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Publication numberUS3107138 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateOct 15, 1963
Filing dateAug 30, 1957
Priority dateAug 30, 1957
Publication numberUS 3107138 A, US 3107138A, US-A-3107138, US3107138 A, US3107138A
InventorsLe Massena Robert A
Original AssigneeMinneapolis Honeywell Regualto
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Oscillograph containing a silver halide recording medium plus heat sensitive or fluorescent material
US 3107138 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Oct. 15, 1963 R. A. MASSENA 3 INING ILVER HALIDE RECORDING MEDIU NSITIVE 0R CRESCENT MATERIAL Filed Aug. 1957 OSCILLOGRAPH CONTA PLUS HEAT SE 99 INVENT ROBERT A. LQMAS A BY 2 ATTORNEY.

llnited States 3,167,138 OSCELLOGRAPH CONTAHNHNG A SILVER HALHDE RECORDENG MEDIUM PLUS HEAT SENSITIVE R FLUORESCENT MATERIAL Robert A. Le Massena, Denver, Colo., assignor to Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Company, Minneapolis, Mini 1., a corporation of Delaware Filed Aug. 30, 1957, Ser. No. 681,337 18 Claims. (Cl. 346-109) This invention relates to oscillographic recorders which provide means for recording the variations with time of any physical, mechanical, electrical, chemical, or other phenomena which can be converted to an electric current. Such oscillographic recorders are well known.

It is an object of this invention to provide a recording oscillograph which produces a record which becomes visible immediately as it is being made and which is permanent.

Such osoillograph recorders are disclosed in U.S. Patent 2,580,427 to CA. Heiland and in application for US. patent Serial No. 638,729 by John P. Mahoney and R. S. Kampf.

This patent and this application disclose a recording medium which includes a silver halide. Such a recording medium is sold by the Eastman Kodak Company under their trademarks Kodak #1090 and Kodagraph Positive.

Another recording medium includes phosphorescent material, such as zinc silicate, zinc phosphate or zinc sulphide.

Another recording medium includes a fluorescent material, such as fiuorescein, or many other known organic compounds.

Another recording medium includes a heat-sensitive inateri-al, such as that sold under the trademark Permapaper which comprises a dark base covered by an opaque light coating which melts, when heated, to provide a visible trace. Alternatively, the heat-sensitive material ma, comprise a porous coating having carbon therein which diffuses through the coating upon the application of heat thereto.

It is an object of this invention to provide a recording oscillograph in which the recording medium includes a silver halide in combination with one or more of the fluorescent, phosphorescent and/or heat-sensitive materials mentioned above. By this means, a record is obtained 'Which becomes immediately visible due to the action of the fluorescent, the phosphorescent, and/or the heat-sensitive material and which record remains permanently visible due to the action of the silver halide.

A better understanding of the present invention may be had from the following detailed description when read in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which:

FIG. 1 is a diagrammatic showing of the oscillographic recorder of this invention and of the beam of radiation which it employs; and

FIG. 2 is a similar diagram of a modification.

Reference is here made to US. Patent 2,580,427 and to application for US. patent Serial No. 638,729 for a disclosure of the details of representative oscillognaphic recorders in connection with which this invention may be employed.

Referring to FIG. 1 of the drawings, the recording oscillograph of this invention is shown as comprising a source 1 of electricity. One suitable such source is a commercial supply of electricity of 115 volts, 60 cycles, adapted to supply at least four amperes.

A source 2 of radiant energy is connected to source of electricity 1 through a power circuit, details of which are not disclosed herein, but which are well-known.

ilmflild Patented Get. 15, 1983 ire When the recording medium contains silver halide, it is desired that the source of radiant energy emit radiation having wave lengths to which the silver halide is sensitive. For 1090 paper (mentioned above), this is from 200 millimicrons to 540 millimicrons with a maximum at 380 millimicrons in the ultra violet region. A suitable source for this purpose is a high-pressure, mercury-vapor lamp having a point-shaped are which produces an intense, brilliant radiation. An example of such a lamp is that manufactured by Osrarn, Munich, West Germany, and identified as their model HBO-10W 1, super pressure mercury lamp. Such a lamp produces radiation over the wave length band from 20-0 to 1000 rnillimicrons, with the greatest intensity occurring roughly between 350 mil-limicrons and 450 millimicrons.

When the recording medium contains a heat-sensitive material, source 2 should radiate an output having wave lengths in the infra red region. Such a source is an incandescent carbon rod made by Globe-Union Company and sold under their trademark Globar. This source produces radiation over the wave length band from 1000 to 10,000 millimicrons with a maximum at 5000 millimicrons. Another such source is a lamp having an incandescent filament.

If the recording medium contains both silver halide and heat-sensitive material, the source 2. must emit both infra red and ultra violet radiations. Mercury arcs, gas-tubes, incandescent lamps, and the new incandescent, fluorescent and mercury lamps, each emit both these wave bands.

A beam or" radiant energy passes from source 2 to galvanometer mirror 3 whence it is deflected to a second mirror 4 which reflects the beam onto lens 5. Lens 5 is a segmental cylindrical lens and serves to concentrate as much as possible of the beam in a small spot of high intensity on the surface of the recording medium 6. This lens 5 does by concentrating the radiant energy into a very small area.

The recording medium 6 is in the form of a sheet or film adapted to be *fed in the direction shown by the arrow from a supply roll 7 to a take-up roll 3 by means of a driving means or motor 16. Such a recording medium comprises a layer of film or paper and a layer of emu sion containing silver halide, phosphorescent, fluorescent and/ or heat-sensitive material.

The means for oscillating the galvanorneter mirror 35 comprise a galvanometer. This galvanometer includes a means 12 for providing a magnetic field. A transducer (adapted to convert the phonomenon, whose variations it is desired to measure, into electricity) is connected to input terminals 10 and ill. To the input terminals ill and 11 also are connected support ribbons l3 and Ed on which the galvanometer mirror 3 and the galvanometer coil 15 are supported. The support ribbons 13 and 14 may serve as electrical connections to the coil 15, or separate electrical connections (not shown) may be used for this purpose. Coil 1.5 is located in the magnetic field, and is connected in such a manner that the current will flow in one direction through one side of the coil and in the opposite direction through the other side of the coil which lies closely adjacent to the first. Owing to the magnetic pull between the two sides of the coil and the magnetic field, one side of the coil will be forced in a direction at right angles to its length and to the magnetic field and the other side of the coil will be forced in the opposite direction. This tends to oscillate the coil about a vertical axis against the torque supplied by a spring (not shown). This oscillation deflects the galvanorneter mirror 3 and causes the beam of radiant energy to traverse along a straight line on the surface of the recording medium. But, since the recording medium is moving at uniform speed at an angle to the straight line, the spot of radiant energy formed by the beam on the recording me- 3] dium causes a trace which records the variations of the phenomenon under observation.

Before the recording medium 6 is exposed to the beam of radiant energy from the source 2 as deflected by the galvanometer mirror 3, the silver halide recording medium may be given a pre-exposure treatment. This pre-exposure treatment comprises exposing the recording medium either to a constant, low-intensity radiant energy source of suitable spectral composition for a given time, or to a variable-intensity radiant energy source of such suitable spectral composition for a shorter time. Suitable preexposure times are an exposure for 14 hours to a 100 watt incandescent lamp producing radiant energy wave lengths in the band from. 350 to 4000 millimicrons, peaking at about 1000 millimicrons, With the recording medium and the lamp at 9 feet from each other or an exposure of A2 hour to a 40 watt incandescent lamp with the recording medium and the lamp at 1 foot from each other.

In the second alternative, the radiant energy may be varied in intensity from zero to a specified value and increased in intensity at a rate which increases slowly at first but more rapidly thereafter. This rate of variation in intensity, when plotted against time, appears as an exponential curve. Such a suitable pre-exposure time is /2 hour to a 40 Watt incandescent lamp with a distance of 1 foot between the lamp and the recording medium and the energy to the lamp varied from a minimum to a maximum.

The advantages of this pro-exposure step are:

(1) It prevents reversal of the immediately visible trace.

(2) The resultant trace is more stable.

(3) The definition or claritygof the trace is improved.

After the recording medium 6 has been exposed to the beam of radiant energy from the source 2 as deflected by the galvanometer 3, the recording medium may be given a post-exposure or latensification treatment. This treatment comprises passing the recording medium, which has just been exposed to the radiant energy, close to a source of medium-intensity radiant energy. A suitable source of such medium-intensity energy is a 10=5-115 volt fluorescent lamp 9. A distance of from 2 to 6 inches is maintained between the lamp 9 and the recording medium 6. The time of this post-exposure treatment must be more than one-tenth of a second.

The post-exposure treatment may be accomplished in a longer time by exposure to ordinary room-intensity fluorescent illumination, or, in an even longer time, by room-intensity incandescent illumination.

For certain uses it is desirable to supplement the silver halide with a mechanical mixture of a fluorescent substance, a phosphorescent substance, and/ or a heat-sensitive substance. Examples of such a phosphorescent material, of such a fluorescent material, and of such a heatsensitive material have been given above.

An advantage of the use of a phosphorescent or of a fluorescent material is that the phosphorescent or fluorescent trace is immediately visible. An additional advantage is that this phosphorescent trace continues visible until the latent trace of the silver halide is made visible by the latensification treatment explained above. The time during which the phosphorescent trace remains visible is of the order of one to ten seconds.

An advantage of the mechanical mixture of silver halide and a heat-sensitive substance is that such a combination produces an immediately visible trace at low trace velocities and a latent trace at high trace velocities. Hence, with this recording medium, it is not necessary to pro-expose the silver halide to prevent reversal of a low velocity trace. This, in turn, permits recording of trace velocities higher than is possible with pre-exposure.

FIG. 2 shows an alternate construction of an oscillographic recorder adapted for use only with a phosphorescent recording medium. This recorder is made up of parts equivalent to or identical With those of the device shown in FIG. 1 With the following addition. The lens 5 concentrates the beam of radiant energy from the source 2 and the mirror 3 on the surface of an endless belt 66 mounted on rolls 77 and 88 and driven by a driving means or motor 99. Recording medium 66 contains a phosphorescent material. As the beam of radiant energy strikes the surface of belt 66, the spot of intense radiation causes a trace to become visible immediately. The surface of belt 66 is then contacted with recording medium 6 which contains silver halide. The visible trace on belt 66 afiects a portion of the silver halide and causes a trace to appear on the surface of the recording medium 6. This trace can be made visible and permanent by the latensification treatment, if necessary.

In summary, this invention includes apparatus having a beam of radiant energy which produces an immediately visible trace and a permanent trace which may be immediately visible or which may become visible upon latensification treatment.

Latensification, as used herein, means exposing the recording medium (on which a latent trace or image has been recorded) to radiant energy of such intensity and spectral composition for such a length of time that the latent trace or image (produced on the recording medium by exposure to high-intensity radiant energy of a spectral composition to which a component of the recording medium is sensitive) becomes substantially visible for all practical purposes without further processing and remains visible.

What is claimed is:

1. In an oscillograph in which a record is made of the variations in a phenomenon under observation and of the time at which these variations occur by means of a beam of radiant energy comprising a band of suitable wave lengths impinging in a spot of high intensity on a recording medium and photographically producing a trace thereon, a recording medium including first means substantially uniform throughout the length and breadth of said medium and responsive to said band of wave lengths and which produces an immediately visible trace upon the incidence of such radiant energy thereon and second means responsive to said band of wave lengths and which produces a latent trace upon the incidence of such radiation thereon which trace becomes permanently visible.

2. Recording medium according to claim 1 in which said second means includes a silver halide.

3. Recording medium according to claim 1 in which said first means includes a phosphorescent material.

4. Recording medium according to claim 1 in which said first means includes a fluorescent material.

5. Recording medium according to claim 1 in which said first means includes a heat sensitive material.

6. Recording medium according to claim 1 in which said first means includes a phosphorescent material and said second means includes a silver halide.

7. A recording medium according to claim 1 in which said first means includes a fluorescent material and said second means includes a silver halide.

8. A recording medium according to claim 1 in which said first means includes a heat sensitive material and said second means includes a silver halide.

9. In apparatus for recording the time-variations of a phenomenon under observation, a source of invisible radiation which emits a band of suitable wave lengths, a recording medium including first means substantially uniform throughout the length and breadth of said medium and of maximum response to such wave lengths and which produce an immediately visible trace upon the incidence of such radiation thereon and second means of maximum response to such wave lengths and which produce a latent trace upon the incidence of such radiation thereon which trace becomes permanently visible, a gal- 'vanomcter having a coil responsive to said time-variations,

and a mirror movable with said coil to reflect said radiatlons and cause them to move as a pointer with the movement of said coil and to impinge upon said recording medium to produce a trace.

10. Apparatus according to claim '9 in which said second means include a silver halide.

11. Apparatus according to claim 9 in which said first means include a phosphorescent material.

12. Apparatus according to claim 9 in which said first means include a fluorescent material.

13. Apparatus according to claim 9 in which said first means include a heat sensitive material.

14. Apparatus according to claim 9 in which said first means include a phosphorescent material and said second means include a silver halide.

15. Apparatus according to claim 9 in which said first means include a fluorescent material and said second means include a silver halide.

16. Apparatus according to claim 9 in which said first means include a heat sensitive material and said second means include a silver halide.

'17. In an oscillograph in which a record is made of the variations in a phenomenon under observation and of the time at which these variations occur by means of a beam of radiant energy comprising a band of suitable wave lengths impinging in a spot of high intensity on a recording medium and producing a trace thereon by means of said radiant energy, a recording medium including first means substantially uniform throughout the length and breadth of said medium and responsive to said band of wave lengths and which produces an immediately visible trace upon the incidence of such radiant energy thereon and second means responsive to said band of wave lengths and which produces a latent trace upon the incidence of such radiation thereon which trace becomes permanently visible, and a source of radiant energy other than the source of said beam of radiant energy and to which other source of said second means is responsive.

18. in apparatus for recording the time-variations of a phenomenon under observation, a source of invisible radiation which emits a band of suitable wave lengths, a recording medium including first means substantially uniform throughout the length and breadth of said medium and of maximum response to said wave lengths and which produce an immediately visible trace upon the in cidence of such radiation thereon and second means of maximum response to such wave lengths and which produce a latent trace upon the incidence of such radiation thereon which trace becomes permanently visible, a galvanometer having a coil responsive to said time-variations, a mirror movable with said coil to reflect said radiations and cause them to move as a pointer with the movement of said coil and to impinge upon said recording medium to produce a trace, and a source of radiant energy other than said source of invisible radiation which emits a band of suitable Wave lengths, said second means being responsive to the radiant energy from said other source.

References (Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,482,815 Urbach Sept. 27, 1949 2,524,839 Schulman et al m. Oct. 10, 1950 2,580,427 Heiland Ian. 1, 1952 2,742,661 Rajchman et al Apr. 17, 1956 2,754,427 Berry July 10, 1956 2,756,343 Johnson July 24, 1956

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2482815 *Mar 26, 1946Sep 27, 1949Univ RochesterInfrared photography
US2524839 *May 27, 1948Oct 10, 1950James H SchulmanX-ray sensitive screen
US2580477 *Mar 13, 1948Jan 1, 1952Statham NoelAdjustable fastening device
US2742631 *May 27, 1954Apr 17, 1956Rca CorpMethod and apparatus for recording and transmitting information using phosphors
US2754427 *Aug 15, 1952Jul 10, 1956Burtt L BerryFluorescent retouching materials
US2756343 *Oct 2, 1952Jul 24, 1956Gen ElectricRadiation measuring device
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3144332 *Sep 20, 1962Aug 11, 1964Cons Electrodynamics CorpRapid latensification of printout material
US3183088 *Sep 12, 1961May 11, 1965Du PontProcess for forming images
US3184751 *Nov 27, 1962May 18, 1965Honeywell IncRecorder
US3255458 *Apr 20, 1964Jun 7, 1966Bob MellonData handling
US3259040 *Apr 3, 1963Jul 5, 1966Takashi KumagaiCamera apparatus having a temporary memory mechanism
US3278941 *Oct 9, 1963Oct 11, 1966Cons Electrodynamics CorpEvent marker galvanometer
US3418470 *Oct 27, 1964Dec 24, 1968Minnesota Mining & MfgRecording medium utilizing grain-free fluorescent material
US3444372 *Sep 16, 1966May 13, 1969Haart Inc DePhotographic phosphor belt
US4745286 *Jun 9, 1986May 17, 1988Jones Billy RLuminous sheet and indicia
US6638696Jul 16, 2002Oct 28, 2003Eastman Kodak CompanyGlow-in-the dark display element
Classifications
U.S. Classification346/107.3, 430/139, 250/475.2, 250/580, 430/350, 430/542
International ClassificationG01D15/14
Cooperative ClassificationG01D15/14
European ClassificationG01D15/14