|Publication number||US3106171 A|
|Publication date||Oct 8, 1963|
|Filing date||Sep 23, 1959|
|Priority date||Jun 18, 1959|
|Publication number||US 3106171 A, US 3106171A, US-A-3106171, US3106171 A, US3106171A|
|Inventors||Alexandre Julien Maurice Franc|
|Original Assignee||Safege Transp|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (5), Referenced by (12), Classifications (9)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
INSTALLATIONS OF THE TYPE OF SUSPENDED RAILWAYS Filed Sept. 23, 1959 Oct. 8, 1963 M. F. A. JULIEN 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR MAURICE FRANCOIS ALEXANDRE JULI ATTORNEY Oct. 8, 1963 M. F. A. JULIEN 3,106,171
INSTALLATIONS OF THE TYPE OF SUSPENDED RAILWAYS Filed Sept. 23, 1959 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 ATT RNEY Oct. 8, 1963 M. F. A. JULIEN INSTALLATIONS OF THE TYPE OF SUSPENDED RAILWAYS 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed Sept. 25, 1959 INVENTOR MAURICE FRANCOIS ALEXANDRE JULIEN Y A W 71 ATTORNEY Oct. 8, 1963 M. F. A. JULIEN 3,105,171
INSTALLATIONS OF THE TYPE OF SUSPENDED RAILWAYS Filed Sept. 25, 1959 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 INVENTOR MAURICE FRANCOIS ALEXANDRE JULIEN ATTORNEY United States Patent Ofiice Patented Oct. 8, 1963 3,106,171 INSTALLATIONS OF THE TYPE OF SUSPENDED RAILWAYS Maurice Francois Alexandre Julien, Paris, France, assignor, by mesne assignments, to Safege-Transport, Paris, France, a society of France Filed Sept. 23, 1959, Ser. No. 841,774 Claims priority, application France June 18, 1959 6 Claims. (Cl. 10494) The present invention relates to installations of the type of suspended railways, that is to say in which the vehicles are designed to roll on a girder which carries them, through the intermediary of articulated systems, the said girder being for example hollow and comprising at its base a slot through which pass certain elements of the said systems, as has already been described in particular in French Patents Nos. 1,072,538 and 1,068,532, filed respectively on December 18 and 28, 1952, by the Socit Anonyme iFrangaise dEtudes, de Gestion et dEntreprises, and in the patent application filed by the same company on March 10, 1958, for Suspended Railway.
The invention has especially for its object to improve the conditions of horizontal suspension and of comfort of the above-mentioned vehicles, at the same time simplitying the erection, and to reduce the torsion stresses on the girder due to the effect of the transverse forces (eccentricity of the load, action of the wind, etc.).
The invention mainly consists in arranging the articulated systems intended to suspend the vehicles from the bogies or other devices providing the rolling action on the carrying girder, in such manner that these systems are similar, in a mean transverse plane in which the coupling is effected, to an articulated quadrilateral or trapezium, the lateral sides of which (embodied by connecting rods or other elements) tend to converge towards a point lo cated above the girder in the vicinity of the centre of torsion of this latter in the said plane.
Apart from this main arrangement, the invention comprises certain other arrangements which will preferably be employed at the same, and which will be more explicitly dealt with later, in particular:
A second arrangement relating to installations of the kind in question employing suspension by articulated systems, especially such as those referred to above, consists in so arranging matters that the upper axes of articulation of the said systems are located above the plane of the rolling tracks on the girder, the connecting rods which are comprised in the said systems being to this end suitably incurved so as to be able to pass through the slot in the girder;
And a third arrangement relative to installations of the kind in question for which the vehicle comprises two articulated suspension systems distributed over the length, consists in providing respectively in these two systems, two damping devices or the like, conjugated with each other in such manner that their reactions tend to act in opposition to any de-phasing of the respective oscillations of the said systems (so as to prevent a pendular oscillation), the conjugation being hydraulic in particular, in the case of hydraulic damping devices.
The invention is more particularly directed to certain forms of application and also to certain forms of embodiment of the said arrangements; and it is still more particularly directed, by way of new industrial products, to installations of the kind in question comprising the application of these same arrangements, together with the special elements proper to their construction.
The invention will in any case be more clearly understood with the aid of the added description which follows, together with the accompanying drawings, the said description and drawings being understood to be given especially by way of indication.
FIG. 1 of these drawings illustrates diagrammatically aninstallation of a suspended railway with an articulated suspension constructed in accordance with the invention.
IFIGS. 2 and 3 show respectively and partially, with parts broken away, a transverse section in side view of an installation constructed according to the principle of FIG. 1.
FIG. 4 shows in diagrammatic perspective a further arrangement of the invention, relative to the suspension of a suspended vehicle.
In accordance with the invention, and more particularly in accordance with those of its methods of application and those of the forms of embodiment of its various parts to which it would appear that preference may be given, having available for example in a suspended railway installation, a hollow girder such as 1 (FIGS. 1 to 3) with rolling tracks 2 on which can move for example the bogies 3 (the wheels of which have in particular pneumatic tyres), and in order to establish articulated systems for the suspension from the said bogies of a vehicle such as 4, which systems must pass through the slot 5 of the above-mentioned girder (on the assumption that the rolling tracks are in the interior of the girder), the invention is carried out as follows or in a similar manner.
It will be recalled that, apart from the action of centrifugal force which will be compensated in general by an inclination of the girder, the vehicle may be subjected to lateral stresses, such as those due to the wind or to an unequal distribution of the load.
These lateral stresses transmit to the girder through the articulated systems which provide the coupling between the bogies and the vehicle, components which do not generally pass through the centre of torsion T of the girder, which centre is itself generally arranged fairly high above the latter, thus resulting in torsion stresses on the said girder.
It is important to reduce as far as possible these torsion stresses, but it is also important to arrange matters so that the vehicle cannot be inclined in any exaggerated manner with respect to the vertical (a parallelogram type of suspension would always maintain the vehicle vertical, but on the other hand it would produce even greater torsion stresses).
In order to be able to satisfy both these desiderata, the articulated suspension systems are constructed in such manner, in accordance with the invention, that in its transverse mean plane of action, each of these systems is substantially similar to'an articulated trapezium, the lateral sides of which converge towards a point 0 which is located above the girder and is maintained in the proximity of the centre T.
It is this which has been shown in principle in FIG. 1, in which there is shown diagrammatically, in addition to the parts 1 to 5 already described:
At 6, the central part of the chassis of the bogie (that is to say comprising mainly the vertical suspension or the pivot which will be referred to later),
At A and B, two points of articulation on this central portion, which points are located above the rolling plane,
And, at C and D, two further points of articulation on the vehicle 4. p
The points A, B, C, and D form a trapezium, the sides CA and DB converge towards a point 0 which is located in the normal vertical position in the immediate proximity of the centre of torsion T.
By way of example of a purely illustrative kind, for an open girder of the type considered, having a width of 1.20 to 1.50 metres, the centre of torsion T is located at a height of the order of 2.0 to 2.50 metres above the rolling plane. The triangle of suspension CDO arranged following the trapezium, having for example a base CD of the order of 0.5 to 0.6 metre (or more), it is found that for the maximum excursions of the vehicle on each side of the vertical (the points C and D moving to C and D and the point for example to 0 the incursions e of the said point 0 on each side of the centre T cannot appreciably exceed one metre, or even in general remain less than one metre. Now, the directions CA and DB being those along which the reaction components due to the stresses, whatever these may be, acting in the line of extension of the coupling rods, are transmitted to the girder; the latter will therefore only be subjected to low torsional stresses. On the other hand, since the form of the trapezium ABCD- does not depart very much from the shape of a parallelogram, the maximum inclination a of the whole of thevehicle with respect to the vertical will be moderate, for example of the order of 6 to 8.
It is to be noted that the achievement of the desired result is facilitated by the fact that the lengths d of the sides CA and DB are relatively large (of the order of one metre or more). An increase of the lengths of CA and DB, as compared with known solutions, is itself made possible by the fact that the articulations A and B are located above the rolling plane. In addition, in order to increase these lengths, it is possible to move the articulations C and D downwards below the upper part of the profile of the vehicle.
In order to carry into efiect the arrangements of principle which have just been described, it is possible to proceed in a large number of ways, for example by constituting the sides CA and DB by connecting rods.
In view of the fact that these rods pass through the slot 5, they are given an appropriate incurvation, as will be described with reference to FIGS. 2 and 3. In other words, the mean lines of the two rods which constitute the sides CA and DB will be located, for example as shown at CMA and DNB, FIG. 1, along two curves, the convex portions of which face each other.
In accordance with the form of embodiment of FIGS. 2 and 3, the part 8 on which the above-mentioned rods are articulated along the axes A and B, is arranged (in a pivotal manner about a horizontal shaft 15) at the lower portion of a central suspension which forms a vertical pivot 7, this suspension being guided by any appropriate means at 6a and 6b in the chassis 6 of the bogie, to which it is coupled by a suitable elastic suspension.
This suspension comprises for example:
On the one hand, springs 9 (mechanical, pneumatic, hydropneumatic springs, etc.) interposed between the said chassis and an upper plate or cross-member it};
And on the other hand an elastic ring 11 of rubbery material (or any other similar device) interposed between the said plate and the pivot and suspension member 7.
The guiding action at 6a and 6b can be obtained, as shown in fulll ines, by guiding sheaths. It is however also pgssible, as shown in broken lines at 19, to employ connecting rod systems with elastic articulations arranged longitudinally and/or transversely.
Dealing now more particularly with the connecting rods forming the above-mentioned trapezium ABCD, these are arranged for example in two pairs (FIG. 3):
12 and 12 constituting the side CA;
13 and 13 constituting the side DB, the two elements of each pair being rigidly fixed together by cross members 14 which ensure rigidity in the longitudinal direction.
Again in order to increase the lengths of the rods, it can be seen that their lower articulations C and D are located below the upper wall 16 of the vehicle, which is provided with openings at 16 The articulation bearings of the axes C and D have not been shown on the drawings, these hearings being rigidly fixed in a convenient manner to the framework of the vehicle.
Damping means of any appropriate type are combined with the unit. Such damping devices can be seen at 17 and 18 in FIGS. 2 and 3, interposed between the crossmembers 14 and the body on the pivotal shafts 20 and 21.
In accordance with a further arrangement of the invention, this arrangementbeing applicable in a general manher to all suspended vehicles comprising two articulated suspension systems, whatever the nature of these systems may be, conjugation means are provided between the damping devices or the like with which these systems are provided, said means being intended to act in opposition to an oscillating movement.
Thus, assuming that each articulated system comprises, as shown in FIGS. 2 and 3, two damping devices, for example hydraulic, especially of the cylinder type 17 and piston 18, matters are so arranged that (FIG. 4):
On each articulated system, one of these two damping devices carries out normally and independently its function of damper or limiter in order to control the amplitude of the actual movements of the said system,
And that the two other damping devices belonging respectively to the two articulated systems are coupled to each other in such manner as to act in opposition to a possible de-phasing between the respective oscillations of the said systems, and therefore in such manner as to prevent longitudinal oscillation.
To this end for example, the respective chambers of the cylinders of the said damping devices will be coupled by conduits which are at least partially flexible, such as shown at 22 and 23, these conduits being crossed so as to mutually assist in achieving the desired result.
In addition, in order to take account of the influence of the piston rod 24, the two corresponding damping devices will in turn be arranged in a crossed manner between their respective pivotal shafts 20 and 21 (it will be seen from FIG. 4 that for one of them, it is the rod 24 which is coupled to the shaft :29, while for the other, it is the cylinder 17).
In this way nosing is avoided whilst leaving a damping action to subsist when so required on the damping devices in question.
It is however understood that the invention would be extended to any other hydraulic means of conjugation, acting on any devices even other than shock-absorbers, with the object or preventing de-phasing of the oscillations of the two systems of suspension.
In consequence of the above, whatever form of embodiment is adopted, it is possible to establish a suspended railway installation, the operation of which will be sufiiciently clearly understood firom the foregoing so that it is not useful further to amplify this subject, the said installation having, as compared with those already in existence, a large number of advantages, in particular:
By virtue of the relatively great length of the connecting rods and of the particular arrangement of the quadrilateral or trapezium' which they constitute, of preventing the carrier girder being subjected to appreciable torsion stresses;
For the same reasons, that of enabling the inclination of the vehicle to be maintained at relatively small values;
Again by reason of the lengths of the said connecting rods, of ensuring a single period of transverse pendular oscillation of relatively low frequency, which is thus conducive to comfort;
While taking account of the presence of the upper articulations of connecting rods above the rolling tracks, that of enabling the connecting rods to pass easily through the slot by virtue of their incurved form;
And that of being generally constructed in a simple form of low production cost.
It will of course be understood, and this furthermore results already from the foregoing, that the invention is in no way limited to the methods of application nor to the forms of embodiment of its various parts which have been more particularly considered; on the contrary it includes all the alternative forms.
What I claim is:
1. A system of the kind described which comprises, in combination, a girder having two rolling tracks located side by side and extending in the longitudinal direction of said girder, said girder having, in every plane transverse to said direction, a center of torsion located above said rolling tracks, at least one bogie having a longitudinal vertical plane of symmetry and comprising wheels resting on said rolling tracks and a chassis supported by said wheels, a vehicle located under said girder having a longitudinal vertical plane of symmetry and suspension means interposed between said bogie and said vehicle, said suspension means comprising at least one pair of links each pivoted to said chassis and to said vehicle about axes parallel to said longitudinal direction, the two pivot axes on said chassis being symmetrical with respect to said first mentioned plane of symmetry and the two pivot axes on said vehicle being symmetrical with respect to said second mentioned plane of symmetry, so that the plane transverse to the longitudinal direction passing through said links intersects said pivot axes at the apexes of a trapezium, said pivots being so located that the lateral sides of said trapezium converge in a point close to said center of torsion.
2. A system according to claim 1 in which said pivot axes on said chassis are located above said rolling tracks.
3. A system according to claim 1 in which said pivot axes on said vehicle are located below the top wall of said vehicle.
4. A system of the kind described which comprises, in combination, a hollow girder having a lower web provided with a continuous longitudinal middle slot, the portions of the upper face of said lower web located on either side of said slot forming two rolling tracks, said girder having, in every plane transverse to said direction, a center of torsion located above said rolling tracks, at least one bogie having a longitudinal vertical plane of symmetry and comprising two pairs of wheels resting on said rolling tracks and a chassis supported by said wheels, a vehicle located under said girder having a longitudinal vertical plane of symmetry and at least two articulated suspension means interposed between said bogie and said vehicle, each of said suspension means comprising at least one pair of links extending through said slot and each pivoted to said chassis and to said vehicle about axes parallel to said longitudinal direction, the two pivot axes on said chassis being symmetrical with respect to said first mentioned plane of symmetry and the two pivot axes on said vehicle being symmetrical with respect to said second mentioned plane of symmetry, so that the plane transverse to the longitudinal direction passing through 6 said links intersects said pivot axis at the apexes of a trapezium, said pivots being so located that the lateral sides of said trapezium converge in a point close to said center of torsion, said links being of curved shape with their convexities turned toward each other to permit their passage through said slot.
5. A system of the kind described which comprises, in combination, a hollow girder having a lower web provided with a continuous longitudinal middle slot, the portions of the upper face of said lower web located on either side of said slot forming two rolling tracks, said girder having, in every plane transverse to said direction, a center of torsion located above said rolling tracks, at least one bogie having a longitudinal vertical plane of symmetry and comprising two pairs of wheels resting on said rolling tracks and a chassis supported by said wheels, a vehicle located under said girder having a longitudinal vertical plane of symmetry, at least two aritculated suspension means interposed between said bogie and said vehicle, each of said suspension means comprising at least one pair of links extending through said slot and each pivoted to said chassis and to said vehicle about axes parallel to said longitudinal direction, the two pivot axes on said chassis being symmetrical with respect to said first mentioned plane of symmetry and the two pivot axes on said vehicle being symmetrical with respect to said second mentioned plane of symmetry, so that the plane transverse to the longitudinal direction passing through said links intersects said pivot axis at the apexes of a trapezium, said pivots being so located that the lateral sides of said trapezium converge in a point close to said center of torsion, said links being of curved shape with their convexities turned toward each other to permit their passage through said slot, at least one oscillation damping device mounted between cooperating parts of each of said articulated suspension means, and means interposed between said damping devices for conjugating them to oppose dephasing of the respective oscillations of said suspension means.
6. A system according to claim 5 in which said damping devices are of the cylinder and piston type, said coupling means comprising conduits for cross-coupling the two cylinder chambers of one of said devices with the oppositely acting chambers of the other damping device. 5
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|U.S. Classification||104/94, 105/149, 105/209, 105/164, 105/155|
|International Classification||B61B12/02, B61B12/00|