US 3109404 A
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Nov. 5, 1963 Filed July 39, 1961 E. H. HARTEL MARINE FENDERS 5 Sheets-Sheet l INVENTOR. ERWIN H. HARTEL Oberlin, mukg Dormellg ATTORNEYS NOV. 5, 1963 HARTEL 3,109,404
MARINE FENDERS Filed July 20, 1961 3 Sheets-Sheet? r-l9o s a FIG 3 FIG 4 l i i i FIG 5 Q INVENTOR. 3 ERWIN H. HARTEL Q 5 ATTORNEYS Nov. 5, 1963 E. H. HARTEL 3,109,404
MARINE FENDERS ,Filed July 20, 1961 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTOR.
ERWIN H. HART EL 5mm & [W1
ATTORNEYS United States Patent 3,109,404 MARINE FENDERFa Erwin H. Hartel, Cleveland, Ohio, assignor to Cleveland Pneumatic Industries, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio, 21 corporation of Ohio Filed July 20, 1961, Ser. No. 125,484 4 Claims. (Cl. 114-219) The present invention relates generally as indicated to marine fenders and, more particularly, to improvements in shock absorbing fenders or bumpers to prevent damage due to collision of ships with docks, locks, buoys, other ships, icebergs, etc.
Hitherto, it has been proposed to install complex and expensive fender assemblies extending generally horizontally along opposite sides of the ship hulls or along the lengths of wharves or docks. It is known also to provide buffers at the bow or stern of a ship and to provide impact cushions at the sides of the hull that are either permanently attached in place or adapted to be lowered from the deck to operating position. In any event, known marine fenders or bumpers leave. much to be desired with regard to cost or eifectiveness in preventing collision damage to ships and docks.
It is therefore an object of this invention to provide a marine fender which effectively cushions or absorbs the impact of ships with dock-s, locks, buoys, other ships, icebengs, etc. to preclude damage.
Another object of this invention is to provide a compact marine fender which may be mounted on existing ships, docks or the like and which, when not in use, may be retracted to an out of the way position.
A further object of this invention is to provide a marine fender capable of cushioning impact loads over a relatively large area of the ship and irrespective of the direction of impact loads thereon.
Yet another object of this invention is to provide a marine fender for use as on the hull of a ship at or below the water line which, even when protracted to operating position, is of relatively streamlined form so as to provide a minimum of resistance to the ships movement through the water.
Other objects and advantages of the present invention will become apparent as the following description proceeds.
To the accomplishment of the foregoing and related ends, the invention, then, comprises the features hereinafter fully described and particularly pointed out in the claims, the following description and the annexed drawings setting forth in detail certain illustrative embodiments of the invention, these being indicative, however, of but a few of the various ways in which the principle of the invention may be employed.
In said annexed drawings:
FIG. 1 is a fragmentary perspective view of a ship having fenders or bumpers according to this invention on its hull;
FIG. 2 is an enlarged fragmentary perspective view of the ships hull, the fender thereon being partially cut away to show internal parts;
FIGS. 3 and 4 are :side-elevational views of the FIG. 2 embodiment showing the fender protracted and retracted respectively;
FIG. 5 is an enlarged broken side-elevational View of one of the several deflection plates in FIG. 2;
FIG. 6 is a sectional schematic view of the actuating apparatus of the fender herein; and
FIG. 7 is a sectional view taken along line 77 of FIG. 6.
Referring now to the drawings, the collapsible cushioning means or fender 1 is shown mounted on the hull of a ship 2. The tender 1 comprises a plurality of substantially triangular shaped deflection plates 3, the apices 4 of which are pivotally connected to the end of the piston S as shown in FIG. 5. The bases 6 of the plates 3 have curved undersurfaces 7 which are adapted to slide on wear plates 8 attached to the hull of the ship 2. The bases 6 also have curved slots 9 which are engaged by protruding pins :10 of brackets 11. The brackets 11 are attached to the hull of the ship 2 and may, as shown, hold the wear plates 8 in. position so that they can only slide in a direction radial from the piston 5. Such a construction gives the piston 5 support from lateral blows. For example, if One of the plates 3 is struck at about its mid-point, the force of the blow received at its apex 4 will be resolved into two components: one acting inwardly on the piston 5 tending to push it into the ships surface, and another acting transversely on the piston 5 tending to bend or shear it. However, this latter component is resisted by the plates 3 situated at right angles from the plate struck. When the piston 5 is in its outermost position, the triangular plates 3 have their sides in contact and in this position form a multisided pyramid (of relatively low height) projecting outward from the hull.
Referring now to FIGS. 6 and 7, the piston 5 is shown to be reciprocably mounted within the cylinder 12 with one end of the piston extending exteriorly of the end 13 of the cylinder 12. The piston 5 is shown to have a partially hollow interior. A tubular member 14 extends through one end of the cylinder 12 and into an opening 15 in the piston 5. The tube 14 has axial grooves 16 along its exterior. These grooves 16 surrounded by the opening 15 define a plurality of small orifices communicating the interior of the cylinder 12 with the hollow interior of the piston 5. The base 17 of the piston 5 fits within the interior of the cylinder 12 but has a larger diameter than the piston itself, thereby forming annular chamber 18 between the exterior walls of the piston 5 and the interior walls of the cylinder 12. A container of liquid 19 is provided in communication with the atmosphere by way of the orifice 19a. A conduit 20 leads from below the surface of the liquid L in container 19 to a pump 21 and through a valve 22 to the interior of the tube 14. Another conduit 23 leads from the annular chamber 18 through the valve 22 to the liquid container 19. Thus, when the valve 22 is in the position shown (by the solid lines) and the pump 21 is started, liquid L will be drawn thereby through the conduit 20, from the container 19 and will be discharged under pressure through the conduit 24 and tube 14 into the hollow portion of the piston 5 and through the grooves 16 into the cylinder chamber .25 causing the piston 5 to move outwardly (to the right as viewed in FIG. 6). At the same time, the liquid displaced from chamber 13 is returned to the container 19 via conduit 23, valve 22 and conduit 26. When the valve 22 is turned to a position shown by the phantom lines, the pump 21 will deliver fluid under pressure into chamber 18 forcing the piston 5 inwardly (to the left). The fluid within the cylinder chamber 25 will be returned to container 19 via the grooves 16, tube 14, conduit 24, valve 22 and conduit 26.
When it is desired to expand the collapsible cushioning means 1, the valve 22 will be positioned as shown in full lines in the drawing and the pump 21 will actuate the piston 5 outwardly to impact cushioning position. The cushioning means or fender 1 will thus assume a protracted position as shown in FIGS. 2 and 3. The valve 22 will then be closed, i.e., turned to mid-position whereat neither conduit 23 nor 24 are in fluid communication with the pump 21, thus isolating the liquid in chamber 25, in piston 5, in tube 14 and in conduit 24.
s) The tube 14 is shown to have a relief valve 27 held in a closed position by spring 28. When an impact blow is received by the outer end of the piston or by any of the deflection plates 3, the piston 5 will be urged inwardly. This will compress the liquid in chamber 25 and since the grooves 16 restrict the flow of liquid the pressure in chamber 25 will generally exceed that in the piston 5. The spring 28 of the relief valve 27 is set at a predetermined setting, e.g., 150 psi. and when the pressure invthe piston 5 and tube 14 exceed that setting the valve 27 will open permitting the liquid to flow into the container 19. When high impact blows are received the liquid in chamber 25 acts as a liquid spring absorbing the initial impact force. (Further, if container 19 is equipped with a relatively small orifice 19a then the air above the liquid L in the container 19 will act as an air spring on very high impact blows. If low impact but sustained force is exerted on the piston 5 (such as resulting from the hull of the ship being pressed against a dock), the pressure will build up in chamber 25 and the liquid flowing through the grooves 16 will in turn build up the pressure in piston 5 and tube 14 causing the valve 27 to eventually open and permit the fluid to enter container 19. The presence of the relief valve 27 prevents high impact blows from destroying or damaging the internal parts of the system. Moreover, the grooves 16 cause pressure build up in chamber 25 to cushion the impact on piston 5 or plates 3.
As can be seen in FIGS. 2, 3 and 4, when this invention is used on a ships hull the cylinder 12 is mounted inside the hull as by a flange connection 29.
This invention may be used on any portion of a ships hull or on the sides of a dock, lock, buoy, etc. The above-described invention provides a simple and eflicient means of advantageously realizing the objects thereof as previously recited herein. Furthermore, when the fender 1 herein is in retracted position as in FIGS. 4 and 5 it protrudes very little from the surface of the ship 2.
Other modes of applying the principle of the invention may be employed, change being made as regards the details described, provided the features stated in any of the following claims or the equivalent of such be employed.
I therefore, particularly point out and distinctly claim as my invention:
1. In a marine fender, the combination of expansible chamber means including a reciprocable member movable from a retracted position to a protracted impact receiving position, collapsible cushioning means located on a surface and comprising a plurality of deflection plates pivotally connected to said reciprocable member at one end thereof and slidably engaged at the other end thereof with bracket means fixed to said surface, fluid pressure supply means communicating with said chamber means to move said member to protracted position thereby expanding said collapsible cushioning means, a=nd restrictor means effective to build up fluid pressure in said chamber means to yieldably resist impact loads on 4 said cushioning means tending to move said reciprocable member toward retracted position.
2. In a marine fender, a combination of cxpansible chamber means including a reciprocable member movable from a retracted posit-ion to a protracted impact receiving position, callapsible cushioning means located on a surface and comprising a plurality of deflection plates pivotally connected to said reciprocable member at one end and slidably engaged along said surface at the other end, said deflection plates being generally triangular in shape, the sides of which are adjacent when said reciprocable member is in its protracted position [forming a multisided pyramid projecting from said sur- [face capable of transmitting impact received by said plates to inward movement of said reciprocable member, fluid pressure supply means communicating with said chamber means to move said member to protracted position thereby expanding said collapsible cushioning means, and restrictor means effective to build up fluid pressure in said chamber means to yieldably resist impact loads on said cushioning means tending to move said reciprocable member toward retracted position.
3. A marine fender to cushion impacts on a surface comprising a cylinder, a partially hollow piston reciprocably mounted therein, one end of said piston extending exteriorly of one end of said cylinder through said surface where it is connected to collapsible cushioning means adjacent said surface, said collapsible cushioning means comprising a plurality of generally triangular'plates having their apices pivotally connected to the end of said piston projecting through said surface and having their bases slidably engaged along said surface, a tube extending through the outer end of said cylinder and into the hollow portion of said piston through an opening therein, the exterior of said tube having grooves forming small restrictive orifices between the interior of said cylinder and the hollow portion of said piston, a source of liquid, a pump, means to supply said liquid under pressure from said pump to said hollow portion of said piston through said tube to move said piston outwardly, means to supply said liquid under pressure from said pump to said cylinder to move said piston inwardly, relief valve means associated with said piston and cylinder adapted to relieve pressure therein caused by impact on said collapsible cushioning means permitting said piston to move inwardly in response thereto.
4. The marine fender of claim 3 wherein the sides of said plates are adjacent when said piston is in its outward position forming a multisided pyramid projecting from said surface capable of transmitting impact received by said plates to inward movement of said piston.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,246,593 Hasburg Nov. 13, 1917 2,039,151 Dubois Apr. 28, 1936 2,460,913 Wasson Feb. 8, 1949 2,778,343 Crosetto Jan, 22, 1957