIGURE 4 is a view corresponding to FIGURE 2 of a second alternative embodiment;
FIGURE 5 is a view corresponding to FIGURE 2 of a third alternative embodiment;
FIGURE 6 is a view corresponding to FIGURE 2 of another alternative embodiment; and
FIGURE 7 is a partial section as viewed in FIGURE 2 illustrating a modification of the structure of FIGURE 2.
Referring to FIGURE 1, there is illustrated a binder generally 10 of my invention holding a plurality of pages 11. The pages 11 have perforations 12 adjacent one edge thereof, through which perforations the rings of the binder 10 project to hold the pages on the binder. The binder 10 is best seen in FIGURE 2. It comprises a pair of elongated members 13 and 14. Extending from edges 15 and 16 of members 13 and 14, respectively, are a plurality of prongs 17 and 18, each pair of which forms a split ring to extend through each of the perforations 12.
A back 20 is formed integrally with members 13 and 14 and is connected to these members by necks 21 and 22, respectively. While the back 20 and the members 13 and 14 may be formed of metal, preferably they are formed of a semi-rigid plastic. The rigidity should not be so great that the necks 21 and 22 cannot be flexed during the opening and closing of the rings as hereinafter described. If made by extrusion, the portions that form prongs 17 and 18 are extruded as continuous lengths of material and thereafter the parts of the continuous length intermediate the prongs are cut away, as described in my pending application Serial No. 753,548, filed August 6, 1958. The aforesaid application also describes various plastics suitable for use for the present binders.
Spaced from necks 21 and 22 by slots 23 and 24 are abutments 25 and 26. The inwardly projecting portions of members 13 and 14 are provided with slots 27 and 28 to receive a flexible diaphragm 29.
Members 13 and 14 are pivotable with respect to back 20 by reason of the flexible necks 21 and 22. The limits of the pivotable movement are illustrated in FIGURE 2. In one instance, the limit is at the point at which prongs 17 and 18 come together to form a continuous ring as illustrated in full lines. The other limit is the point at which the abutments 25 and 26 contact the necks 21 and 22, respectively. At this time, the rings are open with the prongs 17 and 18 being spread apart as illustrated in dotted lines.
Diaphragm 29 is flexible and is so mounted on members 13 and 14 that it will .pivot across center as the members 13 and 14 move between the two positions. When the rings are in the position illustrated in full lines in FIGURE 2, the diaphragm 29 serves to urge the two prongs 17 and 18 towards each other, securely holding the ring closed. When the prongs have moved to the position illustrated in dotted lines, the diaphragm 29 serves to hold these rings in that position. It will be apparent that the diaphragm 29 thus forms a toggle means movable across center to urge the prongs 17 and 18 in whichever side of center .they have been moved to. Diaphragm 29 may be formed of spring steel or it may be formed of a relatively stiff plastic, such as the polyester plastic sold under the trademark Mylar.
The bidder illustrated in FIGURE 3 comprises a pair of elongated members 34 and 35 having prongs 36 and 37 extending from edges 38 and 39 thereof. The prongs 36 and 37 have mating ends 40 and 41 and each pair of prongs forms a continuous ring when the binder is in the position illustrated in FIGURE 3. At the side of members 34 and 35 opposite edges 38 and 39 are slots 42 and 43. The members 34 and 35 define abutments 44 and 45 along one side of the slots 42 and 43.
An elongated metal or plastic back 48 has re-entrant sides forming hooks 49 and 50 which are received in slots 42 and 43. The inwardly extending portions of members 34 and 35 have slots 51 and 52 within which is received a flexible diaphragm 53.
In the embodiment of FIGURE 3, the diaphragm 53 holds the two members 34 and 35 apart, with the hooks 49 and 50 limiting the extent to which the members 34 and 35 may be separated. The members 34 and 35 are pivotal about the ends of hooks 49 and 50. Again, diaphragm 53 forms a toggle means which moves across center as the prongs 36 and 37 are separated or moved together. The extent to which the ends 41 and 41 of prongs 36 and 37 maybe separated is limited by the contact of a'b-utments 44 and 45 against the outer faces of hooks 49 and 50.
The embodiment of FIGURE 4 employs a pair of diaphragms 56 and 57. Diaphragm 56 has cylindrical heads 58 along the opposite edges thereof. Similarly, diaphragm 57 has a pair of cylindrical heads 59'.
Two elongated members 60 and 61 have prongs 62 and 63 extending from edges 64 and 65 thereof, respectively. Prongs 62 and 63 have mating ends 66 and 67, respectively, to form a closed ring as illustrated in full lines in FIGURE 4.
Member 61 has a pair of cylindrical sockets 70 and 71 to receive heads 58 and 59. The opposite heads 58 and 59 are received in sockets 72 and 73 in member 61. Immediately outside socket 743 member 61 forms a pair of abutments 74 and 75 and outside of socket 71 is a pair of abutments 76 and 77. Four corresponding abutments 7881 are formed by member 61. i
The members 61 and 61 pivot about the heads 70 and 71 of diaphragms 56 and 57. When the rings are closed, as illustrated in full lines in FIGURE 4, abutments 74 and 7 3 hold diaphragm 56 relatively straight. However, abutments 7 6 and 811 permit diaphragm 57 to bend to a greater degree of curvature than that of diaphragm 56. Thus in this position, diaphragm 56 is what may he termed relatively stifi while diaphragm 57 is what maybe termed relatively weak. This relative position of the two diaphragms results in members 60 and 61 being urged towards the full-line, ring-closed position.
When the rings are separated and moved toward the position illustrated in dotted lines in FIGURE 4, the two 'diaphragms 56 and 57 each move across center with the toggle action discussed with respect to the embodiments of FIGURE 2 and FIGURE 3. As the prongs 62 and 63 reach the dotted-line position, abutments 77 and 81 hold diaphragm 57 in the relatively straight, rigid position. However, the abutments 75 and 79' aliow diaphragm 56 to assume a position of greater curvature, at which it is relatively weak as compared to the relatively stiff diaphragm 57. Thus in the dotted-line position, the functions of the diaphragms 56 and 57 are just reversed from their functions in the full-line position. In the dotted-line position, diaphragm 57 is relatively stiff with diaphragm 56 being relatively weak so that the prongs are held separated as illustrated in dotted lines in FIGURE 4. Of course, when pressure is app-lied to prongs 62 and 63, urging them in the directions toward each other, diaphragms 56 and 57 again will move back across center to the position illustrated in full lines.
' In the embodiment of FIGURE 5, there is a pair of elongated members 84 and 85 having edges 86 and 87 from which prongs 88 and 89, respectively, project. Prongs 88 and 89 have mating ends 90' and 91. Each of members 84 and 85 has an arm 92 and 93, which arms project generally towards each other. Arm 92 has a semi-cylindrical socket 94 at the projecting end thereof. Within socket 94 is received a semi-cylindrical head 95 extending along the projecting end of arm 93.
Member 84 has a groove 98 extending therealong. At
'4 one side of the groove, member 84 defines an abutment 99. Similarly, member defines an abutment 1% along one side of groove 1111.
A back 42 has re-entrant sides forming hooks 103 and 164.
It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that the, contact of head in socket 94, as well as the contact of ends 911 and 91, holds members 84' and $5 apart, keeping those members firmly seated against hooks 113 and 114. Arms 92 and 3 form a toggle movable across center between the position illustrated in FIGURES and a second position at which head 25 and socket 94 are to the right of an imaginary line between the ends of hooks 103 and 134, as viewed in that figure. In this latter position, of course, prongs 88 and 89 will be separated so that pages 11 may be added to, or removed from, the binder. The extent to which the prongs can separate, i.e. the extent to which head 95 and socket 94 can move to the right in FIG- URE 5, is limited by the contact or abutments 99 and 100 against the adjacent sides of hooks 114 and 113, respectively.
The embodiment of FIGURE 6 is one in which the elongated members and back are unitary, much in the manner illustrated in FIGURE 2 yet incorporating a twopiece toggle. This embodiment has a pair of elongated members 1.117 and 108 connected to the back 1159 by a pair of resilient necks 114 and 111. Portions of members 1157 and 103 extend generally towards each other forming arms 112 and 113. Arm 112 has a semi-cylindrical head 114 therealong, which head is received in a semicylindrical socket 115 on arm 113.
Along one side of necks 1113 and 111 are slots 118 and 119 with the members at the side of the slots forming abutments 120 and 121. Members 197 and 163 define edges 122 and 123, from which project a plurality of pairs of prongs 124- and 125. Prongs 124 and 125 have mating ends 126 and 127 which fit together to form a continuous ring when the prongs are in the position illustrated in full lines in FIGURE 6.
Arms 112 and 113 form a toggle which is movable across center as the split rings defined by prongs 124 and 125 are opened or closed. As the prongs are opened, i.e. moved towards the dotted-line position illustrated in FIGURE 6, .the extent of movement is limited by contact of abutments 12d and 121 against necks 110 and 111, respectively. When the prongs are moved towards each other to close the rings, the extent of that movement is limited by the contact of mating ends 126 and 127 with each other.
If desired, back 102 may have extensions thereon, as illustrated in dotted lines in FIGURE 6, to form ways 13% and 131. A slide 132 is received in ways 130 and 131. Slide 132 preferably would be clear plastic and have a T slot 133 therein to receive a labeling strip or the like.
FIGURE 7 illustrates a fragment of a modified embodiment generally similar to the embodiment of FIG-. URE 2, except that a ball and socket joint is employed in place of the neck 22 of FIGURE 2 to obtain the pivotal movement of the elongated members with respect to the back. In FIGURE 7, there is a back 136, at each end of which there is a socket 137. Elongated members 138 at each side have semi-cylindrical heads 139 which are received in sockets 137. 140, from which prongs 141 project to form the split rings. A diaphragm 142 corresponding to diaphragm 29 of FIGURE 2 is received in slots 143 in the elongated members 133. In the part of the back 136 that defines socket 137, there is an abutment 144 which co-operates with abutment 145 on members 138 to limit the extent to which prongs 141 can be separated.
As was the case with diaphragm 29 of FIGURE 2, thediaphragm 142 of FIGURE 7 acts as a toggle means movable across center as members 133 are pivoted with respect to back 136. The extent to which the prong 141 Members 138 have an edge may be separated when the rings are opened, is limited by the Contact of abntrnents M4 and 145. When pressure is applied on the prongs to move them towards each other from the open position, the diaphragm 142 moves across center so as to positively hold the prongs in the closed position to which they are being moved.
The foregoing description of specific embodiments is for the purpose of complying with 35 U.S.C. 112 and should not be construed as imposing unnecessary limitations upon the appended claims inasmuch as modifications and variations thereof will be apparent to those skilled in the art.
1. A ring binder comprising: a pair of elongated members, spaced from each other and positioned generally parallel to each other; a plurality of split rings extending between said members; and means including a pair of diaphragms interconnecting said members, said diaphragms being movable across center to pivot said two members between two positions, at one of which said split rings are closed and at the other of which said rings are open, and abutments to render one of said diaphragms relatively rigid at one position and the other diaphragm relatively rigid in the other position.
2. A ring binder comprising: a pair of spaced elongated rigid rockable members; a plurality of split rings joining said rockable members on one side thereof to be opened and closed as said rockable members are rocked; a flexible first member extending between said rockable members, the ends of said first member being embedded in said rcckable members, said first member defining a first position in column action adapted to hold the split rings in closed position and ,a second position wherein said first member is flexibly disposed between said rockable members; and a flexible second member extending between said rockable members inboard of and adjacent said first member, said second member being embedded at its ends in the rockable members and being effective in over-center action to assume a first position wherein it is flexibly disposed between said rockable members and a second position in column action adapted to urge the split rings to open position.
3. A ring binder comprising: a pair of elongated members, spaced from each other and positioned generally parallel to each other; a plurality of split rings extending between said members; and means including a pair of diaphragms interconnecting said members, said diaphragms being movable across center to pivot said two members between two positions, at one of which said split rings are closed and at the other of which said rings are open.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 904,777 Hawkins Nov. 24, 1908 934,770 Trnssell Sept. 21, 1909 FOREEGN PATENTS 1,213,489 France Nov. 2 i959