US 3118455 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 21, 1964 J. w. CHALMERS ETAL 3,118,455
COMPRESSING OF CIGARETTES FOR PACKING Filed April 18. 1961 6 Sheets-Sheet 1 Vl/E IV TOR I 4 TTORA/E 75' Jan. 21, 1964 J. W. CHALMERS ETAL COMPRESSING OF CIGARETTES FOR PACKING 6 Sheets$heet 5 Filed April 18, 1961 mm mm m QRN llVV/VORS 7 M 11 fl- ATTORNEY Jan. 21, 1964 J. w. CHALMERS ETAL 3,118,455
COMPRESSING 0F CIGARETTES FOR PACKING 6 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed April 18, 1961 m w V WMT 0% p 5 Ex Km 38 SEQ S w i m r Q ew g #38 @E Km flwq 5 @Q 5 8 @Qm fi m m 0% Q3 S W k Bwm y mi xm oemw B2 wdfi Q3 1964 J. w. CHALMERS ETAL 3,
COMPRESSING 0F CIGARETTES FOR PACKING Filed April 18, 1961 r 6 Sheets-Sheet 5 A TTORNE YS J. w. CHALMERS' ETAL 3,118,455
COIIPRESSING 0F CIGARE'I'I'ES FOR PACKING Jan. 21, 1964 6 Sheets-Sheet 6 Filed April 18,- 1961 A TTOR/VE Y5 United States Patent 3,118,455 COMPRESSING 0F CIGARETIES FOR PACKING John Walker Chalmers, Charles Thomas Hall, and Will1am Arthur Roffey, London, England, assignors to Molins Machine Company Limited, London, England, a British company Filed Apr. 18, 1961, Ser. No. 103,750 Claims priority, application Great Britain Apr. 26, 1960 2 Claims. (Cl. 131-107) This invention concerns improvements in the compressing of cigarettes for packing. When cigarettes are to be packed in paper packets it is common to compress them so that they are a tight fit 1n the packet, whether the paper is Wrapped around them or whether the cigarettes are pushed into an already formed paper cup. The latter method is used on a very large scale in the United States of America and many other countries follow the American packing style. For American type packings the cigarettes are usually compressed a great deal as custom demands an exceedingly tight wrap. The present invention provides apparatus able to compress cigarettes very effectively to the requirements of American type packings but of course it is not limited to such purpose.
According to the invention there is provided a method of compressing a batch of loose cigarettes in a cycle of operations comprising the following steps:
(1) Compressing the batch laterally and meanwhile permitting the batch to expand upwards.
(2) confining the batch laterally to the width attained by step 1 and compressing the batch vertically.
-(3) confining the batch vertically to the thickness at tained by step 2. v
(4) Releasing the lateral and vertical pressures on the batch and permitting it to expand.
(5) Maintaining at least the freedom achieved by the expansion in step 4 for the remainder of the cycle.
In the case of step 5 a further expansion over that achieved in step 4 may be permitted in part at least of the said remainder of the cycle by further releasing lateral or vertical pressures, or both.
Further according to the invention there is provided a method of compressing a batch of loose cigarettes in a cycle of operations comprising the following steps:
(1) Compressing the batch laterally to a width not substantially differing from the desired final width and meanwhile permitting the batch to expand upwards.
(2) Confining the batch laterially to the width attained by step 1 and during this step compressing the batch vertically to a thickness not substantially differing from the desired final thickness.
. (3) Con-fining the batch vertically to the thickness attained by step 2.
(4) Releasing the lateral and vertical pressure on the batchv and allowing degrees of freedom to the batch not exceeding but preferably less than the dimensions of the original loose batch.
(5) Maintaining the allowed freedom vertically for'the remainder of the cycle and the lateral freedom for the first portion of said remainder and then allowing a further degree of lateral freedom corresponding to the dimensions of the original width of the loose batch.
In the case of step 5 an alternative step may be substituted wherein the freedom attained by step 4 is held for a portion of the remainder of the cycle and then a further expansion is. permitted, whereafter the batch remains as last expanded for the rest of the cycle.
If desired the method may include a further cycle comprising steps similar in sequence to the steps 1 to 5 recited above but during this further cycle subjecting the.
batch, at least laterally, to rather more severe compression and rather more retricted degrees of freedom than in the first cycle.
Preferably the further cycle of operations is conducted after the batch has been moved away from the position it occupied during the first cycle.
Further according to the invention there is provided apparatus for carrying out the methods recited above comprising a machine bed on which a batch of cigarettes is supported, side plates movable towards the batch of effect the lateral compression of the latch and movable away from the batch to allow the said degrees of lateral freedom and a top plate movable towards the bed to effect vertical compression and movable away from the bed to allow the said degrees of vertical freedom.
Adjusting devices may be provided whereby the lateral and vertical compressions may be regulated. For twocycle operations the top plate may be stepped for reasons explained in the operation of the apparatus.
Batches may be moved into and out of the compressing devices by an intermittent conveyor as most of the operations are conducted on a stationary batch.
Where two cycles of operations are desired, two sets of compressing devices may be provided spaced apart at a pit-ch equal to the cycle time, that is, the time elapsing from the beginning of the first cycle on a stationary batch at the first compressing device to the beginning of the second cycle on said batch, stationary at the second compressing device, is equal to the time between two successive conveyor movements during which time a batch is moved from the first device to the second.
The invention will be more fully described by way of example with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:
FIGURE 1 is a plan of part of a cigarette packing machine showing part of the apparatus according to the invention.
FIGURE 2 is a front elevation of FIGURE 1, showing also some further parts of the apparatus.
FIGURE 3 is an end elevation of FIGURE 1 showing detm'ls of all the apparatus.
FIGURE 4 is a fragmentary of FIGURE 3, partly in section.
FIGURE 5 is a diagram of compressing operations applied to a cigarette batch of certain dimensions.
FIGURE 6 is similar to FIGURE 5 but relates to a different cigarette batch.
FIGURE 7 shows a modified form of top pressing device.
Referring to FIGURE 1, the drawingshows part of a duplex machine in which there are two side-by-side conveyors each operating in a similar manner on similar batches of cigarettes. The cigarettes are moved in the direction of the arrow, in the manner explained later.
r The machine has a bed 1, with slots 2 along which batches of cigarettes shown by chain line rectangles with similar diagonals, are moved first to a position marked 3 where they are subjected to certain compressing operations, and they are then moved to theposition marked 4. where further compressing takes place. At the position marked 3, which will be referred to hereafter as the first. stage, a cigarette batch is compressed laterally by side compressors 5, and at the position 4, which is the second stage, the batch is again compressed by side compressors 6. A top plate 7 extends from the beginning of the first stage to the end of the second stage, and this is moved upv and down as will be explained later, in order to efiect top compression. j
The right-hand members of the compressors 5 and 6 are actuated by levers 8 which are pivoted at 9 and pivoted at their lower ends at iii to a cam rod .1 1.
The left-hand 3 members of the compressors 5 and 6 are actuated by levers 12 pivoted at 13 and also pivoted at 14 to a cam rod 15. The cam rod 11 has a roller 16 at one end which engages a cam 17. In a similar manner the cam rod to which the levers 12 are pivoted, is provided with a roller 19 which engages a cam 20.
The levers 8 and 12 have pivoted to them at 21, plates 22 which are urged downwards by springs 23, and have attached to them further plates 24 provided with rollers 25 which travel on the surface of the bed 1, and the plates 24 are shaped at their inner ends to provide the compressing members 5 and 6.
It will be seen from the above description that as the cams 17 and 20 rotate, the levers 12 will be pulled to the right and the levers 8 pushed to the left, thus effecting a compressing operation on batches of cigarettes positioned between the compressors 5 and 6 while springs 26 will move the compressors 5 and 6 in the reverse direction.
As stated above the plate 7 is moved up and down to effect top compression and this movement is caused by rollers 27 attached to bars 28 which are slidable in bearings 29 so that the rollers run up and down ramps 30 formed on the top plate.
The devices for reciprocating the bars 28 have been omitted from FIGURES 1 and 2 to avoid complexity, but are shown in FIGURE 3 from which it will be seen that a link 31 is pivoted to each bar 28 at 32 and the free end of the lever is attached at 33 to one arm 34 of a bell crank lever pivoted at 35 the other arm 36 of the lever being pivoted at 37, to a slide 38 which can be moved for adjustment up and down a slot in the forked end of a cam rod 39 by means of a screw 40. The cam rod 39 is moved up and down by a cam 41 which engages a roller 42, and a spring 43. It will be seen that as the cam 41 rotates, the bars 28 are rcciprocated and the rollers 27 ride up and down the ramps 30. As the rollers run up, the plate 7 is pressed downwards and as they run down the plate 7 can rise again under the action of springs 44. The construction of these parts is more easily seen in FIGURE 4.
FIGURE 3 shows a conveyor 45 having pusher pieces 46 by which cigarette batches are moved along the bed, the conveyor 45 operating intermittently as will be described presently. The batches of cigarettes pass beneath a device 47 which is a known form of detector for checking it the proper number of cigarettes are present in the batch and the batch then runs under a short top plate 48 which has pivoted thereto a hinged flap 49 which serves to align the leading end of the batch, any of the cigarettes are slightly displaced.
In operating the apparatus above described according to the method first recited, the side compressors 5 are actuated to compress the batch laterally then to hold this compression for a certain time and then to release it to a dimension which is less than the original width of the batch. The batch remains in this partly compressed condition for a time and then all side compression is released.
While this is going on, the top compressors are actuated so as to permit the batch to rise to a value which is higher than the normal thickness of the batch, because the side compression has raised the batch to a new thickness. The batch is held at this thickness for a short time and it is then compressed and compression is held at this new value for some While and is then, at least partly, released. If top compression is only partly released the batch is held compressed in this manner for some while and is then released from compression by moving the top plate to a position where it is a distance from the bed equal to the uncompressed thickness of the batch and the batch 15 then held, in this manner for a further period, the whole of the events above related occupying the time of a cycle which is the time occupied by a batch from entering the side compressors 5 until they enter the side compressors 6. If however all top compression is released after the first P pression and holding at that value, the batch remains in the released state for the rest of the cycle. At the position 4 the above cycle of compression and release is repeated but the batch is rather more tightly squeezed and the resulting batch is smaller than the original batch and generally it will be substantially narrower and thin ner than the uncompressed batch.
Since verbal description of these operations is difficult to follow two specific examples are given below with the values of the width and thickness of the batches at different positions, the dimensions being in millimetres.
In the tabular form adopted, certain contractions are used to save space, namely, Com stands for compress, ST for static, Rel for release, SY for stationary, MG for moving.
EXAMPLE 1 By way of example it will be assumed that a batch occupying 56 mm. x 22 mm. uncompressed is to be compressed to 52 mm. x 20 mm. and the sequence of events is as shown on FIGURE 5.
In a cycle of 360 the following events take place.
(1) The conveyors are stationary for 130 and then move for 230. These conditions are indicated by the letters SY and MG.
(2) The cigarette batch is subjected to side and top compression in an intermittent manner. Thus at times the batch is still and at times moving. The state of compression and the movement or otherwise of the batch at any moment may be observed by comparing the angles of compressing operations with the angles of rest or motion, that is SY or MG respectively. Compression is applied and released as indicated below and in between these operations the compression is held to the value reached. These conditions where compression is held are indicated by the reference ST (static). Since compression is effected twice (in successive cycles) the dimensions A, B, C, D, E, F, G during the respective angular period in a cycle are given for the two stages.
Side Compression STAGE 1 For- Com. to ST Rel. ST Rel. to ST A=52.5 13:53.5 C=5G STAGE 2 For- Com. to ST Rel. to ST R01. to ST It will be seen from the drawing and the above tables that side compression occupies 240 of the cycle from start to finish and that for the last 120 nothing is done to the batch. The same applies to top compression as will now be explained.
It will be seen from the figures given below that the thickness of the batch at certain parts of the first cycle ditfers from the values given at the same parts of the second cycle. Since the top plate moves down a constant amount for each cycle these differences are catered for by providing a step on the plate at the position where the second cycle takes place. For example, the first item in each cycle gives values of 23 mm. and 22 mm. meaning that there is a 1 mm. step on the plate for the second cycle so that at the step the top plate is 1 mm. nearer to the bed 1.
Top Compression STAGE 1 For Rel. to ST Com. to ST Rel. to 8'1 Rel. to ST 13:23 E=20.5 F=21 G=22 STAGE 2 For Rel. to ST Com. to ST Rel. to ST Rel. to ST D=22 13:19.5 F=2O G=21 By comparing the tables of side and top compression it will be seen that While a batch is side-compressed to value A the top plate is raised to permit the cigarettes to rise, thus avoiding too much distortion of the shape. Then top compression takes place to value E While side compression is held at value A. Top compression is held substantially at E until both compressions are released to values C and G respectively.
Example II Batch 55.7 X 21.74 uncompressed Batch 53.75 x 21.75 compressed It will be noted that in this example there is no ultimate top compression the batch being actually thicker at the end of the operation. In fact, although the batch has to move from one position to the next, nothing is done to it at the second position by the top plate which may he stepped to give a minimum value of 21.75 mm. from the bed to top plate. It will also be seen that the side compression is only moderate.
Side Compression STAGE 1 For- Com. to ST Rel. to Sl Rel. to ST A=54 B=55 G=55.7
STAGE 2 For 00 to ST Rel. to ST Rel. to ST Top Compression ONE STAGE ONLY For Rel. to ST Corn. to ST Rel. to ST D=22.75 E= O.75 1 :21.75
After the second cycle is over the comprased batch is moved by the next conveyor movement against a sheet of wrapping material 50 fed down through a slot 51 in the bed 1 whereafter normal wrapping operations take place in any desired manner.
It will be seen from the foregoing description that when side compression takes place all the cigarettes in each row are quite free to move since top compression is off. In this way each cigarette is compressed by the same amount whereas in previous compressors the bulk of the efifort was used in squeezing the outer cigarettes of a row as the middle ones were virtually immovable because of the top pressure.
The apparatus shown in FIGURE 7 is for eifecting top compression instead of the devices shown in FIG- URES 3 and 4 and described above. It is rather more effective in operation as pressure is applied by levers operating directly on the top plate instead of the roller and ramp arrangement of the earlier figures. A cam rod like 39 is employed, as in FIGURE 3, and is of the same construction but for clarity it is marked 139 and the lever arm it engages is marked 136 and the pivot point 137. The arm 34 of the earlier construction is replaced by an adjustable arm and this has a roller 51 on it which engages a sloping face 52 made on an extension of a bell crank lever 53 pivoted at 54. A similar bell-crank lever 5'3 (lacking the extension) is provided at the left hand side of the view, the pivots being formed in brackets 55 and 56 which are fixed to a bridge plate 53 which is supported by bracket blocks 5'? and 6t} hired to the bed 1. The bridge plate is detachably fixed by having a tongue 59 which enters a slot in the bracket block 57 and its other end is clamped as shown to the bracket block 66*. The top plate 6 1 is of slightly difierent construction to the plate 7 in FIGURE 3 and has four studs 62 fixed in it which pass through holes in the bridge 58 and have ocmpression springs 63 above the bridge. The top plate is guided in its up and down movement by the studs 62 and is operated in the following manner.
The bell crank levers 53 are coupled by link 64 and at their free ends have rollers 65. When the cam rod 139 moves upwards the roller 51 pushes on the surface 52 and the two bell-cranks are rotated on their pivots 54. so that the rollers 65 press the top plate 61 downwards to compress the batches. As the cam rod moves down again the springs 63 restore the top plate to its original position. The adjustable arm Sit permits diiferent amounts of compression to be applied to the batch and adjustable stop screws 66 determine the upper position of the top plate 61.
What We claim as our invention and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. A method of compressing a horizontally disposed batch of loose cigarettes in a cycle of operations occupying a predetermined time during which the batch is compressed laterally while it is permitted to expand upward, and is then confined laterally at the width attained by the lateral compression while it is compressed vertically, and then confined to the thickness attained by the vertical compression, whereafter the lateral and vertical pressures are relaxed to permit the batch to expand to a controlled amount, the batch being left in this condition for the remainder of the cycle, and thereafter repeating the cycle of operations recited but during this second cycle subjecting the batch, at least later-ally, to more severe compression and more restricted expansion than in the first cycle.
2. A method as claimed in claim 1 wherein the second cycle of operations is conducted at a different position, the batch being moved from the place where the first cycle was conducted to said ditfercnt position during an interval between the cycles.
References @ited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 844,553 Webb Feb. 19, 1907 883,156 Woerner Mar. 24, 1908 1,131,212 Conduitt Mar. 9, 1915 1,447,715 Ekstrom Mar. 6, 1923 1,570,848 Lloyd Jan. 26, 1926 2,229,862 Menges Ian. 28, 1941 2,295,287 Muench Sept. 8, 1942 2,370,791 Granstedt Mar. 6, 1945 2,652,061 Jackson Sept. 15, 1953