US 3106354 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Oct. 8, 1963 H. L; KITSELMAN APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR FILAMENT FEED CONTROL 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed April 14, 1961 4 INVENTOR. i: JCIRRY A. K/TSELMAN,
BY 6% "M ATTOBNEKS.
APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR FILAMENT FEED CONTROL Filed April 14. 1961 Oct. 8, 1963 H. L. KITSELMAN 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 llllll' [lllllllll IN VEN TOR. JIM/av L, KITSELMA N,
United States Patent 3,106,354 APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR FILAMENT FEED CONTROL Harry L. Kitsellnan, Muncie, Ind, assignor to Indiana Steel 8: Wire Company, Inc., Muncie, Ind., 21 corporation of Indiana Filed Apr. 14, 1961, Ser. No. 103,128 15 Claims. ((31. 242--47.08)
This invention rel-ates to a device for feeding or regulating the feed-rate of \wire or like filamentary material in operations where accurate control of the feed-rate is desired. For convenience, the invention will be described as employed in controlling the feeding movement of wire, which may be either bare or coated or plastic sheathed; but it is to be understood that the invent-ion is equally applicable to means handling threads, strands, monofilaments of synthetic plastics, and the like.
Many manufacturing operations involve the feeding of wire or other filamentary material from or into packages or through manufacturing or treating operations, such, for example in the case of wire, as drawing dies or enameling frames. Usually, the rate of feed of the wire is regulated by passing it around or partially around a measuring element rotated at a controlled speed. In some instances, the measuring elements is stationary and the material is fed into and out of association with it by idlers which orbit around the measuring element at a controlled rate.
is essential that there be no slippage of the material on the surface of the measuring element- Many expedients, such as rubber wheels, flexible belts, or magnetic devices forcing the fed material against the measuring element, have been proposed to insure against undesirable slippage,
but few if any of them have proven entirelysatisfact-ory and, capable of fulfilling their intended purpose, especially when the wire being fed is subject to variations in tension. Moreover, most prior devices of which I am aware require that a certain minimum tension be maintained in the material entering the device and some also require maintenance of a minimum tension in the material leaving the device.
It is the principal object of this invention to provide a device which will feed, or regulate the feeding of, wire or other filamentary material at an accurately controllable rate and which will do so without damaging the material being fed. A further object is to produce pparatus which, where used as a pay-out device, will not require tension in the entering material and which, when used as a take-up device, will not require tension in the exiting material.
In carrying out the invention, 1 provide the measuring element with an annular groove deep enough to receive two superposed stretches of the material being fed and so shaped as to confine those two stretches to radially superposed relationship. Spaced fromthe measuring element and-approximately in the plane of the groove, I provide an idler. The wire or other material being fed is trained around the grooved measuring element and the idler in such a way that, for a portion of the circumference of the measuring element, two stretches of the material occupy the vgr-o'ove in superposed relation, the outer stretch being .subjected to an externally imposed tensionwhereby it will exert on the inner stretchan inwardly directed effort clamping the inner stretch against the surface of the groove. Preferably, the groove has inwardly converging sides between which the inner stretch is wedged by the effort exerted by the outer stretch. The device may be used either as a take-up device to draw the fed material through equipment which imposes a drag on it or as a pay- Where accurate control of the feed-rate is required, it
3,105,354 Patented Oct. 8, 1953 out device to retard the rate at which the material is fed to a take-up mechanism which imposes tension on it. The provision of the idler trees a portion of the circumference of the groove from the presence of the fed material and thus makes it possible for the inner stretch of the material to enter or leave the groove.
In the accompanying drawings, which illustrate several different embodiments of the invention:
FIG. lis an elevational view of a take-up device employing a rotating measuring element to draw a Wire from a source which imposes on the wire a substantial drag to create tension in the wire entering into association with the device;
FIG. 2 is a section on the line 2-2 of FIG. 3;
FIG. 3 is a fragmental section, on an enlarged scale, on the line 3-3 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 4 is a view similar to FIG. 1 illustrating a pay-out device regulating the rate at which wire is released to a tension-applying take-up mechanism;
FIG. 5 is a side elevation, in partial section, of a takeup device employing a stationary measuring element; and
FIG. 6 is a horizontal section on the line 6-6 of FIG. 5.
The take-up device of FIG. 1 is shown therein as used to pull wire through apparatus, indicated diagrammatically at 8, which imposes a more or less substantial drag on the wire. The device comprises a frame 9 and a rotating measuring element, designated in its entirety by the reference numeral 10, fixedly mounted on a shaft 11 rotatably supported from the frame 9 and adapted to be driven at a regulated rate by any appropriate form of driving means, here shown as a worm wheel 13 keyed to the shaft :11 and engaged by a worm 14 driven by a motor 7. Also supported from the frame 9 is a rotatable idler 12 disposed in spaced and substantially coplanar relation to the rotating measuring element 10, which will hereafter be referred to as a capstan in accordance with terminology used in the wire-drawing art. Both the capstan 10 and the idler 12 have peripheral grooves which receive the wire in a manner to be described below.
Desirably, the capstan 10 is formed of two juxtaposed, coaxial disks 15 and 16 between which the capstan-groove is provided. As will be clear from FIG. 3, the disk 15 desirably has a plane face abutting the disk 16, while the periphery of the disk 16 is chamfered as indicated at 17 to provide, in cooperation with the opposed face of the disk 15, a groove 18 the side Walls of which converge inwardly of the capstan at a relatively gradual rate. The
and on to the idler 12, and the latter leaving the idler and passing part way around the capstan before leaving the device. As best shown in FIG. 2, the two stretches 20 and 21 have portions which are circumferentially coextensive within the groove 18. In that segment of the groove which receives such coextensive wire-portions, the entering stretch 20 lies outside the stretch 21, with the result that tension in the entering Wire will cause the stretch 21 to be forced radially inwardly and wedged tightly between the inwardly converging side.
walls of the groove 18. The greater the resistance to feeding movement of the wire, the greater will be the tension in the entering stretch 2d and the greater also will be the inward effort exerted on the stretch 21 and the pressure exerted on the stretch 21 by the sides of the groove 18. The angle between the walls of the groove 18 will determine the relation between tension in the stretch 2i and the force with which the stretch 21 is gripped. In a device for feeding hard-drawn steel wire, I prefer to have the side walls of the groove converge inwardly at an included angle of about 15 to 20. Such a convergence will produce a gripping action sufficient to cause breaking of the fed wire if its movement is positively interrupted. At the same time, the wire of the stretch 21 can readily free itself from the groove when relieved of the pressure from the stretch it Such relief occurs at the point where the stretch 29 leaves the groove 18 to pass on to the idler 12.
FiG. 4 illustrates the device of FIGS. l-3 used to control the rate at which a wire is payed out, as through a treating apparatus indicated diagrammatically at 23 and onward therefrom to a driven take-up reel 24. Here it is the entering stretch 29 that lies adjacent the bottom of the groove in the capstan 10. The departing stretch 21 overlies the stretch 20, and the tension engendered in the stretch 21 by operation of the take-up reel 24 causes the stretch 20 to be wedged between the converging walls of the capstan-groove. The greater the tension in the stretch 21, the more firmly will the stretch 20 be gripped in the capstan with the result that the rate of Wire delivery will depend on the rotational speed of the capstan, which can be controlled in any convenient manner as by the worm and motor means shown in FIG. 1.
It will be noted that in both uses shown in FIGS. 1-4 the wire-stretch subject to exteriorly impressed tension overlies the other in the groove 18 and, by virtue of the tension existing on it, firmly wedges such other stretch between the inwardly converging groove walls. As a result, positive, non-slipping engagement of the inner wire-stretch with the capstan will exist irrespective of whether or not that inner stretch carries any tension. Therefore, when the device is used as a take-up device with exteriorly imposed tension in the entering wirestretch, it can deliver the wire in a completely tensionfree condition. Similarly, when the device is used as a pay-out device with tension exteriorly imposed on the departing stretch, the entering wire-stretch can be completely free of tension.
The apparatus shown in FIGS. and 6 is one which might be used to draw a wire through processing or treating equipment of any kind and form the wire into coils for packaging or other purposes. It comprises a sta tionary capstan 25 formed, like the capstan 10, with a circumferential groove 26 having inwardly converging side walls. The capstan 25, however, differs from the capstan in that it is stationary, as by being rigidly connected to a supporting frame 27. Also supported from the frame 27 is a hollow shaft 28 rotatable about the axis of the capstan and arranged to be driven in any convenient manner at a controlled speed. As shown, the shaft 28 is driven by means including gearing 2930. Secured to the lower end of the shaft 28, as through the medium of a yoke 31, is an arm 32 which is located below the capstan 25 and extends diametrically across the capstan and beyond the periphery thereof. Rotatably mounted on the ends of the arm 32 are two idlers 33 and 34, each having a peripheral wire-receiving groove.
The entering stretch 35 of wire is guided into the shaft 28 over an idler 36 rotatably supported from the frame 27 in any convenient manner. Proceeding downwardly through the shaft, the wire stretch 35 passes around a guide idler 37 mounted on the arm 32 and thence around the idler 33. Leaving the idler 33, the wire enters the capstan-groove 25, lies therein for a portion of the capstan circumference, and passes to the idler 34. The wire leaves the idler 34 as the departing stretch 33, which recnters the capstan-groove on the opposite side of the capstan from the stretch 35 and passes around the capstan and beneath the stretch 35 to the point where the latter stretch leaves the capstan on its way to the idler 34.
In the use of the device shown in FIGS. 5 and 6, the shaft 23 and arm 32 are rotated in the clockwise direction (FIG. 6), with the result that the orbiting idler 33 draws wire through the hollow shaft and wraps it about the capstan. At the same time, the orbiting idler 34 progressively separates the two wire-stretches to free the depanting stretch 38 from the inward effort exerted on it by the stretch 35, and the departing stretch falls from the groove, preferably in advance of the adjacent end of the arm 32 so that such arm Will exert a stripping action.
For clarity of illustration, the wire is shown in the drawings as having, relative to the capstan diameter, a larger size than it would usually have in practice, at least when the wire is bare and relatively stiff.
The shape of the capstan-groove in axial section may depend on the nature of the material being fed. As will be obvious, the ratio of the gripping effort exerted by inwardly converging groove walls to the inward pressure exerted by the outer stretch of the material will increase as the opposite groove walls approach parallelism. It is possible to make the angle between wire-gripping groove walls so small that the inner wire stretch would not free itself from gripped condition when relieved of pressure from the outer stretch; but in most cases, especially where the device is a take-up device intended to deliver .the wire in a substantially tension-free condition, such an arrangement is undesirable as it could necessitate the use of stripping means for positively freeing the wire from gripped condition. The greater the coefficient of friction between the fed material and the groove surface, the less need be the gripping effort. With some materials, the opposed side walls of the groove may be parallel and the gripping effort only that which would result from the action of the outer stretch in forcing the inner stretch against the bottom of the groove or into the angle between a cylindrical groove-bottom and a plane side wall. In such a case, it would be necessary, of course, that the groove be narrow enough to maintain the required degree of radial superposition of the two stretches.
Increased traction, or more effective non-slipping connection between the inner stretch and the capstan can be obtained, without decreasing the angle between the groove walls, by arranging the idler or idlers to increase the length of the are within which the two wire-stretches are in contact with each other.
Providing an inwardly narrowing capstan groove between two juxtaposed disk-like elements, as shown in FIG. 3, has an advantage in correcting for the effects of wear which would reduce the diameter of the inner wire stretch. By removing material from the groove walls and also from that face of the chamfered element 16 which engages the element 15, the effects of wear can be removed from the groove walls and the groove maintained at its proper effective diameter.
As will be obvious, since the interengaging stretches of the wire are curved respectively on radii which differ by the diameter of the wire, the outer stretch will slip on the inner stretch and relatively to the capstan in operation of the device. In practice, such slipping has been found to be of no significant consequence either as to magnitude or as to effect on the fed material.
I claim as my invention:
1. Apparatus for controlling the feed rate of a continuous filament pulled under tension between said apparatus and another device, comprising a capstan having a peripheral groove defined by opposed faces and formed to receive two stretches of the filament and to maintain them in radially superposed relation as inner and outer stretches in the groove, idler means mounted in spaced relation with the capstan and positioned to receive a filament from the groove, support the same out of the groove for an arc thereof, and return said filament back to said groove, guide means including said capstan and idler means :defining a path for the filament in which the filament extends from the external device into engagement with the groove and therealong as an outer stretch in the groove over a predetermined arc, thence outward from the groove and over the idler means free of the capstan along an adjacent arc thereof, to clear of filament a portion of the groove for emergence of the filament from the inner stretch, thence, from the idler means back into the groove beneath the outer stretch and along the groove as an inner stretch beneath the said outer stretch to said filament-clear portion of the groove, and l thence out of the proove at such filament-clear portion to an external point, 7
the capstan, on the one hand, and the idler means and angular positions of the entering and exiting filament paths, on the other hand, being relatively rotatable about the axis of the capstan to feed the filament in a predetermined direction along said path, means to control the rate of said relative rotation to maintain tension in said outer stretch of a filament strung along said path, whereby to cause such outer stretch to force the inner stretch of such filament inwardly into firm nonslipping engagement with the surface of the capstan groove. 2. Apparatus as defined in claim 1 with the addition of an idler support rotatable about the capstan axis and carrying the idler means, and filament feeding means rotatable therewith, and in which said means to control the rate of relative rotation comprises means for driving said support to revolve said idler and feeding means about the capstan to pull filament to the apparatus and feed the same; along said path.
3. Apparatus as defined in claim 1 in which the relative rotation is in a direction to pay out the filament under tension to means which produces pull thereon and said means to control the rate of relative rotation comprises retarding means.
4. Apparatus as defined in claim 1 in which said capstan groove is defined by opposed faces which converge inwardly in position to receive the inner stretch of filament in releasable wedging engagement.
5. Apparatus as set forth in claim 1 with the addition that said capstan comprises two coaxial, juxtaposed disk- 6 path, and thereby to cause the outer stretch of such filament to force the inner stretch thereof into non-slipping engagement with the groove.
7. Apparatus as set forth in claim 6, with the addition that said groove has inwardly converging side walls between which the inner filament-stretch is wedged as a result of the force exerted on it by the outer stretch.
8. A take-up device for pulling a continuous flexible filament through means which imposes a drag upon it, comprising a capstan having a peripheral groove adapted to receive two stretches of the filament and maintain them in radially superposed relation, an idler support rotatable about the capstan-axis, an idler carried by said idler support in spaced relation to the capstan and substantially coplanar with said groove, feeding means rotatable with the idler support for feeding to the capstan a filament extending from the drag-imposing means, means including said capstan, idler, and feeding means defining a path for the filament'in which the filament from the feeding means enters the capstan groove and passes part way around the capstan as an outer stretch in the groove, leaves the groove and passes 'over the idler, thereby clearing a portion ofthe groove for emergence of the exiting filament, reenters the groove ahead of the outer stretch and extends along the groove as an inner stretch beneath the outer stretch to the point at which the outer stretch leaves the groove, and then exits from the groove between such point and the said reentry point, means for rotating the idler support and feeding like elements, one of which ischamfered at its periphery to provide one of said groove walls, and releasable means for maintaining said elements in juxtaposed relation.
6. A take-up device for pulling a continuous flexible filament through means which imposes a drag upon it, comprising a rotatable capstan having a peripheral groove adapted to receive two stretches of the filament and maintain them in radially superposed relation, an idler disposed in spaced relation to the capstan and substantially coplanar with said groove, means including said capstan and idler defining a path for the filament in which a filament extending from the drag-imposing means enters the said groove and passes part way around the capstan as an outer stretch in the groove, then leaves the groove and passes over the idler to clear a portion of the groove for emergence of the exiting filament, reenters the groove ahead of the outer stretch and extends along the groove as an inner stretch beneath the outer stretch to the point at which the outer stretch leaves the groove, and then exits from the groove between such point and said reentry point, means for rotating the capstan at a controlled rate to pull under tension from the drag-imposing means a filament extending therefrom and trained along said means at a controlled rate to feed under tension to the capstan a filament trained along said path, and thereby to cause the outer stretch of such filament to force the inner stretch thereof into non-slipping engagement with the groove.
9. Apparatus as set forth in claim 8, with the addition that said groove has inwardly converging side walls between which the inner filament-stretch is wedged as a result of the force exerted on it by the outer stretch.
10. A pay-out device for regulating the rate at which acontinuous flexible filament is released to a feeding means which imposes tension upon it, comprising a rdtatable capstan having a peripheral groove adapted to receive two stretches of the filament and maintain them in superposed relation, an idler disposed in spaced relation to said capstan and substantially coplanar with said groove, means including said capstan and idler defining a path for the filament in which the filament enters said groove as an inner stretch in the region between the capstan and idler, passes part way around the capstan and idler, and reenters the groove and extends along an arc thereof as an outer stretch superposed over the inner stretch, and then leaves the groove and proceeds to the feeding means, and means for regulating the rate at which the capstan rotates, to maintain tension in the outer stretch of a filament trained along said path, whereby said outer stretch forces the inner stretch into non-slipping engagement with the groove surface.
11. Apparatus for controlling the feed rate of a continuous filament, comprising a capstan having a peripheral groove to receive two stretches of the same filament and to maintain them in radially superposed relation wherein tension in the outer stretch will force the inner stretchinto releasable wedging engagement with walls of the groove,
and means to guide spaced portions of the same filament into said groove and to support an'intermediate portion out of the groove to clear a portion thereof for emergence of the filament from the inner stretch,
said capstan comprising two disc-like elements and means to rele'asably maintain the same in coaxial juxtaposed relation, 7
one of said discs being chamfered at its periphery to form a groove-defining face thereon in opposed inwardly-converging relation with an opposite face on the other disc.
7 12. The method of advancing a continuous filament in firm, non-slipping engagement with a feed-control capstan, which comprises training two spaced stretches of the filament in the same direction along the same arcuate portion of a 5 groove extending about the capstan,
laterally confining the two stretches to position and maintain the same as superposed inner and outer stretches of filament along said arcuate portion,
supporting an intermediate portion of the filament out 10 of the groove to open an arcuate portion of the groove and extending the filament between said inner stretch and an external point through such open arcuate portion,
subjecting the outer stretch of filament to tension to 15 cause the same to exert an inward force on the inner stretch to press the same into positive gripping engagement with the capstan,
and controllingly advancing the groove relative to the positions at which the filament enters and leaves the groove, and thereby advancing the filament in gripped engagement with the capstan.
13. The method defined in claim 12 in which said advancing is obtained by revolving the filament-entering and -leaving positions about the axis of the capstan.
14. The method defined in claim 12 in which said advancing is obtained by rotating the capstan on its axis.
15. The method defined in claim 12 with the addition of supporting the filament stretches in the groove, and maintaining them in superposed relation, by opposed inwardly-converging faces between which the inner stretch is releasably wedged under the pressure imposed thereon by the tensioned outer stretch.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Martinez Apr. 10, 1962