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Publication numberUS3119358 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 28, 1964
Filing dateNov 6, 1961
Priority dateNov 6, 1961
Publication numberUS 3119358 A, US 3119358A, US-A-3119358, US3119358 A, US3119358A
InventorsColson Robert T, Michael Hadley John
Original AssigneeColson Robert T, Michael Hadley John
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Shelter
US 3119358 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Jan- 28, 1964 R. T. coLsoN ETAL 3,119,358

SHELTER 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed NOV. 6, 1961 .l w/ 5 .uw B

Jam 28, 1954 R. T. coLsoN ETAL 3,119,358

SHELTER 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Nov. 6, 1961 Jan. 28, 1964 R. T. coLsoN ETAL 3,119,358

SHELTER Filed Nov. 6, 1961 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 FIGB.

United States Patent O 3,119,358 SHELTER Robert T, Coison, 7415 Somerset, and John Michael Hadley, 197 Arundel, both of Clayton 5, Me. Fiied Nov. 6, 1961, Ser. No. 150,528 14 Claims. (Cl. 109-1) This invention relates to shelters and more particularly to collapsible shelters for protection against radioactive fallout, poisonous gases and harmful bacteria.

Among the several objects of the invention may be noted the provision of a shelter which eifectively protects the occupants thereof against harmful rays resulting from radioactive fallout, poisonous gases and bacteria; the provision of a shelter of this type which may be readily installed in the basement of homes, institutions and the like utilizing otherwise dead storage space; the provision of such a shelter which is adapted to be conveniently collapsed to a fiat condition when not in use and to be rapidly extended to a usable condition when needed or desired; the provision of a collapsible shelter of this character which is lightweight and may be readily transported from one installation point to another; the provision of such a collapsible shelter which is adapted to provide minimum conditions for life including waste disposal, adequate living space and fresh air for extended periods of time; and the provision of a collapsible shelter of the class described which is of simple, reliable and economical construction. Other objects and features will be in part apparent and in part pointed out hereinafter.

The invention accordingly comprises the constructions hereinafter described, the scope of the invention being indicated in the following claims.

In the accompanying drawings, in which one of various possible embodiments of the invention is illustrated,

FIG. 1 is a front elevation of a shelter of the invention in extended condition;

FIG. 2 is an elevation taken on the left side of FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is an elevation taken on the right side of FIG. l;

FIG. 4 is an enlarged section taken on line 4 4 of FIG. 2;

FIG. 5 is a fragmentary, enlarged sectional view showing a shelter of the invention partially collapsed;

FIG. 6 is an enlarged section taken on line 6 6 of FIG. 3;

FIG. 7 is a front elevation showing a shelter of the invention in collapsed form; and

FIG. S is a section taken on line S-S of FIG. 3.

Corresponding reference characters indicate corresponding parts throughout the several views of the drawings.

As is known, Various types of shelters have been proposed for protection against the harmful rays associated with radioactive fallout produced by radioactive bombs. To date, the shelters in use and under consideration are, for the most part, permanent structures which are expensive and time-consuming to construct. Accordingly, there is an unfulfilled .need for a simple, inexpensive shelter which may be rapidly installed and which provides effective protection against radioactive fallout and other harmful conditions such as poisonous gases and bacteria. The present invention provides such a shelter which is adapted to be conveniently installed in the basements of homes and the like, the basement itself providing a certain degree of protection against explosive forces or bomb concussion while the shelter provides reliable protection against the harmful rays associated with radioactive fallout. Also, the shelter of our invention may be installed within existing shelters of the concerte type, for example, to provide additional or supplementary protection against radioactive fallout and poisonous gases and bacteria.

Referring now to the drawings, a shelter of the invenice tion generally designated 1 is shown -to comprise a iloor 3, a ceiling 5, a front wall 7, a rear wall 9 and side walls 11 and 13. The door, ceiling, front and rear walls may be in one piece seamed to the side walls at the edges thereof, or the floor, ceiling and walls may be separate pieces seamed together at their respective edges. The floor, ceiling and walls of the shelter 1 are of a exible or supple material of a completely nonporous and heat-reflecting nature, the material being inpervious to poisonous gases, bacteria, sizable temperature shocks and harmful radiation such as alpha and beta rays and, to a lesser degree, gamma rays. Among materials having these properties may be mentioned vinyl plastic, tetraiiuoroethylene polymer (such as that sold under the trade designation Teflon) and aluminized nylon fabric. Also, fabric impregnated with lead sulfide or some like material which absorbs radiation or scatters or diffuses radiation and causes its energy to be dissipated, scattered or diffused may be used.

The dimensions of the shelter may, of course, be varied depending upon the number of occupants it is to accommodate. In general, the shelter should provide on the order of l0 square feet of living space for each occupant.

The shelter is adapted to be attached to oor joist members 15 at the ceiling of a dwelling basement, for example, by means of brackets 17 secured to the joist members 15 by means of screws 19 extending into joist members 15 through flanges 21 on brackets 17. A bracket 17 is provided for each of the four corners of the shelter. At opposite sides 11 and 13 of the shelter are a series of loops 23 sewn into the edge seam at which these respective sides and ceiling 5 meet. Extending through loops 23 between a pair of brackets 17 on each side of the shelter is a rod 25 which is secured at its ends to bracket 17 through interiorly threaded sleeve 27. The shelter 1 is thus suspended from the floor joist members 15 with the ceiling 5 in a iiat condition under joist members 15, the oor 3 in atwise engagement with the floor of the basement and the front wall 7, rear wall 9 and side walls 11 and 13 in extended position (see FIGS. 1-3).

When not in use, the shelter 1 is adapted to be collapsed tiatwise by folding of its front, rear and side walls and to be readily converted from its collapsed position to its extended or suspended condition. For this purpose, a series of vertical rods 29 is provided, one for each corner of the shelter. Each rod 29 is secured at its upper end to a rod 25 adjacent a corner of the shelter as by having its threaded end screwed into a threaded section in rod 25. On each rod 29 is a series of eyes 31, and adjacent each corner of the shelter 1 is a series of hooks 33 extending out from the respective walls of the shelter and adapted for reception in eyes 31. In collapsing the shelter 1, hooks 33 are manually placed in eyes 31, the uppermost hook 33 being placed in the uppermost eye 31 (see FIG. 5), the next to uppermost hook 33 being placed in the next to uppermost eye 31 and so on until each of the hooks 33 has been placed in its respective eye 31. Preferably, several hooks 33 at one corner of the shelter are placed in the corresponding eyes 31 at that corner and this procedure is repeated going from one corner of the shelter to another until all of the hooks 33 have been received in the respective eyes 31. This holds the shelter in a collapsed condition in which the front wall 7, rear wall 9 and side walls 11 and 13 are accordion-pleated (see FIGS. 5 and 7) and the iioor 3 is raised flatwise above the floor F of the basement.

Secured to the upper end of opposite sides 11 and 13 of the shelter 1 are ilaps 35 which extend about half way down on the outside of the respective side walls 11 and 13 and overlie these walls. Flaps 35 may be of the same material as the walls, ceiling and floor of the shelter or, if desired, may be of a flexible or supple material which is not impervious to radiation, gases and bacteria. One flap 35 has female fastener elements 37 spaced along its lower edge 39 and the other flap 35 has male fastener elements 41 spaced along its lower edge 43. After the shelter i has been collapsed as described above by engaging hooks 33 in eyes 3l, the flaps 35 are brought from the position shown in dotted lines in FIG. 7 to the position shown in solid lines in FIG. 7 under the floor 3 of the shelter, and fastener elements 37 and 4l are fastened together so that the collapsed shelter is supported above the fastened flaps 35. Then, if desired, the hooks 33 may be disengaged from eyes 31 and the rods 29 may be unscrewed from rods 25 so that the shelter 1 in collapsed form is supported solely by the fastened flaps 35. In this way, the shelter 1 may be rapidly converted from collapsed form to extended form, when needed, merely by unfastening elements 37 and 41 and allowing the floor 3 and walls 7, 9, 1l and 13 of the shelter to drop down to an extended position of use wherein the floor 3 of the shelter l engages the floor F of the basement. If the hooks 33 are not disengaged from eyes 31 and the rods 29 removed as described until such time as it is desired to use the shelter, then additional time is required to carry out these steps and con- -vert the shelter from its collapsed condition to its extended position of use.

In use, entrance is gained to the shelter 1 through an opening in the front wall 7 which extends from near the lower end of wall 7 up beyond the middle of wall 7 and which is adapted to be normally closed by means of a conventional slide fastener 44. The fastener 44 is adapted to open from the lower to the upper end thereof and is so arranged that the hasp carried thereby be grasped and latched from the inside or outside of the shelter.

In side wall 11, under llap 35, is a Window 45 which is preferably of mica or some similar material impervious to radiation. Adjacent window 45 and extending out and down from side wall 11 are a pair of gauntlets or sleeves 47 which are open at their inner end and are adapted to receive the hands and arms of an occupant of the shelter. These sleeves 47 are sewn into wall 11 and overlie a pouch 49 sewn into side wall ll of the shelter l. As shown. pouch 49 normally extends out from side wall 1l to the position shown in dotted lines in FIG. 4, and its sides are accordion-pleated as indicated at l. The outside wall 53 of pouch 49 has an opening therein which is adapted to be normally closed by means of a conventional slide fastener 55. The inside Wall 57 of pouch 49 has a similar opening therein which is adapted to be normally closed by means of a conventional slide fastener 59. Slide fasteners 55 and 59 are adapted to open from the lower to the upper end thereof and are so arranged that the hasps carried thereby may be grasped and latched from the inside or outside of the shelter.

Window 45, gauntlets 47 and pouch 49 provide a convenient means for enabling occupants of the shelter to remove waste or other material from the shelter 1 while remaining inside the closed shelter. For this purpose, the occupant iirst opens slide fastener 59 on the inside wall 57 of pouch 49 to provide access to the inside of the pouch. While this exposes the inside of the shelter to the air present in the pouch 49, this is not objectionable since the air originally present in the pouch is not contaminated with radiation or other harmful conditions inasmuch as slide fastener 55 in outside wall 53 of pouch 49 is normally closed. After slide fastener 59 is opened, waste or other material to be removed from the shelter is placed in the pouch and fastener 59 is then reclosed. The occupant then places his arms in gauntlets 47 and, looking through window 45, opens slide fastener 55 in outside wall 53 of pouch 49, removes the contents of the pouch and places them outside the shelter. The interior of the pouch is now exposed to the atmosphere outside the shelter and in order to insure that such air will not contaminate the inside of the shelter during subsequent waste removal operations, the sides of pouch 49 are manually squeezed or compressed, through the use of gauntlets 47, to the position shown in solid lines in FIG. 4. This forces out the air in pouch 49 and while the pouch is in this compressed condition, slide fastener 55 is substantially reclosed and the pouch 49 allowed to return to its normal position shown in dotted lines in FIG. 4. In this way, any contamination of the air admitted to the inside of the shelter during repeated opening and closing of pouch 49 is kept to a minimum.

The shelter is also provided with means for filtering and reducing the radiation in air supplied to the shelter and for expelling or exhausting air from the shelter. At the upper end of side Wall 13 adjacent the edge of rear wall 9 is mounted an air intake system including an air opening el in flap 35, an opening 63 in side wall 13 and an air duct generally designated 65 through which outside air travels before entering the inside of the shelter 1. At the inlet to air duct 65 is an activated carbon or glass wool filter 67 for removing undesirable impurities. Air duct 65 is lined with lead foil as indicated at 69 and is formed so as to have several U-bends therein as indicated at 71. Air passes through openings 6l and 63 in flap 35 and wall 13, respectively, through lter 67 and thence into duct 65. After entering duct 65, radiation in the air contacts the lead foil lining 69 which is adapted to absorb harmful radioactive rays such as alpha, beta and gamma rays. As the air travels through duct 65, any rays not absorbed by lead foil lining 69 strike the curved surfaces and are scattered therefrom at various angles. These surfaces also reflect high temperature heat waves. Thus, in traveling through duct 65, the harmful rays are absorbed, diffused and/ or scattered so that air entering the shelter through outlet 73 is relatively free of harmful radiation, i.e., radiation in the entering air is reduced to a level which is not serious to the occupants of the shelter.

On the lloor 3 of the shelter adjacent the corner formed by side wall l1 and front wall 7 is an air blower generally designated 75 having an outlet 77 mounted in front wall 7. Blower 75 is a conventional blower which may be operated by manually rotating handle 79 to expel or exhaust air from the inside of shelter 1. Through the use of the above-described air intake and exhaust system, the occupants of the shelter are assured of a constant and continuous supply of uncontaminated air.

It will be understood that the shelter of our invention may, if desired, be provided with auxiliary equipment such as a chemical toilet with privacy enclosure, bedding, various articles of furniture, diversionary devices, etc.

From the above, it can be seen that the shelter of our invention provides effective protection against radioactive fallout, poisonous gases and bacteria, and that the shelter is adapted for simple installation and use. When not in use, the shelter may be conveniently collapsed for storage in dead storage space high off the -lloor of the basement and yet be ready for immediate use when needed. Also, the shelter is of simple and inexpensive construction and is light in weight so that it may readily be transported from one installation point to another.

In View of the above, it will be seen that the several objects of the invention are achieved and other advantageous results attained. 3

As various changes could be made in the above constructions without departing from the scope of the invention, it is intended that all matter contained in the above description or shown in the accompanying drawings shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.

What is claimed is:

1. A shelter basement installation for protection against radioactive fallout comprising first and second pairs of brackets attached to floor joists at the ceiling of the basement, rods extending between said brackets, a collapsible shelter comprising a door, side walls and a ceiling of flexible nonporous material substantially impervious to radiation, loops at the two opposite sides of the ceiling of the shelter receiving said rods, vertical rods extending down from the ceiling of the basement at the corners of the shelter, a series of eyes on each vertical rod, said shelter having a vertical series of hooks adjacent each corner thereof adapted for reception in said eyes to hold said shelter in a collapsed condition wherein its sides are accordion-pleated and its floor is raised above the iloor f the basement, said hooks being releaseable from said eyes to allow the side walls and floor of the shelter to drop down to an extended position of use wherein the floor of the shelter engages the floor of the basement.

2. A shelter basement installation as set forth in claim l wherein said collapsible shelter further comprises ilaps secured to two opposite sides of the shelter at the upper ends thereof, said flaps beingr adapted to extend down on the outside of the two respective side walls of the shelter and under the floor of the shelter when the shelter is collapsed and having means for fastening together their edges underneath the floor of the collapsed shelter,

3. A shelter basement installation as set forth in claim 1 wherein said collapsible shelter further comprises a pouch in one side wall of the shelter, said pouch being openable from the inside and outside of said shelter and means adjacent said pouch adapted to permit an occupant of the shelter to open and close said pouch from the outside of the shelter to remove the contents thereof.

4. A shelter basement installation as set forth in claim 3 wherein said means comprises a pair of exible sleeves extending down from the outside of the respective side wall of the shelter.

5. A shelter basement installation as set forth in claim l wherein said collapsible shelter further comprises an air inlet in one side wall of the shelter and means for absorbing radiation from the air entering the shelter through said inlet.

6. A shelter basement installation as set forth in claim 5 further comprising an air outlet in one side wall of the shelter and means for manually exhausting air from the inside of the shelter to the outside of the shelter through said outlet.

7. A collapsible shelter for protection against radioactive fallout comprising a floor, side walls and a flat ceiling of a flexible, nonporous material substantially impervious to radiation, said shelter being adapted for attachment at the top to the ceiling of a basement of a building, said shelter being adapted to be collapsed atwise by folding of its side Walls, means for maintaining said shelter when out of use in collapsed condition with its floor raised above the iioor of the basement, said means being releasable to allow the floor and side walls of the shelter to drop down to an extended position of use wherein the door of the shelter engages the floor of the basement, and a pouch in one side wall of the shelter, said pouch being openable from the inside and outside of said shelter and means adjacent said pouch adapted to permit an occupant of the shelter to open and close said pouch from the outside of the shelter to remove the contents thereof.

8. A collapsible shelter as set forth in claim 7 wherein said shelter is adapted for attachment at the top to the ceiling of the basement by means of loops at two opposite sides of the ceiling of the shelter adapted to receive rods supported from the ceiling of the basement.

9. A collapsible shelter as set forth in claim 7 further comprising an air inlet in one side wall of the shelter and means for absorbing radiation from the air entering the shelter through said inlet.

10. A collapsible shelter as set forth in claim 9 further 6 comprising an air outlet in one side wall of the shelter and means for manually exhausting air from the inside of the shelter to the outside of the shelter through said outlet.

ll. A collapsible shelter set forth in claim 7 wherein said means adjacent the pouch comprises a pair of dexible sleeves extending down from the outside of the respective side wall of the shelter.

l2. A collapsible shelter for protection against radioactive fallout comprising a floor, side walls, and a flat ceiling of a flexible, nonporous material substantially impervious to radiation, said shelter being adapted for attachment at the top to the ceiling of a basement of a building, said shelter being adapted to be collapsed flatwise for folding of its side walls, and means for maintaining said shelter when out of use in collapsed condition with its iioor raised above the floor of the basement, said means being releasable to allow the floor and side walls of the shelter to drop down to an extended position of use wherein the door of the shelter engages the licor of the basement, said means comprising a vertical series of hooks adjacent each corner of the shelter and means adatped for attachment to the ceiling of the basement at each of the corners of the shelter for reception of the hooks.

13. A collapsible shelter as set forth in claim 12 wherein said means adapted for attachment to the ceiling of the basement comprises vertical rods extending down from the ceiling of the basement at the corners of the shelter, each rod having a series of eyes thereon for reception of the respective hooks.

14. A collapsible shelter for protection against radioactive fallout comprising a iioor, side walls and a flat ceiling of a flexible nonporous material substantially impervious to radiation, said shelter being adapted for attachment at the top to the ceiling of a basement of a building by means of loops at two opposite sides of the ceiling of the shelter adapted to receive rods supported from the ceiling of the basement, said shelter being adapted to be collapsed llatwise by folding of its side walls and having iiaps secured to two opposite sides of the shelter at the upper ends thereof, said flaps being adapted to extend down on the outside of the two respective side walls of the shelter and under the floor of the shelter when the shelter is collapsed and having means for fastening together their edges underneath the floor of the collapsed shelter, and means for maintaining said shelter when out of us in collapsed condition with its floor raised above the floor of the basement, said means being releasable to allow the floor and side walls of the shelter to drop down to an extended position of use wherein the floor of the shelter engages the door of the basement.

References Cited in the iile of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 844,220 Westbrooke Feb. l2, 1907 1,866,438 Williamson Iuly 5, 1932 1,900,274 Brockie Mar. 7, 1933 1,990,804 Watson Feb. l2, 1935 2,519,430 Brown Aug. 22, 1950 2,869,561 Harkness Jan. 20, 1959 2,932,304 Voege et al Apr. l2, 1960 2,948,287 Rupert Aug. 9, 1960 2,955,549 Frankfort Oct. 11, 1960

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US844220 *Sep 15, 1906Feb 12, 1907Edward Lynn WestbrookeVehicle-cover.
US1866438 *Apr 11, 1927Jul 5, 1932Charlfs WilliamsonSubmarine apparatus
US1900274 *Aug 17, 1932Mar 7, 1933Brockie Harold ICollapsible play pen and sun bath
US1990804 *Oct 19, 1933Feb 12, 1935Watson ErnestPortable dressing booth
US2519430 *Jan 2, 1948Aug 22, 1950Franklin B BrownPortable dressing booth and shower bath apparatus
US2869561 *Nov 13, 1956Jan 20, 1959Tom S HarknessBuilding structure
US2932304 *Nov 26, 1956Apr 12, 1960Bemis Bro Bag CoTent
US2948287 *Sep 30, 1957Aug 9, 1960Charles W MossQuickly-erectable folding portable shelter
US2955549 *May 4, 1955Oct 11, 1960Associated Nucleonics IncAtomic explosion shelter
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4706551 *Sep 19, 1985Nov 17, 1987Schofield Paul SFor use in a hazardous environment
US6321764Aug 24, 1999Nov 27, 2001Iit Research InstituteCollapsible isolation apparatus
US6461290Sep 12, 2000Oct 8, 2002Iit Research InstituteCollapsible isolation apparatus
US7380296Aug 3, 2004Jun 3, 2008Vival Medical CorporationRestraining enclosure for a bed and related method
US7479103Aug 2, 2005Jan 20, 2009Vivax Medical CorporationPortable isolation enclosure
US7481234 *Mar 29, 2004Jan 27, 2009Gustafson Martin KBio-hazard attack family survival dome
Classifications
U.S. Classification109/1.00S, 135/117, 135/90, 135/93
International ClassificationE04H15/56, E04H15/00, E04H15/58, E04H15/32, E04H15/14, E04H15/44, E04H15/34, E04H9/04, E04H9/06
Cooperative ClassificationE04H15/44, E04H15/14, E04H9/06, E04H15/56, E04H15/58
European ClassificationE04H15/58, E04H15/44, E04H15/56, E04H15/14, E04H9/06