US 3117386 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 14, 1964 R. FERWERDA 3,117,386
' TOOTH ARRANGEMENT FOR EARTH DIGGING. APPARATUS Filed March 7. 1961 s Sheets-Sheet v1 a IN V EN TOR. PA Y FEPWEEDA Jan. 14, 1964 R. FERWERDA 3, 7,3 TO0TH ARRANGEMENT FOR EARTH DIGGING APPARATUS I Filed March 7, 1961 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVEN TOR. EA Y FEEWEEDA A TTOENFYS Jan. 14, 1964 R. FERWERDA 3,117,386
TOOTH ARRANGEMENT FOR EARTH DIGGING APPARATUS Filed March 7, 1961 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 g w'" 1 r H Ilium.
INVENTOR. EA Y FEEWEEDA United States Patent 3,117,386 TOOTH ARRANGEMENT FOR EARTH DIGGING APPARATUS Ray Ferwerda, 1050 NW. 163rd Drive, North Miami, Fla. Filed Mar. 7, 1961, Ser. No. 94,055 4 Claims. (Cl. 37-142) This invention relates to improvements in the tooth arrangement and tooth mounting for an earth breaking apparatus or unit.
One of the objects of the present invention is to provide such unit with a plurality of teeth, some of which may have different orientations, so as to break up the earth more readily, to minimize shock load upon the teeth during earth engagement, etc. wherein at least some of the teeth are detachably connected for independent replacement.
A further object of the present invention is to provide a unit of the aforementioned type wherein at least some of the teeth are adapted to be detachably connected and assembled in any of a plurality of angularly related assembled positions to vary the orientation of the tooth cutting edge with respect to the earth being broken.
A further object of the present invention is to provide a combined tooth and tooth mounting adapter for an earth breaking unit of the type described having a connecting means permitting a plurality of circumferentially displaced assembled positions of said tooth and adapter.
A further object of the present invention is to provide such unit or a combined tooth and tooth mounting adapter characterized by its inexpensive manufacturing cost, ease of assembly of its component parts, structural simplicity, compactness in design, strong and sturdy nature, multiplicity of functional advantages, and/or superior features when used in an earth breaking unit.
Other features of this invention reside in the arrangement and design of the parts for carrying out their appropriate functions.
Other objects and advantages of this invention will be apparent from the accompanying drawings and description and the essential features will be set forth in the appended claims.
In the drawings,
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of the bottom of a digging bucket having a plurality of teeth and tooth mounting adapters of the present invention thereon;
FIG. 2. is an enlarged side view, partially in section, of a first form of one of the teeth and adapters in one assembled position;
FIG. 3 is a transverse sectional view taken along the line 33 of BIG. 2;
FIG. 4 is a perspective view of the tooth in FIG. 2 removed from its adapter;
FIG. 5 is an enlarged side elevational view, partially in section, of the tooth in FIG. 4;
FIG. 6 is an enlarged end view looking at the left end of the tooth in FIG. 4;
FIG. 7 is a side elevational view of another form of adapter adapted to be secured to the bucket base in place of the adapter in FIG. 2;
FIG. 8 is an end view, taken from the right, of the adapter in FIG. 7;
FIG. 9 is an end view of the tooth adapted to be used on the adapter in FIG. 7;
FIG. 10 is a top plan view of the tooth in FIG. 9; while FIG. 11 is a side elevational view of the tooth in FIG. 10.
Before the unit, teeth and adapters here illustrated are specifically described, it is to be understood that the invention =here involved is not limited to the structural details or arrangement of parts here shown since struc- 3,117,385 Patented Jan. 14, 1964 ture embodying the present invention may take various forms. It also is to be understood that the phraseology or terminology herein employed is for purposes of description and not of limitation since the scope of the present invention is denoted by the appended claims.
Earth breaking unit 10 may take various forms, such as a digging bucket, scraper blade, other type earth digging apparatus, etc. but is illustrated herein as an earth digging bucket 10 in FIG. 1 adapted to be moved through,
an earth digging stroke by any suitable power apparatus, such as by being mounted on the end of a boom, such as on the apparatus in my United States Patent 2,541,045, granted February 13, 1951, or in my copending United States patent application entitled Telescopic-Boom-Operated Digging Bucket, filed February 13, 1957, Serial No. 639,885, now Patent No. 2,984,372.
Unit 10 in FIG. 1 shows the use of either form of the invention in FIGS. 2-6 (tooth 16 and adapter 14) or in FIGS. 71=1 (tooth 16' and adapter 14').
Unit 10 includes bucket base 12 to which are secured a plurality of laterally spaced apart tooth mounting adapters or holders 14 or .14, secured in any suitable manner, such as by welding; and a plurality of earth breaking teeth with one tooth 16- or 16 carried by each adapter. Each tooth 16 or 16' has four cutting side edges 16m tapering toward a cutting end edge 1621.
A suitable connecting means 20 is provided on each assembled adapter and tooth for rigidly connecting tooth 16 and adapter 14 thereof in any of a plurality of angularly related assembled positions so that cutting edge 16m or 16:1 on the tooth may be mounted in any one of a plurality of these angularly related assembled positions on its adapter 14 with these being six different circumferentially displaced positions about axis A of the tooth and adapter in the assembled position, as will be more apparent hereinafter. Each connecting means 20 includes a male telescopic portion 21 on adapter '14 and female telescopic portion 22 on tooth 16 tapered for fitting together as shown in FIG. 2; key 24 integrally formed on the periphery of male portion 21; a plurality of keyways 25 telescopically coacting with any one keyway 25 telescopically engaged with key 24 to prevent relative rotation between tooth 16 and adapter 14 in the assembled position of FIG. 2; and lock means comprising tapered pin 28, three diametrically aligned holes 16a, 16b and in tooth 16, and ldiametrical hole 14a of uniform diameter in adapter 14 with all of these holes located in a plane perpendicular to axis A in the assembled position of FIG. 2.
The assembly of each tooth 16 on its adapter 14 and the use of its connecting means 20 should be readily apparent. To mount tooth 16 on its adapter 14 in the assembled position in FIG. 2, female portion 22 of tooth 16 is telescoped axially along axis A over male portion 21 on adapter 14 into the assembled position in FIG. 2. Any of three assembled positions, circumferentially displaced about axis A, may be chosen. In each, a keyway 25 in FIG. 3 is telescopically engaged with key 24 by movement along axis A. This construction permits tooth 16 to have six different possible circumferential positions about axis A with respect to its adapter 14. After the assembled position has been reached, tapered pin 28 is driven through one of the holes 16a, 16b or 160 aligned with hole 14a to lock tooth 16 against axial disassembly from adapter 14 while interengaged key 24 and keyway 25 prevent relative rotation therebetween.
As will be apparent hereinafter, the description in the preceding paragraphs also applies generically to the same named parts, positions, movements and modes of operation for the structure shown in the second form in FIGS. 7-11.
However, the two forms, one in FIGS. 26 and the other in FIGS. 711, difier in some respects.
In FIGS. 2-6, male telescopic portion 21 is generally circular in cross section in FIG. 3 with two outwardly projecting diametrically aligned teeth 24a providing key 24. Female telescopic portion 22 has in FIG. 3 a bore circular in cross section with three pairs of outwardly directed grooves 25a, 25b and 250 providing three keyways 25 with the two grooves in each pair diametrically aligned to form one keyway 25 and to receive both teeth 24a. These three pairs of grooves 25a, 25b and 25c are rotationally displaced about center axis A to provide by keyways 25 six difierent equi-angular related assembled positions for tooth 16.
In FIGS. 7-11, there is provided adapter or holder 14', tooth 16', connecting means 20, male telescopic portion 21', female telescopic portion 22', key 24, keyways 25', and diametrical hole 14a of uniform diameter in adapter 14. Connecting means 20 includes male telescopic portion 21 in FIGS. 7 and 8 generally square in cross section to provide key 24 by its four square corners 24a. Female telescopic portion 22 has a bore formed in cross section in FIG. 9 by the periphery of two similar squares arcuately displaced degrees about center axis A to provide two keyways 25 by the four corners 25a of one square and the four corners 25b of the other square. This construction permits tooth 16 to have eight different, equiangular related positions on adapter 14, instead of the six described for tooth 16, with tooth 16 adapted to be locked in any of these positions by tapered pin 28 extending through diametrical hole 14a and one of the four diametrically aligned holes 16a, 16b, 160' or 16d in tooth 16', as contrasted with the three holes 16a, 16b and 16c described in tooth 16.
Although squares are shown in FIGS. 8 and 9, it should be understood that any type regular polygon may be used in place of the square in FIGS. 8 and 9, because a square is only one form of regular polygon, and the resulting tooth and adapter will still assemble satisfactorily in a plurality of difierent positions. However, the arcuate displacement between these polygons may be different than the 45 degrees shown in FIG. 9 and the number of positions may be different than eight in number, depending upon the type regular polygon used.
Although key 24 or 24 and keyways 25 or 25' are specifically shown herein, it should be apparent that the cross sectional shape of portions 21 or 21' and 22 or 22' may take any of a variety of non-circular shapes for providing this plurality of equi-angular related positions upon assembly.
The advantages of each illustrated tooth and adapter form are many. First, the plurality of teeth 16 or 16' on bucket 10 in FIG. 1 may be arranged relative to base 12 so that a corresponding cutting edge on some of the teeth have a different orientation relative 'to base 12 than on the other of the teeth 16 or 16'. Here the teeth are in different circumferentially displaced positions about parallel axes A to provide a twisted tooth blade with teeth 16 or 16' arranged at different angles with some teeth tilted toward the left and others tilted toward the right, such as being alternately tilted toward the left and right as shown in FIG. 1. This tooth arrangement causes the earth to break up more readily, minimizes shock load upon the teeth during earth engagement (in contrast with a structure wherein all the cutting end edges 1611 are in a common horizontal plane and make simultaneous engagement with the earth), and substantially increases earth breaking production. Second, connecting means 20 'or 20' detachably connects each tooth 16 or 16 for easy replacement to its adapter 14 or 14 after tooth breakage occurs. There is no need to replace the whole blade with all of the teeth 16 or 16' but only the individually broken tooth 16 or 16'. The machine hasless down may be used in either position.
time because a dull or broken tooth 16 or 16' can be quickly replaced for easy maintenance. Third, a tooth having one of its cutting side edges 16m worn can be moved to one of the other six positions about axis A on the same adapter 14 or 14' or may be moved to another adapter to present a new sharp edge in digging position. Hence, it is possible to utilize on each tooth 16 or 16' all four cutting side edges 16m and both the upper and lower edges of cutting end edges 1611. 14 or 14' permit each tooth to be used on any of the adapters. Fourth, this construction eliminates the need for diiferently constructed left and right handed teeth fitting in adapters 14 or 14' to obtain tooth arrangement positions B and C in FIG. 1. A single tooth 16 or 16' Fifth, all the teeth 16 or 16 may be mounted with all cutting end edges 1611 colinear so that all teeth are located in the straight line normal position generally used on excavating buckets.
Various changes in details and arrangement of parts can be made by one skilled in the art without departing from either the spirit of this invention or the scope of the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
1. An earth breaking unit comprising a bucket having a digging edge, a plurality of tooth-mounting adapters spaced along said digging edge and rigidly connected thereto, a plurality of teeth, one tooth mounted in each adapter and each tooth having a forward cutting edge with a lower earth engaging corner and an upper corner, said adapters and said teeth being located substantially in a straight line, said teeth arranged in pairs in which the forward cutting edges of said pair of teeth incline towards each other so that the lower corners of the cutting edges are closer together than the upper corners, and each tooth of a pair having a shank which engages positioning'surfaces on its associated adapter providing at least two positions of said teeth in their associated adapters so that each tooth of a pair is interchangeable with the other tooth of the pair whereby the upper corner of the cutting edge of the first tooth becomes the lower corner of the second tooth.
2. An earth breaking unit as defined in claim 1 in which each of the adapters includes a female telescopic portion with said positioning surfaces and each of said shanks including a male telescopic portion that is square in cross section for interengagement with said female positioning surfaces.
3. An earth breaking unit as defined in claim 1 in which each shank includes splines and each adapter has positioning surfaces comprising a bore with splineways for interengagement with said splines.
4. An earth breaking unit as defined in claim 1 in which there are at least two pairs of teeth that are located sub stantially in said straight line.
References (Iit'ed in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Brown Oct. 19, 1954 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 1 CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent Non 3,117,386 January 14 1964 Ray Ferwerda It is hereby certified that error appears in the above numbered patent req'liring correction and that the said Letters Patent should read as corrected below.
Column 4 line 9, for "edges", second occurrence read edge line 10 before "14 or" insert The inter=- I changeability of teeth 16 or 16 and adapters u Signed and sealed this 16th day of June 19640 (SEAL) Attest:
ERNEST w; SWIDER EDWARD J. BRENNER Attesting Officer Commissioner of Patents