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Publication numberUS3111949 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 26, 1963
Filing dateDec 8, 1958
Priority dateDec 8, 1958
Publication numberUS 3111949 A, US 3111949A, US-A-3111949, US3111949 A, US3111949A
InventorsDuncan James K, O'shaughnessy Edward W
Original AssigneeDuncan James K, O'shaughnessy Edward W
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Rigid-prong self-closing binder
US 3111949 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Nov. 26, 1963 .1. K. DUNCAN ETAI.A 3,111,949

RIGID-PRONG SELF-CLOSING BINDER 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Deo. 8. 1958 Nov. 26, 1963 v J. K. DUNCAN ETAL 3,111,949

lmam-PROM; SELF-CLOSING BINDER Filed Dec. 8. 1958 4 sheets-sheet 2 mesXur-zcar? Nov. 26, 1963 J. K. DUNCAN ETAI. 3,111,949

RIGID-PRONG SELF-CLOSING BINDER Filed Dec. 8. 1.958 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 Nov.r26, 1963 J. K. DUNCAN ETAL 3,111,949

R/IGID-PRONG SELF-CLOSING BINDER Filed Dec. 8. 1958 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Inder-ibr- United States Patent O 3,111,949 RIGID-PRDNG SELF-CLOSING BINDER James K. Duncan, 909 S. Courtland Ave., and Edward W. OShaughnessy, 1112 S. Home Ave., both of Park Ridge, Ill.

Filed Dec. 8, 1958, Ser. No. 778,804 1 Claim. (Cl. 129-24) Our invention relates to an improved rigid-prong seifclosing binder.

In countless lields it is desired to have the means tor holding a plurality of sheets together in ta permanent or semi-permanent form. innumerable .different devices have been made for performing this task. In many of the applications the ability to readily remove or insert sheets is desired, or the ability to open the sheets out dat tor inspection while still in the binder fcan be of particular importance. An example of a device for these purposes is the well-known loose-leaf ring binder.

While many of these different devices that have been developed in the past continue to satisfy many needs there have fbeen pressures to develop a lower cost binder that would serve the same purposes, yet because of its lesser cost 'could be used `for applications where it would be prohibitive to use -a ring binder, tor example. The improving of the appearance and providing a modern appearance has been stressed Iby existing and prospective users. The use of binders for calendars or small, inexpensive, catalogs or salesmens books would -be examples of fields rfrom which :such pressures have come. This is not to imply, however, that in all ofthe applications for which ring binders or the like have been used in the past the user would not be pleased to have a less expensive more attractive item available to do the same Ijob.

In an effort to satisfy these demands various forms of plastic binders have been developed. One form employs a llarge number of relatively flexible plastic lingers. This form has the disadvantage that the binders are not easy to open `and close; special machines being required for the purpose. The 4average small user .does no-t have access to such special'machines. This limits his ability to change the pages.

Another form that has much the same disadvantages is the `continuous spiral plastic or wire binder.

The principal object lof our invention is to provide a binding unit that combines Iall the best features and advantages found separately in these various prioi art devices. Our unit has the simplicity |and ease of operation of the well-known ring binders. Normal finger pressure on a pair of operating members, referred to hereinafter as rockable members, Will yopen the rings for the insertion or removal of pages. In applications where this may be done often a latch maybe provide-d to hold the rings open to facilitate the `changing of pages. In other appli-cations where the binding is intended to be relatively permanent with `only infrequent opening, if any, means m-ay be provided .to -be sure that the rings are not opened accidentally. Another alternative for such permanent type binders that may be used with the present dev-ice is to construct them so that the pressure required to open them is greater than that which may be obtained by a normal finger pressure (i.e. necessitating the use of apparatus to obtain the force necessary to open them). A further feature of our invention is that the point along the length of rings a-t which the rings open may be varied to suit the needs of the user yfor the particular application.

Our invention obtains the attractive modern appearance that may be achieved with the use ot plastics. Bright attractive colors tare obtained tas in fthe `case of other plastic items Without the necessity for paints, etc. The binder may be made with only a few or a large number of hold- 3,1 l 1,949 Patented Nov. 26, 1963 ice ing rings to suit the particular requirements. The simplicity with which this may be done with our invention is particularly important. With the preferred embodiments where the rings are milled or otherwise cut from a tube like piece it does no-t even require additional manuiacturing operations to increase the number Ioi rings since one or a multiplicity of rings may be cut in a single operation. ln some embodiments the number Iof rings, or the prongs that make up the rings, may be varied by the user after the 4binder has been manufactured.

Another advantage is the matter of `cost reduction. Not only is the material cost low Ibut the devices can be turned out in tremendous quantities by automatic extruding machines involving little or no manipulation by expensive skilled operators. No assembly of formed parts is required, but, as hereinafter discussed, for certain special embodiments parts may be formed on individual machines and subsequently assembled if lsuch a structure is desired. In this respect one of the advances achieved .by our invention is that the `form of the binding unit is so readily adaptable for modification to meet special requirements of manufacturers or users.

The element of cost reduction is implemented by the fact that only ta single unit lneed be produced on a machine to produce a fully operative binder. The single piece `binding unit does not require any additional parts which would not only be an added cost but would also require packing, checking, etc., to insure that a customer hada complete unit.

Previously, it had been suggested that a ring type binder be formed which might be said to bear a supercial resemblance to the present invention. Upon closer inspection as revealed by the subsequent specilic disclosures it will be apparent that this resemblance is only superficial and that the type of unit We have devised is delinitely patentably distinct from anything known to the art. An important `distinction lies in the fact that with our device no separate parts such as a slide or the like is necessary -to close the rings ot the binder and to hold them in that position so that the papers will be retained therein. One of the prior vart devices used a separate pant in the nature of a slide `for this purpose. This can prove to be cumbersome to use because it requires a separate operation, and, in addition, the slide can stick or jam in the ways therefor requiring vadditional manipulation. With our device `only a release of the pressure applied to open the rings is necessary to close them.

An additional important distinction between our invention `and certain other prior tart devices resides in the fact that no part of the binder is tensioned or under a distorting stress when the binder rings are closed. In some prior art devices this is not Ithe case but portions thereof were stressed when the binder was closed (and in some instances also when it was opened). Many plastics will tend to creep and take a set or permanent deformation when ya stress is applied thereto for long periods yof time. Such condition is likely to be aggravated by heat or sunlight. Since the binder usually is closed for by far the majority of the time deformation was likely to occur when the plastic from which it was made was stressed when the binder 'was closed. With our invention the parts of the binder will be stressed only when the binder is open. Since this normally will occur only Ifor a relatively short period of time and for only a small fraction of the usable life of the binder the likelihood of permanent deformation is negligible even if plastics are used which yare of the type subject to this problem.

Another advantage of our invention is that While -for most applications a binding unit of plastic 'will be employed the unit is not limited -to be manufactured of that material. It may be made wholly of metal or partially of metal and partially of plastic. This permits the utmost latitude in providing a manufacturing process that would be most suitable for a particular set of circumstances.

Further in accordance with the present invention, and as an object thereof, we contemplate by the present invention to provide an improved rigid prong type binder having a pair of spaced rockable members connected by a resiliently deformable member and together carrying the prongs, the deformable member having sufficient rigidity to hold Ithe prongs closed while at the same time permitting the prongs to be opened by application of squeeze to the outboard portions of the rockable members.

Other objects and advantages will be apparent from the following description taken in conjunction with the drawings in which:

FIGURE 1 is perspective view of a ring type binder embodying the present invention;

FIGURE 2 is an enlarged partial section through an alternate form of a binding unit;

FIGURE 3 is a section of the binding unit of FIGURE 2 but shown in open position;

FIGURES 4 and 5 are sections through a different alternate form of binding unit shown in the closed and open positions, respectively;

FIGURES 6 and 7 are sections through another alternate form of the binding uni-t shown in the closed and open positions, respectively;

FIGURE v8 is a section through the binding unit of FIGURE 1 as viewed along line 8 8;

FIGURE 9 is a sectional View of the binding unit of FIGURE 8 in open position;

FIGURES 10 and 1-1 are sections through a further alternate form of the binding unit in closed and open positions, respectively;

FIGURES -12 and 13 are sections through an additional alternate form of binding unit in closed and open positions, respectively;

FIGURES y14 and l5 are sections through alternate form of binding unit 'in closed and open positions, respectively;

FIGURES 16 and 17 are sections through another alternate form of binding unit in closed and open positions, respectively;

FIGURES 18 and 19 are sections through a still further alternate embodiment in closed and open positions, respectively;

FIGURES 20 and 21 are sections of another alternate embodiment in closed and open positions, respectively;

FIGURES 22 and 23 are sections through an alternate form in closed and open positions, respectively;

FIGURES 24 and 25 are sections through a further alternate form in closed and open positions, respectively;

FIGURES 26 and 27 are sections through another alternate form in closed and open positions, respectively;

FIGURE 28 is an enlarged end View of slide (in position in a binder) used for identification and other purposes with various of the embodiments, as for example, the embodiments of FIGURES l through 3; and

FIGURE 29 is a perspective view of the slide illustrated in FIGURES 28.

The rigid-ring type binding unit of our invention comprises a pair of spaced rigid rockable members. The ring (or rings) extends between correspondingly positioned edges of the two rockable members and is attached to said edge of one or both of the rockable members. At some point intermediate the edges of the rockable members is a slot through the ring. While the slot is normally closed it provides the point at which the ring is opened for the insertion or removal of sheets. The slot may be at any point between a line of juncture between the end of a ring and one of the rockable members to the corresponding point at the other end of the ring. -T he particular shape of the slot Iis unimportant and it may be varied to suit the needs of particular applications.

The two rockable members are joined by a deformable member or web. IIt is particularly important in connection with our invention that this deformable member have suiiicient body and rigidity to prevent a linear movement of one rockable lmember towards `the other rockable member and to hold the ring closed as it does in its normal relaxed, undeformed position. At the same time the deformable member must be elastically deformable so that the rockable members may be pivoted about it with the portions of the rockable member to the side opposite that side on which the rings are fixed approaching each other with .the opposite sides of the rockable members turning away from each other to open the ring. The resiliency of the deformable member should cause that member to return to its original undeformed position when the pressure causing such pivotal movement is removed whereby the deformable member results in a closing of the rings.

Referring now to FIGURE 1 there is illustrated a ring bound booklet, the booklet being indicated generally by the number 30 and the ring binder of our invention being indicated generally by the number 31. In the illustrated embodiment the booklet 30 consists of a pair of covers 32 and 33 having a plurality of holes 34 adjacent the edge thereof. Between the covers are a plurality of sheets or pages 35 having similar sets of holes therethrough.

The exact conformation of binding unit 31 would depend upon the particular application involved. It might be selected from a number of various alternative embodiments hereinafter described or a combination of features of more than one of them. For purposes of illustration it will be assumed that binding unit 31 is that unit shown in cross-section in FIGURES 8 and 9. As is there illustrated the binder 31 comprises a pair of rockable members 37 and 38 which are joined by a deformable web 39. The length and width of rockable members 37 and 38 will be determined by the particular application but they should be rigid so that a linger pressure on the rockable members at a point intermediate the longitudinal ends thereof will serve to open all of the rings of the binder. Members 37 and 38 have edges 40 and 41 along which are mounted a plurality of pairs of prongs 42 and 43, respectively. Prongs 42 and 43 have mating V-shaped ends which form a slot 44 in the ring formed bythe two prongs, 42 and 43.

Rockable members 37 and 38 have portions 46 and 47, respectively, extending to the opposite side of web 39 from the sides to which prongs 42 and 43 are secured. A matched pair of slots or ways 48 and 49 are formed in adjacent parts of portions 46 and 47 to receive a slide 50 Side 50 can be used for one or more several purposes. It may serve as a carrier for bearing labeling of identification indicia. It also may be used as a guard to prevent the binding unit from being accidentally opened, or, as described in connection with FIGURE 10, it might be used as a hanger attachment when the binder and booklet were to be supported vertically such as hanging from a wall.

Web 39 is a deformable member which in its normal undeformed condition holds the binder in the position illustrated in FIGURES l and 8. The material and structure thereof should be sufficiently strong to prevent a linear movement of the rocking members 37 and 38 toward each other (a movement along a line parallel to edges 40 and 41, for example, or parallel to slide 50). At the same time it should be capable of being bent to permit a pivotal movement of the rockers as described. It should have suicient resiliency to return to its original undeformed position when the pressure producing the rocking movement is released so that the binder rings are thereby closed.

It is important to note in this respect that slide 50 is not used to force the binder rings closed. It is merely inserted after the rings have been closed to prevent their accidental opening or for other reasons, as previously mentioned herein. This feature is important because in use the slide 50 does not put any deforming pressures on the web 39 or other members. Furthermore, the insertion of slide 50 is greatly facilitated if the binder unit has been returned to the position illustrated in FIGURE 8 by the action of deformable member 39 before any attempt is made to insert slide 5t).

To open the binder rings slide 5t? is first removed, if such a slide is being used, and then pressure is applied to portions 46 and 47 of rocking members 37 and 38, this pressure being applied to the outside face of each rockable member in the direction towards the other of the rockable members. As a result of this pressure web 39 is deformed with the two rockable members 37 and 38 being pivoted about the web to assume a position substantially that illustrated in FIGURE 9. It will be noted that the rear inside corners 51 and 52 of the rockable members serve as stops or buers to prevent any excess deformation of web 39. The pivotal movement thus achieved turns edges 49 and 4I away from each other thereby spreading the prongs 42 and 43 that go to make up the ring. The slot 44 formed by the end of the prongs opens to provide a substantial gap for the insertion or removal of the pages, covers, etc. When the change of pages, etc. has been completed a release of pressure on portions 46 and 47 will allow web 39 to return to its undeformed position at which point the prongs 42 and 43 again close to form a continuous ring between edges 40 and 41. It is contemplated that a binder of the type just described would be formed by a continuous extrusion operation. The rockable members 37 and 3S, web 39, and the portions from which prongs 42 and 43 are cut would be extruded through a suitably shaped die. The material would be selected to meet the requirements of the particular application and, for example, could be a vinyl plastic, polystyrene, butyrate, polyethylene plastic, etc. As extruded the portions from which prongs 42 and 43 are formed would be semi-tubes having a cross-sectional conguration of the same appearance as that of the prongs 42 and 43 as seen in FIGURES 8 and 9. Immediately upon extrusion these semi-tubes would be separated, much in the same fashion as the prongs are separated in FIGURE 9, but while the plastic was soft and before it had set, the semi-tubes would be closed, as by camming, to the position of FIGURE 8 in which position the plastic would set. Thus the web 39 would have an unstressed and undeformed condition in the FIG- URE 8 position. Subsequently the portions of the semitubes intermediate the prongs 42 and 43 would be cut away, as, for example, by a milling operation, to form the prongs. The continuous strip formed by the extrusion would be cut to the desired binder length either before or after the prong forming operation. It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that an automatic machine (or machines) could perform the entire binder forming operation Without human intervention.

It shoul-d be remembered that the drawings are merely illustrative and that no weight should be -given to the relative cross-sectional dimensions since these will vary with the material used, the application, etc. The irnportant factor is that the rocking members and the prongs (or ring formi-ng means) be relatively rigid while the web be resiliently deformable to the extent hereinbefore outlined.

FIGU-RES 2 and 3 illustrate ian embodiment having somewhat dierent features than that described in connection with FIGURES 8 and 9. In this embodiment the two rocker members 56 and 57 have two edges S3 and 59, respectively, between which is the ring 60. In this case one end of the ring is secured to edge -59 while the other end `61 is rounded to meet with edge 58 which is of a dished configuration to form a slot in Ithe complete ring for the insertion and removal of pages. The two rockable members 56 and 57 are joined by a web or deformable member 62. The ends 63 of deformable mem- 6 ber `d2 are relatively thin with respect to the remainder of the member. Such a construction permits the rockable members to pivot about the ends of the deformable member to provide a maximum iopening 'of the ring.

Within rockable members 56 and 57 are slots l64 which are somewhat enlarged as compared to the size of the throats `65 of the slots. The slots serve to hold covers 66. The ends of covers `65 are bent int-o U-shaped coniiguration to provide a hook 67 thereon. The rounded U-shaped end can be readily pushed through throat 65 but once in place the hook 67 on the covers eng-ages the hook 68 resulting from the difference in size between the slot 64 and throat '65 so as to securely hold the covers in place in the rockable members. At the rearward end of the rockable members :are grooves 70 and 71 below which lie slots 72. Rocker members 56 and 57 are provided with ways 73 Ito receive a slide 74. The matched pair Iof inner projections `on rocker members 56 and 57 serve as bumpers to limit the opening `of the rings.

When slide 74 is removed and pressure is applied along grooves 70 to bend the web `52 to the position illustrated in FIGURE 3 the edges S8 and 59 'are pivoted apart to lopen the ring 6i? for the insertion and removal of pages through the .gap provided between edge 5S and end y61 of the r-i-ng. rI'he pressure on grooves 70 also se-rves to collapse slot 72 and open the throats `65 of slots 64, as illustrated in FIGURE 3. Thus when the binder has been opened by such a pressure not only may 4the sheets 35 be readily removed and replaced ion ring 69 but also the insertion or removal of covers '66' may be made very easily.

It has been previously pointed out that the ring of our invention extends from one yof these 'faces to the other. This embodiment illustrates the fact that the slot providing an opening for the ring may be immediately at the juncture of the ring with the edge as well as at some other point in the ring as described elsewhere herein.

FIGURES 28 and 2:9 illustrate one form in which slide 74 may be formed. As 'will be seen one end lof the slide is tapered as at 77 to facilitate the insertion or" the slide 714 into Iways 73 while the other end of the slide has a bent tab forming a cap 78. Cap 78 n-ot only serves as a handle lfor the insertion and removal iof the slide but also gives a pleasing appearance .(as will be seen on the slide pictured in FIGURE 1) and will be used, when desired, to carry identifying indicia with respect to the material contained in the binder. Such indicia can also be put on the back of the slide as illustrated in FIGURE 29, in which position the indicia will be observable along fthe spine of the binder.

FIGURES 4 and 5 illustrate another f-o-rrn of the binding unit having a pair of rock-able members 80 and 81 and connected by a web 82. As in FIGURES 2 and 3 the ring 83 is attached to edge S4 of rockable member 81 and terminates at edge 85 of rockable member S0. l However, in this embodiment edge 85 lforms a deeper socket for end 86 of ring 83 than was the case with respect to the embodiment of FIGURES 2 an-d 3. In addition end 86 is wider than the socket formed by edge I55 with a small tia-t S7 being formed on end Stv to fit about the tlat portion of edge 85 adjacent said socket. Another variation illustrated in the embodiment of FIGURES 4 and 5 is in the configuration of -web 8K2. Here the web is not dished to the same extent as was the Iweb 39, FIGURE 8, nor is it completely straight as was web 62 or" FIGURE 2.

FIGURES y6 and 7 illustrate a further embodiment which the rockable members 89 and 90 have edges 91 and 92, respectively, between which ring 93 extends, Iwhich is substantially the same structure as that described in connection with ring 6G, illustrated in FIGURES 2 and 3. Each ofthe rockable members has a hooked slot 914 to hold covers 95 and ways 96 to hold slide 97. lBehind slide 97 are bumpers 98. External .grooves 99 are provided @for facilitating the application of pressure to the rockable members. Means, such as grooves 99, for engaging the rockable members is particularly desirable when the deformable member is particularly stiff so that the pressure is applied by an apparatus rather than by an individuals hand. -Each rockable member has an internal recess 100. Deformable web y101 is used to connect rockable members 89 and 90.

When slide 97 is removed and pressure applied to grooves 99 web 101 delects to open ring 93. At the same time the rockable members tend to collapse abou-t recesses 100 as will be seen by reference to IFIGURE 7. This collapsing is -the most pronounced as bumpers 98 contact each other. The collapsing about recesses 160 opens slots 94 to facilitate the insertion and removal of the covers 95 there-from. When pressure along grooves 99 is released the covers 95 are locked in place in slots 94 and ring 93 closes, all through the action of the rockable members and the web returning to their original undeformed positions,

FIGURES and 11 illustrate an embodiment in which the rockable members 105 and 106 have edges 107 and 108. Ring 109 is secured to edge 108 with end 110 of ring 109 meeting ush with edge 107 of rocker member 105. The rocker members are connected by a web 111 and have ways 112 therein to receive a slide 113. In this embodiment slide 113 is formed of metal and has a hanger 114 thereon Yto which is secured means (not shown) for hanging the ring binder on a wall hook or the like. When slide 113 is withdrawn and pressure applied to the outer faces of rocker members 105 and 106, web 111 deforms to open the ring 109 as illustrated in FIGURE 11.

In the embodiment of FIGURES 12 and 13 the rockable members 117 and 118 each have a prong 119 and 120, respectively, projecting therefrom. The projecting ends of prongs 119 and 120, have mating faces to meet and form a slot 121. The rearward portions of rockable members 117 and 118 have ridges 122 and 123 respectively thereon. These ridges serve the same purpose as the grooves illustrated at a similar position in some of the previously described embodiments, namely, the providing of means by which the rockers may be engaged to facilitate opening the binder, whether the binder is to be opened by the force of a persons ngers or by the force supplied by a mechanical piece of equipment. In this embodiment one of the rockable members has a semi-circular groove 124 the length of the member in which groove is received the tubular edge 125 of a labeling ap 126. Flap 126 has a pair of mating l'ways 127 to receive and hold a paper labeling strip or the like. Of course, ap 126 would be made from clear plastic so that the indicia appearing on the labeling strip would be apparent from the spine of the binder. 'Ihe rocker members 117 and 118 are connected by deformable elastic web 128 which bends as illustrated in FIGURE 13 When pressure is applied to the rearward portion of the rocker members which portions are represented by the ridges 122 and 123, and it will be apparent this action serves to open the ring represented by prongs 119 and 120.

FIGURES 14 and 15 illustrate an extremely simple embodiment for achieving many of the same purposes as some of 4the previously described embodiments. In this embodiment a pair of rockable lmembers 131 and 132 are connected by the web 133. Edges 134 and 135 of rocker members 132 and 131 respectively are connected by ring means consisting of the ring 136 attached to edge 134 and a stub 137 connected to edge 135. The adjacent ends of ring 136 and stub 137 form a slot 138 which is normally closed when web 133 is in the undeformed position illustrated in FIGURE 14. When pressure is applied to the rearward portions of rocker members 131 and 132 to deform `the web 133 as illustrated in FIGURE 15 the slot 138 is opened for the insertion and removal of papers.

FIGURES 16 and 17 illustrate a further alternative embodiment. In this embodiment rocker members 140 and 141 are connected by a web 142. A back 143 is connected to the rearward portion of rocker 140 and has a recess 144 to receive and hold labeling identification as might be placed on `the card 145. In this embodiment the web 142, rockers and 141 and back 143 would normally be formed as a single unit as by means of an extrusion of plastic material. After forming a sawcut would be made at 146 to separate the back 143 from the rocker member 141.

Either during the molding or in the subsequent milling operation a pair of longitudinal grooves would be cut along faces 147 and 148 of rocker members 140 and 141, respectively. While the shape of the grooves may take one of the number of forms, in the illustrated embodiment the grooves have an enlarged rounded inner portion 149 and a smaller neck portion 150. The ring is formed of two prongs 151 and 152 which have matching ends to form a slot 153 in the ring. The other end of each of prongs 151 and 152 have a ball shaped retainer portion 154 connected to the remainder of the prong by a neck 155. The size of ball shaped portion 154 is matched to size of slot 149 and the size of neck 155 is related to the size of the neck of the groove 150. Prongs 151 and 152 may be positioned with respect to the remainder of the binding unit by the friction of this ball and socket mounting in conjunction with the positioning effect of the pages which will be provided by the rings passing through the spaced perforations of the pages. This sort of structure will enable the user to change the number or position of rings in the binding unit to accommodate his changing needs. In other instances the rings may be xedly positioned with respect to the remainder of the binding unit by employing an adhesive to secure the rings in position to make the ball and socket mounting immovable after it has been once fixed in place.

As in the previously described embodiments when the rocker members are pivoted about web 142 the two portions 151 and 152 that go to make up the ring will pivot to the position illustrated in FIGURE 17 for insertion and removal of papers from the binding unit.

FIGURES 18 and 19 illustrate a further embodiment particularly suited to a simple single piece molding operation. Here the rocker members 147 and 148 are connected by a web 149 and, as molded, by a backing member. After the molding operation the backing member is divided into two portions, one portion secured to rocker 147 and a second portion 161 secured to rocking member 148. This is done by making a sawcut 162 through the backing member. On the inner side of rockable member 148 is an abutment 163 which cooperates with portion 160 of the back to form stops to limit the extent to which the ring can be opened as illustrated in FIGURE 19.

In this embodiment ring means may be formed as a unitary part of the rockable members during the molding operation. Herein the ring means comprises a ring 164 and a stub 165 secured to faces 166 and 167 of rockable members 148 and 147, respectively. `When molded portions 164 and 165 would be a continuous tube formed as an extending part of the rockable member. Subsequently the portions of this tube between the rings would be milled out to form rings, and a slot 168 would be cut to separate the ring 164 from stub 165.

FIGURES 20 and 21 illustrate an embodiment wherein the binding unit could be formed of two plastic pieces `and a third metal piece. The web of deformable member 170 is of metal and has a ange l171 and 172 at each end thereof. Rockable members i173 and 174 are rigid and could be formed of plastic or of metal. I-n either event rockable members 173 and 174 have grooves 175 and 176 respectively formed therein to receive and hold flanges 17-1 and 172, respectively, of deformable member 170. Rocker member 174 curves inwardly to form a back portion 177 with a hook `178 therein. Cooperating hook `179 is formed as an extension of rockable member 173. Hooks 178 and `179 are normally spaced somewhat apart as illustrated in FIGURE 20. However,

when the rockable members have been tipped toward each other as illustrated in FIGURE 21 the two hooks will engage to hold the rings separated as shown in that iigure. Prion-gs "1801 and 181 extend from rockable members 173 and -174 respectively to -form a ring means between edges 182 and 183, respectively, of those rockable members. Prongs 180 and 181 may be made to overlap as illustrated in FIGURE 20 or the ends thereof might be abutting. In either event the two ends will deline a slot in the ring means which slot is opened when the web 1170 is deformed to the position illustrated in the FIGURE 2l by the pivoting of the rocker members thereabout. When hooks 178 and i179 are disengaged web- 170 will return to its undeformed position illustrated in FIGURE 20 with the ring means then being closed.

FIGURES 22 and 23 illustrate an embodiment in which the rocker members 185 and 186, the web' 4187 and the back 188 being molded as Ithe unitary piece. Subsequently a saw cut is made at 189 to separate the back 188 from rockable member 186. Rockable member 186 has a groove at 190 molded therein which `groove forms a hook when the back 188 is separated lfrom rockable member 186. When the saw cut 19.1 is made, -a hook is formed at Ithe inner side of back 188. Upon the rockable members 185 and .186- being pivoted towards each other about web .187 these two hooks engage to hold the ring open as illustrated in yFIGURE 23.

In this embodiment the ring means is formed initially as a tube along the side of rockable members .-185 and 186. Subsequently the portions of the tube between the ring means are milled away and a saw cu-t 192 is made in the ring means to forma ring made up of two por-tions 193 land 1914 extending from rockable members i185 and 186, respectively.

FIGURES 24 and 25 illustrate an embodiment formed of bent sheet metal. This embodiment has a pair of rockable members 197 and Y198 connected by a web 199. Between edges 200 and 2011 of rockable members 197 and 198, respectively, is -a ring 202, one end of which is secured to rock-able member 197 with the other end and edge 201 forming a slot i203 in the ning means. A back piece 204 extends from rock-able member 198 and has a labeling groove 205 therein. Back 204 terminates in a hook 206 which cooperates lwith the rear corner 207 of rockable member 197 to form a latch to hold the ring in the open position illustrated in FIGURE 25. When this latch is released web '199 returns to its u-ndeformed position closing the ring means so that the pages 35 are held therein.

Covers 208 have a plurality of keyhole slots (not shown) therein. The slots are positioned to it over rings 202 to lock one of the covers in place as illustrated :by the top cover 208 and FIGURE 24. Rocker 198 has spaced slots cut therein to form binding posts 209 having the same alignment as rings 202. Binding posts 209 are then employed to hook the bottom cover |208 in place as illustrated in FIGURE 24.

FIGURES L26 and 27 illustrate another embodiment formed of sheet metal wherein one outside portion of the sheet is formed into back 211 with the adjacent portion of the sheet fonrning rockable member 212. The other outside portion of the sheet forms rockable member 213. lPortions of the sheet immediate the two outside portions 2111-212 and 2|13 are slotted to yform bands which bands go to make web 214. Between the outside portions of the sheet which go to make up rockable members 2112 and 213 and adjacent (but not contiguous) the bands which go to make up web 214 prongs are c-ut, one prong 215 being an integral part and extending from rockable member 212 with the other prong 216 being an integral part and extending from rockable member 213. 'Ihus the total length of web *2114 is the same -as the combined lengths of prongs 215 and 216 since they are all cut from the same intermediate portion of the sheet.

10 The outstanding ends off prongs |215 and 216 have mating configurations so `as to form a closed ring when the web 2114 is in its undeformed condition as illustrated in 'FIG- URE 26. Upon pressure being applied to the rockable members 212 and 21=3 to deform web 214 the prongs are separated to open the ring for the insertion and removal 'of pages, etc. Portions 217 and 218 of the web 214 form binding posts upon which keyhole type covers as have been discussed in connection with FIGURES 24 and 25 may be engaged.

The foregoing description of specific embodiments is for the purpose of complying with 35 U.S.C. 1,12 and should not be construed as imposing unnecessary limitations on the appended claims inasmuch as it will be apparent to one skilled in the art lfrom the foregoing description that numerous modifications and alternative construction may be employed without departing from the spirit and scope of the appended claim. For example, mention was made of rockable members 4formed of relatively stiff material so that pressure -applied intermediate the ends would open all of the rings of the binder. In some embodiments it would be desirable to be able to open only Aone ring 4at a time. To accomplish this the rocking members would be made less stiff so that pressure `applied to the members at a point opposite one ring would open only that ring with the portions of the members adjacent the other rings remaining in the normal position at which the web is undeformed. The term relatively rigid as used herein with respect to the rockable members contemplates that the rockable members are suiciently rigid to open a ring when the pressure is applied to the rockable member -at the side thereof immediately opposite said ring, but that that rockable member is not necessarily sufficiently rigid to open all of the remaining rings of the binder when the pressure is so applied opposite one ring.

The term modulus of deformation is used herein to express the extent of the flexure of a part when subjected to bending moment. 'I'he greater the modulus orf deformation, the 4greater the degree of bend under a predetermined applied moment. The term hook moment as used herein refers to the varying moment effective on the weby 82, FIGURE 5, for example, as the rockable menibers `are rocked in prong-opening movement. As in a hook, the value of this moment varies along the length of the moment-resisting members, that is, the rockable members and the web 82.

What we claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States is:

A looseleaf binder unit 4for sheets having perforations adjacent one edge, the unit comprising a pair of relatively rigid, normally parallel, spaced, elongated, rockable members, each having an `elongated edge in common orientation with the elongated edge of the other; rigid interrupted prongs extending between the elongated edge of one rockable member and the elongated edge of the other rockable member, said prongs being adapted to pass through the perforations orf the sheets; a resiliently deformable member joined to said members adjacent said edges, respectively, and extending in the lengthy direction thereof, said member in the relaxed condition sustaining said members in prong-closing position to retain sheets therein, said rockable members having handle portions extending away from said edges and in directions generally normal to a pl-ane drawn between the lines of joinder of said deformable member to said rigid members, whereby application of squeezing pressure to said handle portions applies hook moment to said resiliently defonmable member to open said prongs, the modulus of deformation of the resiliently deformable member being substantially greater than .the modulus of deformation of said rockable members, whereby the resiliently deformable member undergoes substantially all of the exure in response to squeezing pressure on the handle 1 1 portions to provide substantial and effective prong-opening movement; and yreleasible latch means associated with the rockable members -to engage when the handle portions are squeezed to prong-opening position, said latch means comprising a 'hook part integral with one of said members and a hook engaging part integral with the other member, the hook part being resiliently deformable out of engaging position to release said `members and close the prongs.

References Cited in the le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Gold et al. May 1, 1956 Killen Mar. 31, 1959 -Russo et al May 12, 1959 FOREIGN PATENTS Great Britain Mar. 21, 1910

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3251364 *Nov 3, 1964May 17, 1966Goldman Sanford LLoose-leaf binding element
US3253603 *Sep 16, 1963May 31, 1966Gen Binding CorpBinding element
US3313303 *Dec 7, 1964Apr 11, 1967Beyer Lewis RBinder
US3493310 *Dec 29, 1967Feb 3, 1970Stationers Loose Leaf CoSheet lifter for looseleaf ring binder
US3706503 *Jun 30, 1969Dec 19, 1972Foley James PLeaf binding
US3792544 *Feb 18, 1971Feb 19, 1974Foley JTelephone index devices
US4190374 *Dec 15, 1978Feb 26, 1980Lindell Stig E VLoose-leaf binder
US4264228 *Nov 7, 1979Apr 28, 1981General Binding CorporationComposite looseleaf mechanism
US4484830 *Jun 11, 1982Nov 27, 1984Kenneth AndersonLoose-leaf binder
US5158386 *Jul 9, 1991Oct 27, 1992Mann Jr John CRing binder separator
US6179508 *Dec 20, 1999Jan 30, 2001U.S. Ring Binder CorporationRing binder
US6761498Apr 2, 2003Jul 13, 2004Avery Dennison CorporationBinder construction for easy insertion and removal of spine label
US6902340Oct 8, 2003Jun 7, 2005Avery Dennison Corp.Binder construction for easy insertion and removal of spine label
US20040197131 *Oct 8, 2003Oct 7, 2004Avery Dennison CorporationBinder construction for easy insertion and removal of spine label
US20050013653 *Jul 16, 2003Jan 20, 2005Stephen Eun ChinSelf-closing ring binder
US20050232690 *Jun 4, 2003Oct 20, 2005Alessandro LeddaBinder for sheets or cards
US20080211220 *Mar 1, 2007Sep 4, 2008Pioneer Photo Albums, Inc.Photograph album with cap
CN104321201A *Feb 15, 2013Jan 28, 2015得力集团有限公司Ring binder having freely attachable and detachable covers, and storage/display method thereof
CN104321201B *Feb 15, 2013Feb 10, 2016得力集团有限公司带可自由连接与拆卸面板的活页夹及其存放/展示方法
WO1983003388A1 *Apr 1, 1982Oct 13, 1983Ambelin, AndersMechanism for rigid binder backs
WO2001045961A1 *Dec 20, 2000Jun 28, 2001U S Ring Binder CorporationRing binder
WO2005113254A1 *May 11, 2004Dec 1, 2005Stephen Eun ChinSelf-closing ring binder
U.S. Classification402/31, 402/3, 402/74, 402/80.00P, 402/78, 402/76
International ClassificationB42F13/26, B42F13/00
Cooperative ClassificationB42F13/26
European ClassificationB42F13/26