|Publication number||US3109278 A|
|Publication date||Nov 5, 1963|
|Filing date||Aug 19, 1960|
|Priority date||Aug 19, 1960|
|Publication number||US 3109278 A, US 3109278A, US-A-3109278, US3109278 A, US3109278A|
|Inventors||Gibson Jr Joseph W|
|Original Assignee||Du Pont|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (12), Referenced by (19), Classifications (11)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Nov. 5, 1963 J. w. GIBSON, JR 3,109,273
MULTILOBAL TEXTILE FILAMENTS HAVING CONTROLLED UNIFORM TWIST AND FABRICS PREPARED THEREFROM Filed Aug. 19, 1960 3mm: JOSEPH W. GIBSON, JR.
United States Patent MULTILGBAL TEXTILE FELAMENTS HAV- ING CONTRGLLED UNTF-SRM TWIET AND FAERECS PREPARED THEREFRQM Joseph W. Gibson, Era, Wilmington, Deh, assignor to E. l. du ?ont tie Nenrours and (Zompany, Wilmington, Del, a corporation of Delaware Filed Aug. 19, 1950, Ser. No. 50,714 11 Cla ms. (Cl. 57-140) This invention relates to novel twisted multilobal monofilaments and, more particularly, to new and improved sheer fabrics prepared from the novel monofila-ments.
Textile filaments prepared from synthetic polymers which exhibit unique optical properties in the form of luster highlight or sparkle have been recently introduced for use in various woven and knitted fabrics. When these filaments are incorporated in tightly knitted and woven fabrics, a pleasing luster and uniform highlight or sparkle is obtained. However, in preparing fabrics of sheer construction from such monofilaments it has been difficult to achieve uniformity of luster highlight or sparkle across the entire surface of the fabric. This non-uniformity has been evidenced in such fabrics as sparkling nylon hosiery by areas of intense sheen and areas which exhibit neither sparkle nor sheen.
It is, therefore, an object of this invention to provide novel monofilaments which exhibit improved optical properties when utilized in fabrics of sheer construction. It is another object of this invention to provide fabrics of sheer construction having optical properties ranging from an intense, uniform luster highlight or sparkle to a subdued, uniform luster highlight or sparkle. Other objects of this invention will be apparent from the following detailed description.
The objects of this invention are accomplished by knitting or weaving sheer fabrics from sparkling textile monofilaments of synthetic polymers having a multilobal cross section with a uniform twist of at least about 4 turn per inch. The cross sections of the sparkling monofilaments consist of integrally joined lobes, each of which terminates in an essentially arcuate tip. The configuration of the lobes is such that a luster highlight or sparkle is provided by the monofilament. The sheer fabrics are provided by knitting or weaving the textile monofilaments.
By sheer fabrics it is meant those in which a perpendicular projection of the fabric onto a flat surface which is parallel .to the fabric results in not more than about one-third of the surface being covered by the projection of the filaments.
Surprisingly, according to the present invention, by utilizing sparkling, twisted multilobal filaments having at least 4 turn per inch, a fabric is provided which has a uniform sparkling appearance over its entire surface. By utilizing monofilaments having from A to 7 turns per inch, the sparkle which is inherent in the filaments is uniformly distributed throughout the fabric without a significant reduction of the unique high intensity of sparkle. By progressively increasing the twist from 7 to 20 turns per inch, the sparkle is gradually reduced but is visible uniformly over the entire surface area of the fabric. Above about 20 turns per inch the unique sparkle is eliminated and the fabric exhibits merely a subdued, uniform luster. The optimum number of twists per inch for obtaining this effect may vary, depending on the particular fiber cross section, e.g., trilobal, tetralobal, or pentalobal, as well as the denier of the filament. The twist may be alternating, i.e, an S or Z twist; however, it must be uniform along the length of the filament. Preferably a unidirectional S or Z twist is used. In addition, the filaments should be essentially free from crimp nodes and loops when incorporated in the fabric.
While this invention is primarily directed to obtaining unique optical effects, it has been discovered that the novel twisted filaments provide significantly improved resistance both to the formation of picks during preparation and finishing of the fabric and snags in the finished fabric. The picks and snags are caused by loops of yarn being caught and being permanently pulled out of position without being broken. The number of loops caught in a given fabric is reported as the picks or snags in that fabric.
This invention will be morefully described in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which:
FIGURE 1 is an oblique projection of a twisted trilobal monofilament according to the present invention;
FIGURE 2 is an oblique projection of a twisted tetralobal monofilament according to the present invention;
FIGURE 3 is a magnified view of a small section of a sheer knit structure knitted from the twisted monofilaments shown in FIGURE 1;
FIGURE 4 is a magnified view of a small section of a sheer knit structure knitted from twisted monofilaments similar to that shown in FIGURE 2; and
FIGURE 5 is an oblique projection of a twisted pentalobal monofilament according to the present invention.
In general, the cross section of the filaments may be of any multilobal structure having three or more integrally joined lobes, each of which terminates in an essentially larcuate tip. The configuration must be such that a sparkling filament is provided. Examples of such filaments are those sparkling filaments having a trilobal cross section of the type described in U.S. Patents 2,939,201 and 2,939,202. Trilobal filaments having a modification ratio in the range of about 1.1 to about 2.0, a tip radius ratio 'of from about 0 to about 0.85, and an arm angle in the range from about 20 to about 150 are of particular interest. Among other filament cross sections which may be utilized in preparing the sheer fabrics of this invention are filaments of tetralobal cross section, particularly those having a tip radius ratio of about 0.3 to about 0.8 which are further described in the US. application of McKinney and Stanley, Serial No. 50,725, filed concurrently herewith, and filaments of pental'obal cross section described in Ellingsen U.S. application Serial No. 742, filed January 6, 1960'.
Spinnerets and spinning conditions suitable for preparing these filaments are described in the aforementioned patents and applications. The twist may be introduced into the filaments by known procedures, e.g., those (tisclosed by Stoddard et al. US. Patents 2,803,105, 2,803,108, and 2,803,109. After twisting, the filaments may be treated, for example, by heating, to set the twist. The denier of the twisted monofilaments of this invention may vary within wide limits, e.g., deniers from 1 to or more may be used in preparing textile fabrics. Preferably, deniers in the range from 1 to about 40 are utilized in preparing the sheer fabrics.
The following examples illustrate specific embodiments of fabrics of the present invention.- in theexamples, numerical descriptions, e.g., 15l%, are used to identify the total denier, number of filaments, and turns per inch of twist of the yarn, respectively.
EXAMPLE I Womens seamless hosiery were knit on a 400-needle Scott and Williams, Model KN, hosiery knitting machine (manufactured and sold by Scott and Williams, Inc., Laconia, NH), using for the leg fabric l5l% Z twisted nylon yarn having a trilobal cross section with a modification ratio of 1.53, a tip radius ratio of 0.36, and an arm angle of 53 The trilobal monofilamen-t contained 0.02% titanium dioxide. A 4( 13 /2 Z round cross section nylon yarn was used for the welt fabric,
and a 3Ol0 /2 Z round cross section nylon yarn was used in the heel and toe. The hosiery were looped, preboarded, scoured, and dyed to a gold shade, and postboarded, using conventional procedures. The resultant gold-colored hosiery, having the twisted trilobal monofilaments in the leg fabric, exhibited a very high level of sparkle. The sparkle was uniform throughout the leg portion.
Two sets of sirnilar hosiery were prepared as described above except that in one set 15-2- 4 Z and in the other set 3(, .'2 /1 Z trilobal cross section nylon yarn, having the aforementioned parameters, was substituted for the monofilament tnilobal cross section yarn. Both sets of hosiery exhibited appreciably less sparkle than the monofilament yarn hosiery.
Hosiery prepared using ISA- A Z round cross section nylon yarn, using the aforementioned procedure, did not exhibit any sparkle and by comparison appeared extremely dull and had low color clarity.
In a wear test, the hosiery prepared from l5-denicr (15-1) twisted monofilament trilo-bal yarn exhibited twice the snag resistance of both the 15 denier (15-1) monofilament round yarn hosiery and the 15-2 trilobal yarn hosiery. The 15-1 twisted trilobal yarn hosiery developed six times fewer picks in mill handling than the 151 roundyarn hosiery.
EXAMPLE II Womens full-fashioned hosiery were knit on a 60- gauge, 4-position Reiner hosiery machine (manufactured and sold by Robert Reiner, Inc, Weehawken, N1), us ing lS-denier monofilament trilobm cross section nylon yarn having a modification ratioof 1.62, a tip radius ratio of 0.31, and an arm angle of 56 in the leg fabric. The yarn contained 0.3% titanium dioxide.
Four sets of hosiery were prepared using various levels of twist in the monofilament yarn. Twisting of the yarn was accomplished using a Model downtwister (manufactured and sold by Universal Winding (30., Providence, R.I.). In each set of the hosiery 4013- /2 Z tri-lobal cross section nylon yarn was used for the welt fabric and 301O /z Z trilobal cross section nylon yarn for the splicing. All of the trilobal yarns had the same cross sectional parameters. The hosiery were seamed, preboarded, scoured, dyed to a gold shade, finished using a resin emulsion, and postboarded, using conventional procedures. The four sets of hosiery were compared for visual appearance of the leg fabric by placing them flat on a table. The results are recorded in the following large areas of no sparkle or shccn.
Intense sparkle uniformly distributed throughout the entire leg portion.
Uniform sparkle but slightly less intense than that obtained with 1 Z twist.
Uniform subdued luster with little sparkle remaining.
EXAldPLE 1111 Womens fu-ll-fashioned sweaters were knit on a 21- gauge Wildman full-fashioned sweater body and sleeve machine (manufactured and sold by Wildman Manufacturing Co., Norristown, Pa), using 21/2 cc. Orlon 1 yarn and two ends of l5l% Z twisted trilobal nylon yarn, containing 0.0 2% titanium dioxide, and having a modification ratio of 1.53, a tip radius ratio of 0.36, and an arm angle of 53. The two yarns were fed to the machine together. The sweaters produced were seamed, scoured, and a basic black dye was used to dye the Orlon yarn in the sweaters to a black shade. A
Registered trademark for Du Pont's acrylic fiber.
Polyamide tetralobal cross section yarns were prepared in accordance with Example 3 of McKinney and Stanley US. application Serial No. 50,725, filed August 19, 1960. The monofilarnents which contain 0.3% titanium dioxide were 15 denier, had a tenacity of 5.1 grams per denier, and had an elongation of 24%. Samples were prepared at twist levels of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 35 twists per inch with a uniform alternating Z and S twist. The twisted yarns were given a mild set, using steam at a pressure of 10 pounds per square inch, for a period of ten minutes before coning and knitting. Seamless hosiery having the structure illustrated in FIGURE 4 were knitted. The hosiery prepared from filaments having twists of 5 turns per inch exhibited a uniform, high sparkle. twists of 1O, 15, and 20 turns per inch exhibited a uniform sparkle with reduced intensity. Sparkle was not present in hosiery prepared from filaments having. 35 turns per inch.
From the foregoing examples it will be apparent that the novel fabrics of the present invention exhibit unique light-reflecting properties which are greatly improved as compared to the properties of fabrics prepared from multilobal multifilament yarns as well as non-twisted and round monofilaments. The uniformity of the optical properties as well as the pick and snag resistance are outstanding.
The twisted monofilaments of this invention may be advantageously used as an effect thread in woven, knitted, and non-woven fabrics in addition to the fabrics previously described. The number of monofilaments may be varied as well as the pattern in which they are incorporated in the fabric. In general, the effect thread may be used in an amount from less than 1% by weight of the total fabric up to as much as 20% or more, depending on the fabric construction and the effect desired. For example, in using trilobal filaments of low twist, e.g., A to 7 turns per inch, attractive isolated areas of uniform, high sparkle may be obtained. Fabrics may be prepared which incorporate both filaments of low twist as well as filaments of higher twist, e.g., 7 to 20 turns per inch, with the filaments being prepared from the same synthetic polymer. It is preferable, however, to select an effect thread having a different polymeric composition than the filaments in the body of the fabric. In this manner, the two polymeric compositions can be selectively dyed to accent the lustrous or sparkling character of the effect thread. Obviously other means may be used for accenting the effect thread. For example, the two filamentary materials may have different cross-sectional configurations or the effect thread and the body thread may be subjected to different amounts of drawing or other treatment in preparation which will lead to differential dyeing. In general, a most pleasing and striking effect is obtained when the effect thread is dyed to a lighter shade than the body filaments. If the effect thread and the filaments in the body of the fabric are of the same polymer composition they may be dyed before conversion into a fabric by stock dyeing, dope dyeing, yarn dyeing, and the like, in order to achieve fabrics having differentially dyed effects.
The hosiery having.
In preparing the products of the present invention, conventional textile adjuvants, e.g., dyes, small amounts of delusterants such as titanium dioxide, as well as other materials may be utilized. The monofilaments may be prepared from a variety of synthetic polymers in addition to those set forth in the foregoing examples such as those disclosed in U.S. Patent 2,939,201. The filaments may be subjected to conventional textile processing, for example, drawing, heat setting, etc., so long as the optical properties are not destroyed.
The novel products of this invention may be employed in a wide variety of different types of sheer fabrics. Specific examples of these products include shirtings, suitings, dress and blouse fabrics, hosiery, lingerie, georgettes, tissue-failles, foulards, batistes, tricot, tulles, circular knitted goods, chiffons, sheers, crepes, casement fabrics, nets, etc. The novel filaments of this invention may also be employed as effect threads in a wide variety of different types of fabrics, including both apparel and industrial textile products. Specific examples of these products in clude shirtings, suitings, dress and blouse fabrics, hosiery, sheeting, lingeries, taifetas, georgettes, sand-Crepes, tissuefailles, foulards, broadcloths, batistes, rainwear, surah, tricot, tulles, circular knitted goods, satins, chiffons, sheers, crepes, casement fabrics, upholstery, filter cloths, ducks, beltings, webbing, braids, cordage and twine, fiber-reinforced laminates, tire cord, coated fabrics, stuffing materials, floor coverings, and tiles. The effect threads are particularly useful in the preparation of various types of carpeting, e.g., tufted, chenille, Smyrna, Wilton, Saxony, Brussels, velvet, Axminster, orientals, knitted, pleated, and the like.
As many widely different embodiments of this invention may be made Without departing from the spirit and scope thereof, it is to be understood that this invention is not to be limited to the specific embodiments thereof except as defined in the appended claims.
1. A textile fabric of sheer construction exhibiting a uniform sparkle comprised of sparkling monofilaments prepared from synthetic polymers having a multilobal cross section, the cross section of each of said monofilaments consisting of from 3 to 5 integrally joined lobes each of which terminates in an arcuate tip, said monofilaments having a uniform unidirectional twist throughout their lengths of from about one-quarter to twenty turns per inch along their straight axis and being essentially free of crimp nodes and loops when incorporated in said fabric.
2. The fabric of claim 1 wherein said monofilaments have a trilobai cross section.
3. The fabric of claim 1 wherein said monofilaments have a uniform twist between one-quarter and seven turns per inch.
4. The fabric of claim 1 wherein said monofilaments have -a uniform twist between seven and twenty turns per inch.
5. The fabric of claim 1 wherein said cross section has a t-ipradius ratio of from about 0 to about 0.85, an arm angle of from about 20 to about and a modification ratio between about 1.1 and about 2.0.
6. A sparkling textile monofilament prepared from a synthetic polymer having a multilobal cross section along its length, said monofilament having a uniform unidirectional twist throughout its length of from about onequarter to twenty turns per inch with respect to its straight axis and being essentially free of crimp nodes and loops, said cross section consisting of from 3 to 5 integrally joined lobes each of which terminates in an arcuate tip.
7. The monofilament of claim 6 wherein said monofilament has a trilobal cross section.
8. The monofilament of claim 6 wherein said monofilament has a uniform twist between one-quarter and seven turns per inch.
9. The monofilament of claim 6 wherein said monofilament has a uniform twist between seven and twenty turns per inch.
10. The monofilament of claim 6 wherein said cross section has a tip radius ratio of from about 0 to about 0.85, an arm angle of from about --20 to about 150, and a modification ratio between about 1.1 and about 2.0.
=11. A sparkling textile monofilament prepared from a synthetic polymer having a multilobal cross section along its length, said monofilament having a uniform unidirectional twist throughout its length of at least about A turn per inch with respect to its straight axis and being essentially free of crimp nodes and loops, said cross section consisting of from 3 to 5 integrally joined lobes each of which terminates in an arcuate tip.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,387,791 Hoffman Oct. 30, 1945 2,418,771 Irwin Apr. 8, 1947 2,584,944 Tilles Feb. 5, 1952 2,751,747 Burleson June 26, 1956 2,843,449 Raynolds July 15, 1958 2,939,201 Holland June 7, 1960 2,939,202 Holland June 7, 1960 2,956,328 Faw Oct. 18, 1960 2,966,775 Seem et a1. Ian. 3, 1961 3,010,146 Wanthen Nov. 28, 1961 3,017,686 Breen et al. Ian. 23, 1962 FOREIGN PATENTS 401,160 Great Britain Nov.-9, 1933 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent No. 3, 109 278 November 5, 1963 Joseph W. Gibson, Jr.
It is hereby certified that error appears in the above numbered patent requiring correction and that the said Letters Patent should read as corrected below.
Column 6, line 4, for the claim reference numeral "1" read 2 Signed and sealed this 28th day of April 1964.
(SEAL) Attest: ERNEST W. SWIDER EDWARD J. BRENNER Attesting Officer Commissioner of Patents
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|U.S. Classification||442/196, 66/202, 428/401, 428/397|
|International Classification||D02G3/22, D01D5/253, D01D5/00|
|Cooperative Classification||D01D5/253, D02G3/22|
|European Classification||D02G3/22, D01D5/253|