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Publication numberUS3106131 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateOct 8, 1963
Filing dateMay 24, 1961
Priority dateMay 24, 1961
Publication numberUS 3106131 A, US 3106131A, US-A-3106131, US3106131 A, US3106131A
InventorsBarr Irwin R, La Costa Nicholas J
Original AssigneeAircraft Armaments Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Cartridge actuated device
US 3106131 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Oct. 8, 1963 i. R-BARR ETAL CARTRIDGE ACTUATED DEVICE Original Filed Jan. 20, 1959 INVENTORS IRWIN R. BA RR NICHOLAS ZfJ/STA BYW A 3,166,131 CARTRIDGE ACTUATED DEVICE Irwin R. Barr, Lutherville, and Nicholas I. la Costa, Phoenix, Md, assignors to Aircraft Armaments, Inc, Cockeysville, Md, a corporation of Maryland Continuation of application Ser. No. 787,880, Fan. 20, 1959. This application May 24, 1961, Ser. No.

Claims. (Cl. S1)

This invention relates to a cartridge actuated device and, more particularly, to a cartridge actuated device employing an explosive cartridge which engages and moves a piston through a fixed stroke.

A cartridge actuated device is a packaged unit for operating valves, cutting and splicing cable, actuating linkages, propelling masses, disconnecting components, initiating sequential operations, etc. In cartridge actuated devices of the class described, these mechanical functions are performed by properly utilizing the gas pressure produced by an explosive cartridge to move a piston. When cartridge actuated devices of the class described are to be used in installations where there is danger of fire or explosion, it is essential that the propellant residue be contained in some manner. It has been customary in the past to make the casing for the cartridge in the form of a flexible bellows so that the propellant residue will be contained therein. When the powder charge of the cartridge is exploded, the pressure produced by the propellant gases acts inferior to the bellows to expand the same. By carefully calculating the powder charge, it is possible to produce full expansion of the bellows without effecting rupture thereof. However, flexible bellows are somewhat difiicult to manufacture thus adding to the cost of such cartridges. In addition, it has been found that unless the bellows are confined within a cylindrical hole throughout the range of expansion, the full force of the propellant gases cannot be effectively utilized. Thus, without the guiding walls, the bellows generally expand along a curved line instead of a straight line with the result that the length of stroke achieved by the piston will be short of that desired.

Many efiorts have been made to contribute a cartridge for a cartridge actuated device of the class described in which entirely containing the propellant residue internal to the cartridge does not hinder maintaining a uniform stroke length, but so far as is known, no successful cartridge for a cartridge actuated device of the class described has yet been contributed to the art, and the problems here outlined remain unsolved. It is an object of this invention, therefore, to contribute a cartridge for a cartridge actuated device of the class descibed, and entirely containin the propellant residue within the cartridge, in which a straight line stroke of constant length is obtained without the necessity for providing guide walls on the cartridge actuated device.

As a feature of this invention whereby the objects thereof are attained, the part of the cartridge casing adjacent the piston extends forwardly theretoward, and has at its extremity a rearwardly extending cup-shaped inner depression, the bottom of which constitutes a face upon which the piston is engageable. The depth of the cup is approximately one-half the length of the piston stroke desired, and the diameter is such as to make the substantially parallel rearwardly extending tube walls lie substantially adjacent to the forwardly directed mutually substantially .parallel tube walls. When the powder charge is expoded, the pressure of the propellant gases reverse forms the material of the casing thereby turning the cup inside out, but does not rupture the material. By allowing the forwardly extending portion of the casing fat-am Patented Get. 8; 1963 to remain fixed at all times as the inner depression moves in response to the pressure of the propellant gases, there is assurance that the entire movement of the bottom of the cup occurs in a straight line. Thus, a uniform stroke length is achieved. As used herein, the term stroke length refers to the length of the stroke of the inner tube not including any axial outbowin-g of the tube upon completion of the axial outrolling and circumferential expansion of the inner tube.

Still other objects, features and attendant advantages will become apparent to one skilled in the art from a reading of the following detailed description of one physical embodiment constructed in accordance with the invention, taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings wherein FIGURE 1 is a view partly in section of a cartridge actuated device.

FIGURE 2 is a sectional view of the improved cartridge partially shown in FIGURE 1.

Referring now more particularly to the drawings, FIGURE 1 is a cartridge actuated device designated generally at it having recessed housing 11 over which plunger 12 is slidably engaged. Contained within recessed housing 11 is breech 13- in which firing pin 14 is slidably mounted. Engaged between the forward face 15 of breech 13 and shoulder 16 is the breech portion 18 of cartridge 17 made in accordance with this invention.

Cartridge 17 includes a generally cylindrical casing 19 formed of material capable of being reverse drawn or in other words of permanent plastic deformation by incremental cold fiow working under applied pressure, and that has at one end an enlarged :breech portion 20 interconnected by shoulder 21 to a forwardly directed cylindrical tube or wall portion 22. Portion 22 terminates remote from breech portion 20 in an inturned flange or bend 23. Casing 19 also includes a cylindrical tube or wall portion 24 attached at one end to bend 23. Portion 24 is smaller in diameter than portion 22, and extends, concentric to the latter, rearwardly from bend 23 to define a closed annular chamber. The other end of portion 24 terminates in transverse piston engaging surface 25 in the region of breech portion 20. Surface 25 thus forms means which close said other end of portion 24. Portion 24 and face 25 constitute the parts of a rearwardly extending cup-shaped depression which closes one end of the casing. The bottom of this depression constitutes a face upon which piston 26 of plunger 12 is engaged.

Breech portion 20 is at the open end of casing 19. Cartridge closure head 27 fits into portion 20 to close casing 19 with shoulder 28 engaged against shoulder 21. This forms breech portion 18 of the cartridge. Head 27 is secured to the casing by crimping free end 29 of casing 19 thereover. In the center of head 27 is percussion primer 30. The primer size is governed by the mass required to be moved, the time of movement, initial volume and like considerations. Recess 31 in head 27 provides space for added propellant for larger type cartridges where greater energy is required than is available from the primer alone.

Inspection of FIGURE 2 reveals that head 27 and surface 25 define a portion of a primary chamber that is connected to the annular chamber defined by portions 22 and 24 of the casing. When firing pin 14 moves forward and strikes primer 30, the charge contained therein explodes producing propellent gases which enter the primary and annular chambers. The pressure of these gases will effect reverse permanent plastic deformation of the material of the casing, turning the cup-shaped depression inside out until under sufiicient pressure the part of the casing 19 adjacent to piston 26 is as shown in broken lines at 32. Such action by the propellent gases drives plunger 12 through piston 26 tothe position at 12. And since the charge is adjusted so that the material of casing 19 is not ruptured, all of the propellant residue. is contained interior to the casing during and after movement of piston engaging face 25.

As can be seen in FIGURE 1, portion 24 engaged With piston 26 serves to coaxially support the latter in the recess or bore of housing 11. After propellent gases are introduced into the interior of the casing, surface 25 axially moves away from closure 27 imparting axial displacement to piston 26. As can best be seen in FIGURE 2, portion 24 is deformed by the gases into a cylindrical tube, of substantially the same diameter as portion 22, that extends forwardly from the forward end of portion 22. However, portion 24, prior to its deformation, serves to coaxially support piston 26 during its axial dis placement.

The annular shape of the part of the casing adjacent to the piston and constituting in part the walls 24, 25 interconnected by curved wall 23 imparts inherent strength and rigidity thereto, particularly when the walls are substantially adjacent. As the material is initially being reversely plastically deformed through sequential incremental cold flow movement of the material through the reverse bend interconnection' and thence to inside-out permanently deformed shape and increased circumferential size as a side wall continuation of the original tube portion 22 during the first half of the stroke, as indicated at 33, face 25 is rigidly held for straight line displacement due to the curvature of terminus 23. This curvature exists up until the very last increment of displacement of face 25 except in those instances Where sufficient gas pressure may be generated to bow the face 25 outwardly to convex or'hernispherical curvature at the end of the stroke, thereby eliminating the necessity for external supports to guide movement of the casing during at least the initial major portion of the power stroke While still allowing a positive uniform displacement of the face and a positive containment of propellant residue. In order to insure against leakage of propellent gases past head 27, seal 34, or its equivalent, may be employed.

It should be noted that piston engaging surface 25, as it moves away from head 27 under the influence of the internal gas pressure, is displaced from its original position adjacent to head 18 at a rate which is twice that at which terminus 23 is displaced from its original position. As a result, piston 12 moves twice as far as terminus 23 moves. Thus, when annular support for the exterior Walls of the casing is required as they move to the position indicated at 32, such support need be only half the piston stroke assuming, of course, that the gas pressure is maintained below that at which the material would rupture at any given position of the stroke.

While the drawing shows one type of cartridge actuated device, types other than that illustrated could be used. It will further be evident that an electric primer may be substituted for the percussion primer shown, and that there is no limit to the diameter of the cartridge or to the length of stroke able to be obtained.

Those skilled in the art will appreciate that this invention provides :a cartridge in which the propellant residue is entirely contained within the cartridge casing and in which a uniform, positive stroke length is achieved without the necessity for providing for external support for the cartridge at the extremity of its displacement.

As used herein, the term permanently deformed or permanent deformation is intended to mean that the material is substantially self-sustaining in the deformed position and will not self-restore itself to the shape or size it originally held prior to deformation, such as would be effected in elastic deformation.

This application is a continuation of Serial No. 787,880; filed January 20, 1959, now abandoned.

What is claimed is:

1. For use in a housing having a bore with an annular confining wall having opposing interfacing surfaces of substantially circular cylindrical form in right angular cross-section, the improvement comprising a gas-containment casing of material capable of cold flow to a permanent deformation and having two concentric tubes with mutually substantially parallel longitudinally extending an- I nular walls interconnected at one end by an integral smooth reverse bend annular end Wall portion, one of said tubes being smaller in outer circumference than the corresponding inner circumference of the other said tube and being disposed at least in part Within said other tube, each of said tubes being substantially equally spaced apart about their circumference and of substantially circular cylindrical form in right angular cross section along the mutually substantially parallel extent of their longitudinal side walls, the outer of said tubes being adapted to fit Within the circular cylindrical surfaced confining Wall of said housing, said smaller inner tube having a closure wall at its other end, said smaller inner tube being free of longitudinal corrugations, closure means closing the other end of the outer said tube to form with the inner walls of said tubes a gas-containment chamber, and gas generating means disposed within the confines of said casing and said closure means whereby said inner tube and closure wall may be thereby moved under increased gas pressure effected by the gas generating means axially in a direction toward the reverse bend interconnecting end wall porion and permanently plastically deformed both in shape and in increased circumferential size by sequential incremental cold flow rolling movement of the material of the smaller inner tube through the reverse bend interconnection and thence to an increased circumferential size outer cross-sectional tube form as a side wall continuation of the original outer substantially parallel walled tube, with the termination closure of the final expanded side wall tube continuation being formed by the material of the original closure wall. I

2. The improvement according to claim 1, further comprising a piston having an end portion substantially complementary in exterior size to the interior size of said inner tube, said end portion of said piston being disposed within said inner tube for aid in support thereof by said inner tube and being free of permanent connection to said casing.

3. A gas pressure actuated cartridge arrangement comprising a housing having a cylindrical bore with oppositely interfacing wall surfaces of substantially circular cylindrical form in right angular cross-section; a longitudinally expandable telescoped unitary gas-containment casing including an outer cylindrical tube portion substantially complementary to and disposed within said bore, and a smaller cylindrical tube portion free of longitudinal corrugations and interconnected at one end thereof with one end of said outer tube portion by a smooth annular reverse bend end wall portion, said inner tube portion having an integral sheet closure at its opposite end and being telescopically disposed at least in part within said outer tube portion, the interfacing respective wall portions of said cylindrical tube portions being substantially parallel, substantially equally spaced apart and of substantially circular cylindrical form in right angular cross section, tube closure means closing the other end of said outer tube portion and forming a closed gas containment chamber with said tubes, and gas generating means disposed within the confines of said tube closure means and the interior surface of said tube portions, said inner tube portion being free to move axially relative to said outer tube portion in a direction toward the reverse bend interconnecting end wall portion in response to generation of gas, and increase of gas pressure, within said gas-containment chamber, and to become permanently plastically deformed both in shape and in increased size of outer circumference by sequential incremental cold flow rolling of the material of the smaller inner tube portion through the reverse bend interconnection and thence to an increased diameter cross-sectional tube form as a side Wall continuation of the original outer substantially parallel Walled tube portion, with the original radially inner circumferential surface portion of the original inner tube portion being outfolded to form the radially outer circumferential surface portion of the permanently deformed outer side wall continuation, and the termination closure of the final circumferentially expanded side wall tube continuation being formed by the material of the original closure Wall.

4. The improvement according to claim 3, further comprising a piston having an end portion substantially complementary in exterior size to the interior size of said inner tube portion, said end portion of said piston being disposed Within said inner tube portion for aid in support thereof by said inner tube and being free of permanent connection to said casing.

5. A gas pressure actuated cartridge arrangement comprising a housing having a cylindrical bore with substantially parallel oppositely interfacing Wall surfiaoes; a longitudinally expandable telescoped unitary gas-containment casing including an outer cylindrical tube portion substantially complementary to and disposed within said bore and a smaller cylindrical tube portion free of longitudinal corrugations and interconnected at one end thereof with one end of said outer tube portion by a smooth annular reverse bend end Wall portion, said inner tube portion having an integral sheet closure at its opposite end and being telescopically disposed at least in part within said outer tube portion, the interfacing respective Wall portions of said cylindrical tube portions being substantially parallel and substantially equally spaced apart, tube closure means closing the other end of said outer tube portion and forming a closed gas containment chamber with said tubes, and gas generating means disposed Within the confines of said tube closure means and the interior surface of said tube portions, said inner tube portion being free to move axially relative to said outer tube portion in a direction toward the reverse bend interconnecting end Wall portion in response to generation of gas, and increase of gas pressure, within said gas-containment chamber, and to become permanently plastically :deformed both in shape and in increased size of outer circumference by sequential incremental cold ilow rolling of the material of the smaller inner tube portion through the reverse bend interconnection and thence to an increased diameter cross-sectional tube form as a side Wall continuation of the original outer parallel Walled tube portion, with the original radially inner circumferential surface portion of the original inner tube portion being outfolded to form the radially outer circumferential surface portion of the permanently deformed outer side Wall continuation, and the termination closure of the final circumferentially expanded side Wall tube continuation being formed by the material of the original closure wall.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,077,472 Hof-mann Nov. 4, 1913 2,564,209 Murphy Aug. '14, 1951 2,575,071 Rockwell Nov. 13, 1951 2,830,539 Cecil Apr. 15, 1958 2,938,429 Jaglowski May 31, 1960

Patent Citations
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US2830539 *Aug 2, 1951Apr 15, 1958Cecil Jr Eugene LArming device for a fuze
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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3249010 *Mar 30, 1965May 3, 1966Lockheed Aircraft CorpZip cartridge
US3362290 *Apr 13, 1965Jan 9, 1968Mc Donnell Douglas CorpNon-contaminating thrusting separation system
US3373686 *Mar 1, 1965Mar 19, 1968Lockheed Aircraft CorpExplosive actuator
US3404598 *Dec 30, 1966Oct 8, 1968Aai CorpCup-sealed actuator with obturating groove anchoring and sealing arrangement
US3500716 *Mar 15, 1968Mar 17, 1970Us Air ForceBomb ejector
US3529417 *Nov 16, 1967Sep 22, 1970Trw IncFluid pressure actuated linear force generating means
US3672254 *Jun 8, 1970Jun 27, 1972Us ArmyCartridge actuating device
US3714863 *Aug 16, 1971Feb 6, 1973Imp Metal Ind Kynoch LtdGas pressure actuators
US3738271 *Dec 18, 1970Jun 12, 1973Us ArmyGrenade round with means giving forward momentum to the fired case
US3858392 *Oct 25, 1973Jan 7, 1975Ici America IncControlled burning squib arrangement
US3967552 *Dec 17, 1974Jul 6, 1976The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The ArmyPercussion ignition system for a smokeless, flashless, low noise cartridge
US3982465 *Nov 13, 1974Sep 28, 1976Schabauer Fritz MCartridge case decapping tool
US4047465 *Jul 23, 1976Sep 13, 1977The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The ArmyTelescoped explosive driver
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US5372071 *Jul 13, 1993Dec 13, 1994Tracor, Inc.Thrusting separation system
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US6397595May 17, 2001Jun 4, 2002Eads Launch VehiclePyrotechnic actuator with a deformable membrane
US6907817Jul 11, 2002Jun 21, 2005Autoliv Asp, Inc.Linear actuator
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US7303040May 18, 2004Dec 4, 2007Autolive Asp, Inc.Active vehicle hood system and method
US7845278 *Jan 14, 2008Dec 7, 2010Autoliv Asp, Inc.Pyrotechnic cup
EP0129350A2 *May 25, 1984Dec 27, 1984Geo Vann, Inc.Method and apparatus for detecting firing of perforating gun
EP1160461A1 *May 23, 2001Dec 5, 2001EADS Launch VehiclesPyrotechnic actuator with deformable membrane
EP1699496A2 *Nov 4, 2004Sep 13, 2006Autoliv Asp, Inc.Assemblies including extendable, reactive charge-containing actuator devices
EP1891394A2 *Apr 26, 2006Feb 27, 2008AUTOLIV ASP, INC. (an Indiana corp.)Assemblies including extendable, reactive charge-containing actuator devices
WO2004007975A1 *Jul 7, 2003Jan 22, 2004Autoliv Asp IncLinear actuator
Classifications
U.S. Classification89/1.14, 60/632, 60/635, 102/531
International ClassificationF15B15/00, F15B15/19
Cooperative ClassificationF15B15/19
European ClassificationF15B15/19