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Publication numberUS3115063 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 24, 1963
Filing dateJun 27, 1961
Priority dateJun 27, 1961
Publication numberUS 3115063 A, US 3115063A, US-A-3115063, US3115063 A, US3115063A
InventorsBrowning Val A
Original AssigneeBrowning Ind Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Recoil absorbing mechanism for firearms
US 3115063 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

v. A. BROWNING RECOIL ABSORBING MECHANISM FOR FIREARMS Dec. 24; 1963 Filed June 27, 1961 INVENTOR. VAL A. BROWNING ATTORNEYS 3,ll5,%3 Patented Dec. 24, P563 3,.il5,tl63 l ECQEZL ABSQREENG MEHANM FGR FIREARMS? Val A. Browning, Ogden, Utah, assignor to Browning industries, inc, @g-den, Ut h, a corporation of Utah Filed June 27, 19531, Ser. No. 129,657 8 Claims. till. 89-177) This invention relates to firearms and is concerned more particularly with a recoil absorbing mechanism for repeating firearms of the automatic or semi-automatic type.

The invention is adapted for use with firearms of the type wherein the barrel, or a portion thereof, is mounted for re iprocation relative to a frame and will recoil relative to the frame when the gun is fired, and wherein the recoil movement may be used to perform an automatic function such as ejection of the expended round, cocking the firing mechanism or reloading the firing chamber.

It is an object of this invention to provide an improved recoil absorbing mechanism that brings the barrel to a halt preferably within a short recoil distance and wherein the recoil forces are absorbed evenly and smoothly for moderating the violent and sud-den impact, or kick to the holder or user of the gun aid also for preventing damage to the recoil mechanism. Included in this obiect is the provision of such a recoil absorbing mechanism which will return the barrel to battery position after recoil and retain the barrel in battery position until the piece is fired.

It is another object of this invention to provide a recoil absorbing mechanism of the type described that is of small size and simple construction, which will provide a strong recoil retarding force and high energy absorption within a small range of movement or travel of the barrel which will dissipate this energy without applying a violent counter-recoil upon the barrel as it is returned to its battery position and which will nevertheless provide a strong holding force for retaining the barrel in the battery position until fired.

A still further object of this invention is to provide a recoil absorbing mechanism that utilizes the resilience and frictional properties of metal parts in a unique manner to provide a mechanism having durability and good wearing characteristics and which is operable over long periods of time without failure or malfunctioning.

it is another object of this invention to provide a recoil absorbing mechanism that can be simply manufactured and assembled and which is normally free of contamination such as r =m contact with explosive gases that might o herwise disrupt the reliable operation thereof.

Other objects will be in part obvious and in part pointed out more in detail hereinafter.

The invention accordingly consists in the features of construction. combination of elements and arrangement of parts which will be exemplified in the construction hereafter set forth and the scope of the application whic will be indicated in the appended claims.

in the drawings:

PEG. 1 is a fragmentary side view partly broken away and partly in section of a semiautomatic firearm provided with a recoil absorbing mechanism embodying the present invention;

FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view taken substantially along the line 2--2 of FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is a fragmentary cross-sectional view of the firearm of FIG. 1 showing the barrel and recoil mechanism in the fully recoiled position; and

FIG. 4 is a perspective expanded view of pair of resilient rings used in the recoil absorbing mechanism of this invention.

Referring to the drawing, the invention is shown embodied in a firearm which is a semi-automatic shotgun of the type disclosed and claimed in my prior Patent No. 2,499,090 issued February 28, 1950, to which reference may be had for additional details which are not specifically described here. The shotgun comprises a receiver or frame 2 and a barrel 4 provided with a barrel extension 3 mounted for reciprocation in the receiver. Extending forwardly from the frame 2 beneath and parallel to the barrel 4 is a magazine tube 8 fixed to the frame 2 and encased within the usual wooden forearm 6. A threaded cap 12 closes the outer end of the tube 8. Forwardly of the receiver 2 and preferably at about mid-length of t re barrel 4 is a downwardly depending guide ring or sleeve 16 which encircles the magazine tube 8 for slidable movement thereon as the barrel 4 moves in recoil upon discharge of the firearm. As this invention would be equally applicable where the entire barrel moves in recoil or where only a part thereof such as the firing chamber portion recoils, the use of the phrase barrel moves in recoil is used in its generic sense and includes either the entire barrel or a portion thereof.

For dividing the magazine tube 8 into a rearwardly disposed magazine section 14 having the conventional magazine spring 15 therein, and a forwardly disposed recoil absorbing section 16, a stop pin 18 is fixed diametrically within the magazine tube 8, at the location of which there is positioned about the tube 3 a reinforcing metal collar 24?. Adjacent the forward end of the recoil absorbing section 16, is a second pin 24 that is fixed to the slide or sleeve it}! for extension through the diametrically opposed elongated slots 25 in the magazine tube {5 and thus becomes an actuating or control member for the barrel during movement thereof.

According to this invention, a recoil absorbing assembly comprising a plurality of pairs of flexible interfitting male and female ring members 26 and 2d are coaxially aligned within the magazine tube 8 between the magazine stop pin 18 and a washer 29 hearing against the pin 24. In the preferred embodiment, the male and female ring members are of substantially equal thickness and diameter, and both are severed or made circumferentially discontinuous so that they are capable of being stressed or distorted radially. One side of each female ring member 28 is formed with a concave or internal frusto-conical surface So that is complementary to and coacts with a convex or external frusto-conical surface 32. formed on one side of the male ring member 25. The opposite sites of both male and female members are, however, preferably fiat so that contiguous pairs of male and female members have a large coasting area through which the recoil force is directed.

When the barrel 4 is in the battery or forward position, the pin 2 is located in the forward portion of the elongated slots 25 (as shown in FIG. 1), the slots 25' being covered by the sleeve it, when the barrel is in this position. in this position, the male and female rings 26 and 23 are in a sidc-by-side nesting relationship with a minimum transverse deformation. When the firearm is disch rged, the large recoil or reaction force on the barrel 4 causes it to move rearwardly forcing the pin 24 against the washer 29 and compressing the recoil absorbing ring assembly, as shown in EEG. 3i During such compressive movement the surfaces 30 and 32 of each pair of rings function as camming surfaces causing a radial expansion of the female ring 28 and a radial contraction of the male ring 26 of each pair of rings permitting the rings to telescope together. Preferably the rings are made of spring steel and of substantial thickness so that they will. have a high resistance to deformation and optimum resilience so that they can be repeatedly expanded and contracted without failure. Additionally, the rings are Ipreferably dimensioned so that the expansion, or spring rate, of the female ring is matched by a similar contraction, or spring rate, or" the male ring to provide for substantially equal energy absorption by both rings. As the ring assembly is compressed or telescoped axially, the large force applied to the inclined frusto-conical surfaces 3t? and 32, which causes the relative expansion and contraction of the rings also creates a high frictional resistance which assists in dissipating the energy of the recoil. Conversely, after the recoil movement has been halted, the tendency of the mechanism to return the barrel to battery position as a result of the counter contraction and expansion of the ring members is controlled and pened by this frictional resistance between the fruston al surfaces. Consequently, the barrel is returned to the battery position with a relatively gradual movement hat may be dampened in the final stage as by a buffer spring 34- which is fixed to a plug 35 mounted within the cylinder 8 against the cap 12. When the recoil absorbing mechanism is assembled, the parts are dimensioned so that the rings 26, 2%; are placed under an initial compressive force when the barrel is in battery position thus providing the residual holding force for retaining the barrel in battery position.

Because of the high resistance to compression of the rings and the frictional resistance between the mating conical surfaces, it will be extremely difiicult to manually move the barrel from battery position even though there be only a slight initial deformation in the male and female ring members. Thus, the barrel is maintained rigidly in battery position until the piece is fired, and there is no looseness or play in the piece because of the presence of the recoil absorbing mechanism.

The specific material from which the rings are made, the specific dimensions of the rings, the number and pairs of rings utilized and the angle of the frusto-conical surface are all variables which will effect the operation of the recoil mechanism, and such variables can be changed according to the dictates of each particular firearm. In general, a conical surface having a slope of approximately 45 will provide optimum camming action.

It can be seen that the recoil absorbing mechanism of this invention provides a simple and reliable means by which the barrel of a firearm can be rapidly brought to a halt without creating excessive forces upon the mechanism and by which the barrel is returned to the battery position and held firmly thereat. Further, the recoil mechanism takes little space, is of light weight and requires little or no maintenance to maintain it in perfect operation over a long period of time.

As will be apparent to persons skilled in the art, various modifications and adaptations of the structure above described will become readily apparent without departure from the spirit and scope of the invention, the scope of which is defined in the appended claims.

I claim:

1. In a repeating firearm, a frame, a barrel movable in recoil relative to the frame, a control member connected to the barrel for movement therewith, a stop connected to the frame, and a recoil absorbing assembly between the control member and the stop comprising a chamber, a plurality of pairs of coaxially aligned resilient .members having interengaging camming surfaces disposed Within said chamber, each of said resilient members being radially distortable as a result of relative sliding movement along said camming surfaces with the first member of each pair being expanded and the second member of each pair being contracted when the assembly is compressed by recoil movement of the barrel, said first member of each pair being smaller in size than the inner periphery of said chamber to accommodate the expansion 4 of said first member during recoil movement of the barrel.

2. In a repeating firearm, a frame, a barrel movable in recoil relative to the frame, a control member connected to the barrel for movement therewith, a stop connected to the frame, and a recoil absorbing assembly be tween the control member and the stop comprising a housing, a plurality of pairs of coaxially aligned split rings disposed within said housing, each ring of each pair being dimensioned to have a spring rate substantially equal to the other ring of the pair and having a c amming surface interengaging a camming surface on the other ring of each pair to cause substantially equal and opposite radial distortion of each of the rings of each pair when the assembly is compressed by recoil movement of the barrel, said split rings being spaced radially inwardly of said housing to provide a clearance to accommodate the radial distortion of said split rings.

3. In a repeating firearm, a frame, a barrel movable in recoil relative to the frame, a control member connected to the barrel for movement therewith, a stop connected to the frame, and a recoil absorbing assembly between the control member and the stop comprising a tubular housing, a plurality of pairs of split rings, each pair of split rings comprising a first ring having an outwardly tapered side surface at an angle of about 45 relative to the axis thereof and a second ring having a complementary inwardly tapered side surface, said rings of each pair being arnanged in nested relationship with the said tapered side surfaces in engagement whereby the first ring is radially contracted and the second ring is radially expanded when the assembly is compressed by recoil movement of the barrel, the outer diameter of the second ring of each pair being less than the inner diameter of the wall of said tubular housing to define a clearance therewith to accommodate the radial expansion of said ring during recoil movement of the barrel.

4-. In a repeating firearm, a frame, a barrel movable in recoil relative to the frame, and a recoil absorbing mechanism between the frame and the barrel comprising a tubular housing extending lengthwise of the barrel and supported by the frame, an assembly of pairs of radially distortable resilient members disposed in the housing and having substantially equal outer diameters of lesser dimension than the inner diameter of said tubular housing, the members being disposed in coaxially aligned relationship, each pair of members having interengaging camming surfaces causing radial distortion of both of the members of each pair when the assembly is compressed, a control member engaging the assembly and connected to the barrel for movement therewith, and means for placing the assem'bly'of pairs of radially distortable resilient members under a preselected compressive force when the barrel is in battery position.

5. In a repeating fire-arm, a frame, a barrel movable in recoil relative to the frame, and a recoil absorbing mechanism between the frame and the barrel comprising a tubular housing extending parallel to the barrel and supported by the frame, a plurality of coaxially aligned pairs of split rings in the housing, each pair comprising a first ring having a frustoconical side surface and a second ring having a complementary frustroconical side surface in engagement with the frustoconical side surface of the first ring, the surface opposite the frustoconical side surface of each of said rings being substantially fiat for engaging a mating fiat surface of a next adjacent pair of split rings to provide for the self-alignment thereof, and a control member engaging one end of the assembly and connected to the barrel for movement therewith.

6. In a repeating firearm, a frame, a barrel movable in recoil relative to the frame, and a recoil absorbing mechanism between the frame and the barrel comprising a tubular housing extending parallel to the barrel and supported by the frame, a slide mounted on the housing and movable longitudinally thereof, said slide being attached to the barrel for movement therewith, an assembly of pairs of coaxially aligned split rings disposed in the housing and having substantially equal spring rates and interengaging camming surfaces causing substantially equal radial distortion of the rings when the assembly is axially compressed, the first ring of each pair being radially expansible and the second ring of each pair being radially contractible during recoil movement of the barrel, the outer diameter of the first ring of each pair being less than the inner diameter of said tubular housing to provide a clearance therewith, and means on the slide engaging one end of the assembly.

7. In a repeating firearm, a frame, a barrel movable in recoil relative to the frame, and a recoil absorbing mechanism between the frame and the barrel comprising a cylindrical tubular housing extending parallel to the barrel and supported by the frame, a sleeve slidably mounted on the housing and connected to the barrel for movement therewith, a pin carried by the sleeve and extending transversely of the housing, the housing having slots to accommodate the pin, and a recoil absorbing assembly in the housing engaging the pin comprising a plurality of coaxially aligned pairs of split rings, each pair of rings comprising a first ring having an outwardly tapered side surface and a second ring with an inwardly tapered side surface in contact with the outwardly tapered side surface of the first ring, the outer diameters of said 6 rings being substantially equal and of lesser dimension than the inner diameter of the wall of said housing to provide a clearance therewith to accommodate the radial movement of said rings during recoil movement of the barrel.

8. In a repeating firearm, a frame, a barrel movable in recoil relative to the frame, a control member connected to the barrel for movement therewith, a stop connected to the frame, and a recoil absorbing assembly between the control member and the stop comprising a tubular housing, a plurality of pairs of coaxial-1y aligned split rings of substantially equal outer diameters disposed within the housing, one ring of each pair having a generally concave side surface and the other ring of each pair having a generally convex side surface, said concave and convex side surfaces being in engagement to cause radial distortion of the rings when the assembly is compressed by recoil movement of the barrel, the outer diameter of said split rings being less than the inner diameter of said tubular housing to provide a clearance therewith to accommodate the radial distortion of said split rings.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 812,326 Browning Feb. 13, 1906 2,788,714 Browning Apr. 16, 1957 2,866,389 Simpson Dec. 30, 1958

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US812326 *Jun 30, 1904Feb 13, 1906John M BrowningRecoil-brake for automatic guns.
US2788714 *Jul 18, 1955Apr 16, 1957Browning Ind IncRecoil mechanism for firearms
US2866389 *Jun 4, 1954Dec 30, 1958Simpson Clarence EBuffer mechanism
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3783738 *Feb 23, 1972Jan 8, 1974Vibration Eng And Avions DassaRecoil absorber
US4492050 *Apr 12, 1983Jan 8, 1985Ken KagehiroShotgun recoil reducer
US4505183 *Dec 2, 1982Mar 19, 1985O. F. Mossberg & Sons, Inc.Gas actuated operating mechanism for autoloading firearm
US4514921 *Feb 7, 1983May 7, 1985Burkleca Frank MFirearm recoil buffer
US5069110 *Apr 9, 1991Dec 3, 1991Menck Thomas WImpact buffering recoil mechanism
US5076139 *Aug 29, 1990Dec 31, 1991Hiett Charles ABuffer for firearms
US5353681 *Mar 16, 1993Oct 11, 1994Sugg Ronald ERecoil dampening device for large caliber weapons
US6684547Oct 31, 2001Feb 3, 2004Cape AerospaceFirearm recoil dampening assembly
DE19746643A1 *Oct 22, 1997May 6, 1999Heckler & Koch GmbhGedämpfte Federeinrichtung für eine Schußwaffe
DE19746643C2 *Oct 22, 1997Apr 19, 2001Heckler & Koch GmbhGedämpfte Federeinrichtung für eine Schußwaffe
Classifications
U.S. Classification89/177, 89/198, 42/1.6, 89/42.1
International ClassificationF41A25/00, F41A25/06
Cooperative ClassificationF41A25/06
European ClassificationF41A25/06